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D EDO? lEDSiai M 

California Slate Library 




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No. 2. 


A paper read at the Annual Convention of the National Brick Manufacturers' Association. 

Gentlemen of the JVatiorml 87- id; Manttfactttrcrs^ Association : 
T HAVE been assigned the subject of " American Enamelled Brick," 
and I will endeavor to handle it from a practical standpoint, to 
the best of my ability, and in as short a manner as possible. 

I will not attempt to deal with the history of the enamelled 
brick industry, except so far as is necessary to make my article 
clear and intelligible. Until within very recent years the usual method 
of enamelling brick in this country has been to cover the face of the 
brick with an opaque enamel, commonly called a " true enamel." 

Within the last six or eight years the English, or slip-and-glaze, 
method has been adopted by a few manufacturers. 

I will endeavor to contrast the products of the two processes, 
and then give you my views concerning the method followed by my 
own firm, and trust that I will be able to make my meaning clear, so 
that those who intend to engage in this industry may be able to use 
my advice intelligently, whether it meets their own particular views or 

I will first take up the subject of enamelled brick, and will I^riefly 
set forth the facts which led us to adopt the other method. I will 
state frankly that I do not claim to be an expert in the true enamel 
line, and will not attempt to go into a discussion of the methods 
employed for fear of giving you false information, or misleading 

Before we engaged in this business we, of course, examined all 
the available enamelled brick jobs in our immediate vicinity. We found 
the majority of them laid up in brick of domestic manufacture. In 
most cases they were red brick, enamelled. The contrast between the 
domestic brick and the imported article was marked, and, while both 
had their defects, the imported brick were far superior to those of home 

We found the English, or glazed, lirick more uniform in color, and 
also that they withstood tlie hardships to wish they were exposed much 
better than the enamelled brick. I have seen some very handsome 
samples of enamelled brick, and must confess that the manufacturer of 
enamelled brick can turn out some samples that in many respects are 
much more handsome in the hand than those of his glazed brick com- 
petitor; but when it comes to a laid-up wall I have failed to find a 
single instance in which the general appearance of the wall was not in 
favor of the glazed brick. Both classes of brick craze to a certain extent, 
both will peel, and both will vary in color. 

In the glazed brick we found these defects less frequent than in the 
enamelled brick. The enamelled brick presents the more glossy .surface, 
but the glazed brick gives the more level face. In the enamelled brick 
you must necessarily have a more or less rounded corner on the enamel. 
The reasons for this are its extreme fusibilit)- and the thickness of the 
coating required to hide the face of the brick. 

The cause of the rounded edge on the enamel is found in tiie 
fact that any molten material cannot be caused to flow out squarely 

to a square edge, any more than could so much water, or other liquid. 

In the glazed brick this defect, while it exists to a slight degree, is 
not noticeable unless attention is called directly to it. 

The slip with which the face of the brick is covered, being infusi- 
ble at the heat required, will stand up square and true along the edge. 
The glaze, being thin, cannot present this defect in any marked degree, 
though it can be detected by close examination. 

The making of returns or corner brick also presents some difficul- 
ties that are patent to all who see fit to examine brick of this class. 

In all enamel brick that have come under my notice I have seen 
very few in which the edge and end were of exactly the same color. 
These facts led us to adopt the slip-and-glaze process, and so far we 
have had no cause to regret our choice. 

From information I have received I have been led to believe that 
the manufacture of enamelled brick is attended with more difficulties 
than that of glazed brick, and what experience I have had in the busi- 
ness seems to verify it. I will now drop the subject of enamelled brick 
andleave all discussions as to their merits and demerits to those who are 
more competent of discussing them ; but the facts which I have stated 
caa, I presume, be verified in almost any one of our large cities by 
any one interested. He will have enamelled brick and enamelled brick, 
and glazed brick and glazed brick, some better and some worse ; and 
from the appearance and apparent durability of the material he can 
draw his own conclusions. Poor glazed brick are very poor; poor 
enamelled brick are in the same boat, and he will find many of each 
class upon which to pass judgment. 

In the manufacture of glazed brick the most essential point to 
decide- is that of a suitable clay. To produce a good article it is 
necessary that the clay should stand a fairly high degree of heat 
without warping or twisting, and as the heat required is very near, if 
not quite, the melting point of cast iron, it is obvious that iron in those 
forms in which it would be likely to cause spots on the face of the 
brick is very injurious, and, unless it can be easily gotten rid of, will 
ruin any clay for enamelling purposes. An excess of lime will also 
give trouble. I presume you are all acquainted with the eftect of 
pebbles containing lime, and further comment is unnecessary. When 
iron or lime is combined with, or evenly diffused through, the clay, 
they are not nearly so objectionable, though not desiraiile. They are 
both fluxes at the heat mentioned, and if lime is counteracted by an 
excess of finely divided or combined silica, we can stand more of it 
than we can in highly aluminous clays. If the clay contains too much 
alumina, it is apt to cause " crazing," and also to cause glaze to 
"curdle" or draw up. 

Too much combined or very finely divided silica will cause what 
is known as "shivering." 

In the case of " crazing," the body of the brick is too strong ; and, 
in the case of " shivering," it is too weak. 

When the silica contained in the clay is partly combined in the 



shape of comparatively coarse particles or stones, it will do no harm 
unless greatly in excess, provided it is finely ground before use. 

The shrinkage of the clay is also an item to he considered. This 
can be regulated by the addition of finely ground burned clay, known 
as crush, grit, or grog. Never use sand to lessen shrinkage. Its use 
is very dangerous, and is liable to cause peeling, while crush will be 
found to be very reliable. All crush should be finely ground. Coarse 
crush, while it will answer the purpose better probably than fine, will 
give a wavy appearance to the face of the brick, owing to the fact 
that the clay will shrink in burning, while the crush will not ; and 
tliose particles near the face of the brick will hold it up at that par- 
ticular point and cause a slight elevation there, whicli will render the 
effect of reflected light anything but plea.sant. 

In my own experience I have never seen any single clay that I 
could unhesitatingly recommend for the manufacture of glazed brick 
without the addition of a clay of a different nature, or some material 
to give it either the pro])er chemical or physical characteristics. It 
must possess certain physical characteristics in order to admit of the 
manipulations necessary to product the article economically. So far 
I have never succeeded in successfully treating a dry or semi-dry brick 
by this process. I must admit, however, tliat when one does happen 
to turn out a good sample of semi-dry glazed brick it is very handsome. 
But we found the percentage of good brick very low, and consequently 
have abandoned it. 

Hand-made, soft, or stiff mud brick are best adapted to this 
process, and the clay must, of course, be adapted to one or another 
of these methods of manufacture. This will, of course, determine 
the physical characteristics of the clay so far as the making of the 
lirick is concerned. 

I take it tor granted tliat all of vou can determine tlie ])hysic:U 
qu.ilities neces.sary for these |)rocesses, as well as for the following 
process of pressing. 

When this is satisfactorily disposed ot, thecjuestion of contraction 
in drying of slip, glaze, and brick must be considered. If both the slip 
and the glaze are applied to the brick when dry, this f|uestion needs 
no consideration here, but must be considered when slip and glaze are 
prepared, and they, not the body of the brick, must be made to suit 
this particular case. 

When slip is applied to the green brick immediately after pressing, 
it is necessary to use a slip containing a considerable amount of tough 
clay, in order to secure the proper working qualities, and here the 
question of contraction in both slip and brick must be considered. 
The brick in drying must contract enough to admit of the use of such 
a slip in order to give you a smooth face, clear of " pinholes'' and 
other defects caused by the shortness of the slij). 

So also must the contraction in burning be practically the same 
as the contraction of the slip. This difficulty can be conquered by 
alteration of either body or slip, or both, as may seem advisable. 

It is in the kiln that the chemical defects nearly always show them- 
selves, and the proportions of silica, alumina, and other elements which 
usually enter into the composition of the clay must be properly adjusted 
in order to insine success. 

As before stated, an excess of alumina is not desirable. It causes 
warping of the brick, both in drying and in burning, and makes the 
body of the brick too dense for the proper application of a glaze. 

The density and consequent strength of the body are the great 
sources of crazing, and, when this effect cannot be overcome by care- 
fully l)urning, it will in all [jrobability be due to an excess of alumina, 
or lime, or other fluxes in the clay. Alumina also gives a dull appear- 
ance to the glaze in many cases. 

Silica causes shivering and peeling. .Shivering and peeling are 
to a great extent the .same defect, though they are produced by dif- 
ferent causes. 

Shivering is cau.sed liy an excess of silica alone, while peeling is 
produced by the same defect in the clay, but is, 1 think, developed in 
the worst form I)y an of silica together with an excess of fluxing 
elements, which attack and combine with a large percentage of the 
silica at a certain heat in the kiln, thereby causing a sudden shrinkage. 

This will c.-iuse a nipture between brick and slip, and develops peeling 
in its most aggravated form. 

It is evident, therefore, that the most imi)orfant matter connected 
with this method of producing glazed (commonly called enamelled) 
brick is a proper clay or mixture of clays ; and, owing to the well-known 
fact that nearly all clays vary materially in different parts of the same 
bed, I would always advise, when possible to do so, the use of a mixture 
of two or more clays, as less liable to affect the body of the brick by 
simultaneous variation in their component parts. 

To emphasize this, I will give the following facts : Analysis of 
a sample of one of the clays used by us showed, total silica, 79.15% ; 
alumina and iron, 15.32%. Two months later the analysis of clay 
from the same bed showed, total silica, 69.26^5 ; alumina and iron, 
20.41%. Had we been depending on this clay alone, we would 
undoubtedly have gotten into serious trouble ; but as we were using a 
mixture of clays it did not affect us .so much. But at the .same time 
its effects were very apparent in our brick, and, owing to this excessive 
variation in this particidar clay, we were obliged to abandon it, though 
it had been giving us satisfactory results for more than a year. This 
variation was in both the combined and uncombined silica, and it 
happened to occur in just such a form that it was not noticeable in 
the working of the clay, and was nrit discovered until we found that 
our jiroduct was not up to its ordinary standard, and by that time we 
had several thousand brick in the kilns and in course of manufacture. 
While the loss in this was serious, it was not a circumstance 
to what it would have been had we been using a single clay, and it 
had happened to vary so much in its chemical constituents. I give 
this experience in order to show the importance of having a constant 
body to work on. 

Silica tends to brighten most LiKimuls anil glazes, while alumina 
is very apt to have an opposite effect. Variation in these two 
elements in the body of the brick will, therefore, destroy that uniform- 
ity of surface which is desirable in this class of brick, and no matter 
what process is used it will be found that the body will to a certain 
extent exert its influence for good or evil, on the face of the brick, be 
it glazed or enamelled. 

In view of these facts 1 would strongly advise the intending 
enamelled brick manufacturer to use a mixture of at least two clays in 
such jjroportions as will give the desired result, and regulate the 
shrinkage by the addition of more or less fine-ground burned clay, which 
should be fine enough to pass through a sieve with a mesh not over 
one sixteenth of an inch square. 

The amount of this material will dejiend u))on its fineness, upon 
the toughness of the clay, and upon the result desired. The tougher 
the clay, the more crush it will carry, and the fineness of the crush 
u.sed must be determined by the working of the clay. Make it as fine 
as you can to work properly both in drying and in burning. 

It may seem superfluous to give .so much space and take up so 
much time with what seems to be the only part of the business that 
would be understood by all of you, but it is the rock upon which more 
hopes have been wrecked than any other one thing connected with the 
glazed brick business. This is what usually floors our English cousin 
when he comes over here and attempts to work American clays. 

This is what drives our .\merican manufacturers into the devious 
ways of true enamels, double burnings, and other attendant evils. I 
do not mean to say that all ways leading to the use of true enamels 
are devious, but in my opinion the glazed brick will, when its neces- 
sary evils have been overcome, be found far more jirofitable to manu- 
facture, when viewed from an economic standpoint, because it is 
usually more reliable, requires but one burning, and last, but not least, 
it sells itself. 

Having given so much time to the body of the brick, we must nec- 
essarily cut the balance and least important part of our paper short. 

A glazed brick is one whose face is covered by a colored slip. 
A sli]) is a mixture of the proper materials that is infusible at the heat 
employed in the glazing operation. The slip is covered by a substance 
somewhat of the nature of a glass t'hat is more or less thoroughly fused. 
When this mixture becomes transparent or semi-transparent at the heat 







employed, it is called a glaze. When it remains opatjue, it is called an 

To be called either a glaze or an enamel, it must present that 
smooth, glossy surface which characterizes these substances, otherwise 
to all intents and purposes it remains a slip at that particular heat. 

I make this statement to show the relation between these technical 
names, that we may not be confused by subsequent discussion which 
may arise. Therefore,- it will be understood by all that when the word 
"slip" is used it means a mixture that is infusible at the heat used 
by the person who gives it that name. 

An enamel is a substance that is more or less tiioroughl)- fused 
but remains opaque at the lieat employed by the person who gives it 
that name. A glaze, on the contrary, is a mixture that becomes 
transparent or semi-transparent (whether colored or not) at the heat 
emplo\ed by the person who gives it that name. 

Having now attempted to give a clear idea of what I mean by 
slips, enamels, and glazes, and prepared a foundation upon which, 1 
think, we may all stand during any discussion which may follow, I will 
proceed with mv subject. 

Slips are prepared by mixing clay, flint, feldspar, and other 
substances in such proportions that they will adhere to the face of the 
brick Ijoth in drying and burning, and the proportions of the different 
ingredients must be suited to the work in hand. They must be 
infusible at the heat employed, yet must contain enough fusible material 
to enable them to adhere to the face of the brick. These proportions 
vary materially, and no recipe can be gi\en that will meet all cases 
owing to the different conditions governing them. 

At the heat at which I am accustomed to working clay, flint 
and feldspar are the only materials to be considered with the 
coloring matter. Others may find it necessary to use other ingredi- 
ents, but if such is the case I would advise more heat and less soft 
materials. They are likely to give trouble in burning. Slips should 
be thoroughly mixed with water to the proper consistency and sifted 
through a sieve not coarser than No. 100 brass, and finer if possible. 
The slip is applied to the face of the brick by dipping, and should be 
as thick as is possible to use it and give a smooth face. Don't be 
afraid of its pulling. If it does, either body or slip is wrong. I have 
.seen bricks with a cpiarter of an inch of fine clay on the face, though 
it was not put on in the form of a slip, and it was impossible to cause 
a rupture between brick and clay without breaking one or the other. 
This clay was stuck on to the brick by a coating of slip that was made 
of exactly the same ingredients as the clay. In fact, in every instance 
the clay was simply the slip dried until it could be handled, and stuck 
on the face of the brick with a coating of slip between the two. 
I do not recommend this at all as a jjrofitable method to follow, but 
mention it to show what can be done if brick and slip are jiroperly 
adapted one to the other. 

When a slip is to be applied to a dry brick, it must be necessarily 
thinner than for green brick, and this method is not to be highly 
recommended owing to the difl^culty of handling the brick during the 
succeeding operations of glazing, cleaning, and setting. A slip to suit 
a dry brick must be very short, and has as a consequence very little 
strength when dry, and is liable to be clipped in handling. 

Glazes and enamels are composed largely of the same ingredients 
as slips, with the addition of suitable fluxing materials. At the heat 
mentioned it will be unnecessary to use soluble fluxes, and lead will be 
volatilized and dissipated, thus rendering its use unprofitable and 

At lower heats lead can be used to advantage, but soluble fluxes 
are always dangerous in raw glazes or enamels, and, if used to any 
appreciable extent, frequently act on the slip, and in the case of the 
enamels on the face of the brick. Being soluble, they are carried 
by the water into the brick and are sometimes a prolific source of 
cracks. If soluble fluxes are necessary, they should be calcined or 
" fritted " with a portion of the other ingredients before they are 
used. This destroys their solubility and prevents danger from the 
source mentioned. 

At the proi)er heat frit glazes will be found unnecessary, but there 

can be no c|uestion as to the advisability of using them sliould occasion 
demand it. 

All glazes and enamels should be thoroughly ground and passed 
through a sieve at least as fine as No. 100 brass, and finer if possible. 
Glazes should be as thin as it is possible to use them and produce the 
desired result. 

The same rule applies to enamels, but enamels must be thicker 
than glazes owing to the necessity of hiding the face of the brick 
with the one coat. In some cases it is neces.sary to use colored 
glazes or enamels in the slip-and^glaze method, but the coating of the 
slip should in no case be omitted, nor is it necessary to burn the brick 
twice in order to accomplish your object. It can be applied, when 
necessary, while the brick is green, and with just as good if not better 
results, as at any other time. 

After the brick is glazed and dry it is necessary to take off the 
s|)are slip, glaze, or enamel along the sides and on the heads. This 
can be done with any suitable tool. The next and a very important 
operation is burning. The heat at which I am accustomed to work is 
about the melting point of cast iron in the cooler parts of the kiln. 

It is necessary to use a crowned kiln to reach this heat success- 
fully and economically. 

The method of setting varies, some setting the bricks open, in 
which case down-draft kilns are a necessity. Others use saggers, when 
up-draft kilns can be used, but the down-draft kiln properly constructed 
will be found most economical. In my own experience I have found 
saggers, all things considered, most economical, but have always un- 
derstood that English manufacturers burned their brick open. The 
operation of burning does not differ very materially, except in some 
minor details, from that employed in burning other clay wares. 

The brick must be dried out gradually until the kiln is red hot, or 
nearly so, from top to bottom,' when a quick finish produces the most 
brilliant glaze. 

The cooling operation should receive close attention, as quick 
cooling and light firing, either separately or together, are prolific sources 
of crazing. The bricks, if properly annealed, will not craze if body, 
slip, and glaze, or enamel, are properly suited to each other. 

I have taken up a great deal of time, yet I have only skimmed 
over my subject. There is so much to say and so little space to say it 
in that I feel many of you will feel disa])pointed, but not more so than 
I am myself at the meagreness of the information given as compared 
with the time occupied. 

Phosnixville, Pa. J"^^^" Miller. 




AT CHICAGO, JAN. 2, I 894. 

\ BOUT 300 years ago a man who might well be canonized as the 
'^*- patron .saint of workers in clay wrote, "The number of my 
years hath given me courage to tell you that, a short time since, I 
was considering the color of my beard, which caused me to reflect on 
the few days still remaining before my race should end ; and this 
made me admire the lilies and corn in the fields, and several sorts of 
plants, which change their green color to white when they are about 
to bear fruit. Thus, also, certain trees burst into flower when they 
feel that their natural vegetative vigor is like to cease. . . . Where- 
fore, it is a just and reasonable, thing that each should endeavor to 
multiply the talent which he hath received frohi God. . . . Therefore 
have I endeavored to bring to light those things which it hath pleased 
God to make me understand, to the profit of posterity." 

In these terms does a poor potter, nearly ninety years of age, ex- 
press himself in the preface to his writings and conversations with 

* In presenting wlial we li:ivc galliercci for your considcrntion at this lime, wc desire to 
say that we arc largely indebted to Alplionso De Lamarlinc, also to the principal manufact- 
urers of glazed brick in England and the United States, and especially to Mr. Henry K. 
GrifTcn, late Superintendent of GrifTcn Enamelled Brick Company of Oaks, Pa., and Mr. E. 
Matheson, Managing Director of Farnley Company, Leeds, England, for the technical infor- 
mation offered. 



himself, in which he treats of his trials, his afflictions, and his life, for 
his own amusement and for the encoura<;enient of others. The 
passage might be taken for an extract from the confessions of St. 
Augustine, or of Jean Jacques Rousseau, or of a writer and philosopher, 
great both in ideas and in style. This writer, this philosopher, is but 
a workman who has grown old between the trowel and the furnace, 
with his hands still soiled by the clay that he moulded all his days. 
We never felt more strongly than in studying the life of this man, that 
greatness does not depend upon position, but is a gift ot nature. 

The potter was Bernard de Palissy (A. D. 1510-15S9). While 
young he kneaded marl and burnt bricks at his father's kiln, in the 
village of Chapelle-Biron, in Perigord. But the youth was moved by 
that desire of doing well whatever we do, which leads the reflecting 
man to surpass what he sees done by others, and which, at length, 
gives him the key to all the discoveries in intellectual or manual labor. 
While moulding hts coarse clay, and gazing on the brick that had be- 
come hard and red in the fire of the furnace, he was thinking of the 
forms, the reliefs, the handles, the ornaments, and the figures of the 
vases, which already presented themselves to his imagination, and of 
the glazes and enamels with which he was one day to cover his mas- 
terpieces of earthenware. 

Pottery — that is to say, the business of tempering, moulding, 
and baking earth, either in the sun or in the fire — is one of the ear- 
liest of human occupations. The mud which retains the footmark 
offers itself naturally as an element ready either for the sport or utility 
of the first inhabitants of the earth. Vases and cups, to hold the 
liquids necessary to quench thirst, were used by man as a substitute 
for the hollow of the hand, as soon as he had left oft drinking at the 
pool like the beasts of the field. An improved kind of earthenware, 
fit for cooking food, must have closely followed the invention of fire. 
P'rom the first clay jar or earthen cup to the colored glaze of the 
Etruscan vases, the enamelled porcelain of Cliina or Japan, or the in- 
delible pictures fixed by fire on the surface of the fire ware of Sevres, 
we may trace each step of the immense scale which separates the rude 
handicraft from the excjuisite art. 

On the fall of the Roman Empire the art of tempering, mould- 
ing, ornamenting, sculpturing, varnishing, and painting earthenware 
disappeared with the other arts. Christianity at its commencement 
opposed all these as being too intimately allied with idolatry. 
Temples, statues, tombs, urns, vases, and pagan vessels, — it pro- 
scribed all, that it might model the world anew. The (ireeks of By- 
zantium alone preserved some of the traditional processes of this art of 
their fathers, and exercised them at Damascus, the greatest manufac- 
turing city of the Levant, and from which the glazed and painted 
vases were spread over all the world as articles of regal luxury. These 
wares were, however, clumsy and tasteless ; they evinced the decay of 
an art that was lost. But while the West was successively creating, 
losing, and endeavoring to recover the art of pottery, the ancient 
nations of the extreme East had been, unknown tons, for thousands of 
j-ears making that painted, glazed, and semi-tran.sparent porcelain 
which has been for ages the delight of the Chinese and Japanese. 
They have reached such a perfection of msterial, form, and color that 
even to this day our imitations can hardly com|)ete with them ; and if 
artistic civilization were to l)e measured by superiority in the manufac- 
turing of earthernvvare, the West must bow before the East. Even 
the most ancient annals of China mention as unknown the date of the 
invention of porcelain. 

But these wonders of the extreme East were still unknown in the 
West in the fourteenth century. Glazed earthenware appears' for the 
first time in the pavement of the Alhambra of Granada, and in the 
mosques of the Moors of Spain. The art was introduced into Europe 
through Arabia. It was not until a century later that the famous 
Luca della Robbia, the Palissy of Tuscany, became celebrated for 
enamelled earthenware in Italy. A moulder of clay, he succeeded, 
after persevering labor, in covering and varnishing his works with a 
white glaze unaffected by what destroys the surface of unglazed earth- 
enware. The manufacturing cities of Florence and Faenza, from 
which last is derived the French word faience, owed to him their 

trade and their celebrity. Painting soon took possession of his enamel 
as of an imperishable canvas, and the pictures of the great masters 
were copied, fired, and made everlasting on these disks of porcelain. 
Sculpture endeavored to rival its sister art, and grouped its statuettes 
and bas-reliefs round the vases, cups, ewers, and plates of baked 

Such was the condition of the earthenware manufacture when 
Bernard de Palissy was making tiles, bricks, and earthenware bottles 
to hold water, wine, and oil. 

Bernard de is the most perfect model of the workman. 
It is by his example, rather than by his works, that he has exerci.sed 
an influence on civilization, and that he has deserved a place to him- 
self amongst the men who have ennobled humanity. 

He is the patriarch of the workshop ; the poet of manual labor 
in modern days; he is the potter of the Odyssey, the Bible, and 
the gospel, the type incarnate to e.\alt and ennoble every business, 
however trivial, so that it has labor for its means, progress and duty 
for its motive, and the glory of God for its aim. 

He has thus won a legitimate place among the great men who 
have risen from obscurity. 

Some will say, " But he has only moulded clay." What can it 
signify? Greatness does not depend upon the occupation, but upon the 
mind. If such a man be little, who, then, is great.' 

.Some thirty years ago the Farnley Iron Company, and one of its 
neighbors in business at or near Leeds, England, finding that the fire 
clay found in connection with the coal seams in that district wa.s particu- 
larly suitable for allowing an enamelled surface, began the manufacture 
of glazed brick. 

For some years after the trade was started the bricks made were 
very inferior compared with (hose of the present day ; the best bricks of 
that day not being at all equal to what are .sold as second quality now. 
Notwithstanding this, the bricks found immediate sale with architects, 
especially in London, where they were used, partly for sanitary reasons 
(the glazed surface being washable and non-absorbent) and partly for 
light afforded in narrow alleys and courts. As the quality of the bricks 
improved with the expeiience of the makers, the demand still further in- 
creased, and they are now u.sed in large quantities in all English cities. 

It is estimated approximately the total output cajjacity of the Leeds 
district is about four to five millions per week. Of numbei^, 
not more than sixty per cent can be reckoned on as first quality, and 
thirty per cent second quality ; the remainder, as thirds, are available 
only as building brick. These thirds are valuable where strength is 
required; the superior clay and hard burning make them of high value, 
because of their resistance to cnishing loads. 

It is worthy of note here that, in placing enamelled brick where 
they are to be subjected to heavy loads, care must be used in setting, 
that the superincumbent force does not press on the outer edge of the 
brick, as the enamel will give way if more than its share of the load is 
impo.sed upon it. 

Probably about one sixth of the product of the Leeds factories is 
shipped and u.sed in America, where they may be said to be the standard 
for good, serviceable enamelled brick, and the excellent (juality to which 
they have attained must be equalled by our .American manufacturers 
before they can justly claim to have first quality glazed brick. 

It is a pleasure to be able to state that at this time there are at 
least two American manufacturers who have nearly attained to the excel- 
lence of the best English makers ; in fact, they do equal them in the du- 
rability of this i)roduct, their success in getting clays and glazes to fuse 
being fully up to the English ; and the only difference in the American 
and English brick is that our manufacturers have thus far failed in 
finding a clay with all the necessary qualities that will, after burning, 
have a surface as smooth as is the product of our English friends. 

The only American manufacturers who have thus far succeeded 
in making a thoroughly good and merchantable glazed brick from the 
standpoint of the English standard are the Griffen Enamelled Brick 
Company of Oaks, Pa., and Sayer and Fisher Company of New York. 

The experience of our American as well as the English manufac- 
turers in getting the manufacture of glazed bricks started on a success- 




fill basis has been fraught with many sad experiences : and with them, 
as with the malcers of other i<inds of brick, the workings of clays and 
enamels have been "eye-openers.'' and in all cases success has only 
been attained at a great cost in money, and vexation of spirit. 

There are various methods of glazing bricks : — 

First, slipping and glazing while green, and then firing. 

Second, enamelling green and firing. 

Third, slipping green, firing, and then glazing and re-firing. 

Fourth, burning, then enamelling, then firing again. 

Fifth, burning, then clipping and glazing, then firing again. 

The fourth and fifth methods avoid many difficulties of the first 
and second : the thinl method avoids about half of these difficulties. 

The fourth method is both the best and poorest, except the fifth 
method; that is. the best brick can be made l)y that method, and the 
poorest are made, except those made by the fifth method. 

A good fire-clay brick first burned, then enamelled with a good^ 
high heat enamel, and reburned at a high heat, will make a brick that 
is absolutely indestructible, but the expense of the fire clay, added to 
the double burning, is too much. 

The fifth method is very bad, because it is as expensive as the 
fourth, and not so reliable. 

The third method is as good as the first, but as expensive as the 
fourth and fifth. 

The second method is still more difficult than the first and just 
as e,xpensive. It presents all the difficulties of the first with the added 
difficulty of iron spots developing in burning, due to enamel being 
directly in contact with the impure fire-clay face of brick. 

The first method is, all things considered, the most ])racticable ; 
still the difficulties to be overcome are enormous. First \ou have 
three different materials, a brick, a slip, and a glaze, which must all 
stand the same heat, and must all shrink alike during the whole opera- 
tion ; then you must have a mixture for your brick that will not shvink 
too much, or the brick will warp ; it must not develop iron specks ; must 
not blister in enamelling; must not pinhole ; slip must stick to it well ; 
must not shiver ; must not craze: must not crack in pressing ; must 
be strong ; must cut decently ; must not discolor the enamel or glaze : 
many clays are barred due to the last condition. .Many clays that are 
good in other respects will crack in pressing; many will craze : man\ 
will shiver; many will warp; many will give iron specks, and very 
many will not properly hold the slip. Some will- blister, and some 

The latter, l)listering and pinholing, are largely a matter of manip- 
ulation, and some clays simply show a tendency which proper hand- 
ling will overcome. 

One successful manufacturer says, " I have handled in my expe- 
rience over two hundred different cla\s, and I do not believe that there 
are more than five or six of them that are good for enamelled brick, 
.though man\ of them might be used after much experimenting. 
There are very few clays which I would pronounce impossible to 

The same manufacturer says, '• Our process is to make the 
brick, press them, dip ihem in slip, then in glaze, and burn." 

The English makers generally, Bayer and Fisher Company, and 
the GritTen Company, use process No. i. We do not know of any one 
using process No. 2. Somerset uses process No. 3. Zanesville makers. 
Excelsior .Stone and Brick Company of Philadelphia, and Matawan 
Company use process 4. Phillipsburg uses process No. 5. The prin- 
cipal difficulties with process No. r are cracking, crazing, shivering, and 

The principal difficulties of process No. 2, if used, would be the 
same with addition of uneven color, due to brick body showing through 
enamel, more on some bricks than others. 

Process No. 3, the same as No. 1, except waiping: warped brick 
can be rejected between burnings, but expense is added. 

Process No. 4. crazing, shivering, cracking, and color of body 

Process No. 5. The tendency to pin in this process is so great 
that it condemns it without going into other difficulties. 

An enamel is a translucent glaze, and never reached absolute 
opacity ; consequently if over a colored body its color is dependent on 
thickness of enamel, degree of fusion, etc. 

A slip is absolutely opaque, and hides body of brick entirely. 

Glazed brick become a necessity in our cities, for area and 
alley walls, where light is desired : but their use in baths, cafc-s, smok- 
ing-rooms, fish and butcher markets, railroad stations, grocery and 
butter stores, stable walls, cold storage and brewery vaults, etc., etc.. 
where cleanliness is requisite and the daily use of water a necessity, 
should speedily follow the experience in their favor in the older cities 
of the world. By their use sanitary satisfaction can be secured, and at 
the same time beautiful architectural effects accomplished. 

One modern use in liurope. worthy of imitation in American cities, 
is the construction of underground urinals which, while avoiding any 
obstruction above the street lines, afford a clean, well-lighted con- 
venience. American visitors to London will no doubt have noticed 
these places, all of which are lined with glazed bricks. 

The size of English brick (3 ins. by 9 ins. by 4^ ins.) seems 
likely to become the standard size in this country for glazed brick, as 
they can be made English size at not over fifteen per cent above 
cost of American size. The English size brick gain about 33 J per 
cent over the American size in laying, besides being about $8 per 
1 ,000 less expensi\e in labor and materials in laying. The English 
size brick at, say, $1 15 per 1,000 are cheaper for the contractor than 
American size at $68 per 1,000 ; also you will find that the larger sur- 
face of the English size gives a better effect and appearance to the wall 
when laid : and there are fewer joints to aid in gathering dust and soot. 

Those who have to do with the building trades in our Eastern as 
well as in our Western cities, to any extent, seem to be satisfied with 
inferior grades of manufacture. This, we believe, to be a mistake, and 
especially so as regards all kinds of brick, including enamelled. 

If the story of Palissy's trials (to be found complete in Lamartine's 
•' Lives of Celebrated People") trying to bring to perfection the art ot 
enamelling could do away with the .spurious and inferior work, even in 
the enamelling of brick, his story has not been told in vain. We are 
building for time, not for to-day alone. America in her buildings 
sliould learn a le.sson from the Old World on what we can do for 
posterity. It is not for the dollar that we may save in buying or 
selling a poor stone or poor brick. In e\ery walk of life, in art. in 
science, and in trade, we hope that the bells that iTjng out the year 
1893, and rung in the new year 1894. yet in its infancy, "rung out 
the false and rung in the true." 

Geok(.e 1). E.vfiLi:, Jr. 


A r.\ri:K kead at tiii; iokjiith a.nnual convention ok the 


T II. WE noticed in the columns of the Clay-ivorker during 
*■ the past year, articles from several of the members of this 
association, in all of which the value of scientific training and special 
education for clay-workers has formed the theme. The point of view 
from which these writers look at the subject (R. Hrick-I). Crossley) 
is naturally different somewhat in each case. Some recommend the 
use of the present educational apparatus of the country, and others 
think that better results would be had by establishing practical .schools 
on the manual training system. But in all cases a substiintial 
unanimity of opinion prevails on one thing, and that is the abilitv of 
science, and especially chemical science, to help the clay-worker in 
his daily work. 

During the summer of 1883, and again in 1892, it was my for- 
tune to be employed by the .State Geological .Survey of Ohio in 
investigating and preparing a report on the condition of the clay- 
working industries of that State. In the course of this investigation, 
1 was, of course, thrown into intimate relations with the workers of 
all branches of the ceramic art, and thus had usually favorable oppor- 

tup: brickbuildrr. 

tunilies to tiiid out wliat the status of the clay-workers was in regard 
to the scientific as])ect of their business. 

It was a surprise to me in my first trip to find the use of chemical 
or other scientific information so small, but after nine years had 
passed, and I again made the rounds and observed the wonderful ex- 
pansion and increase in prosperity, and the distinct but less visible 
improvement in the quality of the wares manufactured, I was, indeed, 
amazed to find that very little, if any, change had taken place in re- 
gard to the use of chemistry or other technical knowledge. 

There are, perliaps, several principal reasons tor this fact ; lirst, J 
think, is the misapprehension which I find exists very generally among 
the clay- workers as to the way that chemistry f)r science can be emisloyed 
in their business. Most of them think that what is recommended to 
them means that they shall employ a chemist in their factory tu ana- 
lyze their clays and test their product. In .some i)ranches of clay- 
working this indeed is a ])crfect!y feasible and rational suggestion. 
But the number of such cases is very small. What most factories 
need is not a chemist to work every day in his laboratory, but a man- 
ager or superintendent who has had the benefit of a chemical course, 
and who understands the subject whether he has the ])ractical skill to 
make or not. Many men who are by nature kindly disposed 
towards the use of improved means in their business have considered 
this subject, and after looking the matter through they could see no 
gain in proportion to the monthly salary of even a young chemist. No 
wonder they thought tliat way. In most brick works and sewer-pipe 
factories a chemist, to do notliing else but make analyses, is no more 
required tlian a skilled electrician would be to take care of a dozen or 
so of electric lights. In other words, it is not a multiplicity of analy- 
ses that is wanted : it is management l)y a man w ho knows w hat 
analysis means and how to use it. 

And this ought not to l)e at all out of tlie reach of even small 
clay works, for if brickmakers show a desire to put men of this class 
forward into their jwsitions of trust, like burners, foremen, and super- 
intendents, there is no doubt that there will be plenty of bright young 
fellows glad to qualify themselves for this work. 

A second reason is t'ound in the fact that so far no American 
college has yet offered a course in ceramics or has even announced 
that they are jjrepared to give special instructions in that branch of 
chemistry which deals with the problems of clay-working. 

Now, chemistry is a very broad science : it is much too large a 
field for any one man to cover, even if he devotes his lite to the 
study. But the general laws of chemistry, and the framework or 
skeleton in which all the vast array of detail hangs, are by no means so 
complicated but that any good miad can master and use them. The 
application of these laws and principles to any one kind of technological 
business is in itself a full field of study for any man to imdertake. A 
chemist cannot master the technical chemistry of iron-making without 
much time and patient labor. Paper-making, glass-making, clay- 
working, fertilizer manufacture, cement-making, and in fact dozens 
of special branches, each require the use of a difierent set of facts, 
tliough all hang directly to the great and important tVamework before 

Now, the technical chemistry of clays is not es])ecially difficult or 
complex, unless it be made to include comi)osition and use of glazes, 
enamels, and other compounds where the \ariety of chemical elements 
used to produce the different colors is very large. But while in gen- 
eral the chemistry of ceramics is not exceptionally difticult. neverthe- 
less it is quite distinct and separate from any other kind of chemical 
work„and thus it happens tiiat no college course supplies just exactly a skilled clay-worker ought to know. 

The degree of Engineer of Mines as taught in most of the stand- 
ard schools of the country is much more nearly in line with the re- 
quirements of clay- working than any other course. But it fits a man 
equally well for the jjosition of blast-furnace superintendent or gold 
miner; so it is easily seen that, though a graduate in this course 
knows the principles on which clay-working rests, still he has to learn 
all the details which make his knowledge useful and practical after he 
leaves school. 

Also, to take the course of Engineer of .Mines requires that the 
student shall be fairly well advanced before beginning it, and that he 
shall spend four years in taking his degree. 

This in itself is necessary, because to fit a man to even enter so 
wide a range of professions as belongs to this course requires the pur- 
suit of many studies and the use of much time. But to master the 
scientific work especially needed in ceramics alone need not i)e so 
long a matter. 

The studies which are especially useful in this course are geologv, 
mineralogy, chemistry, metallurgy, civil engineering, mechanics, and 
perhaps electricity. 

Geology, especially in its economic aspect, is useful in defining 
the origin of clays, both as to the mineral itself and as to its location. 
We learn what the influences were which brought the clays into the 
deposits where we find them, and how to look for clays, how to trace 
and identify them. 

Mineralogy instructs us on the composition of clay as a mineral. 
It show^s us that pure clay is a very rare mineral, and that what we call 
clay is a mixture of a number of minerals. 

It explains how the proportions of these minerals vary in diflferent 
clays, and how some of them are called im|)urities on account of their 
effect on the nature of the clay. 

Chemistry has already been described as the mainspring of al| 
our knowledge regarding ceramics. Metallurgy is the application of 
chemistry to the problems of extracting the metals from their ores, but 
it incidentally brings in much that is of prime importance in ceramics. 

The formation of silicates by heat, their fusion and thermal proj)- 
erties, the natine of fluxes and refractories, the nature and combus- 
tion of fuel, the construction of furnaces, kilns, and apparatus for gen- 
erating heat, and many other subjects, are considered, wiiich any one 
can see are directly useful to the work of clay-burning. 

The engineering sciences, civil and mechanical, both contribute 
much that is useful to the clay-workers, but is knowledge which is con- 
nected with the construction of factories and the manufacturing opera- 
tions, and the use of the materials made, rather than in considering 
the nature of the material itself. Civil engineering is the great art of 
construction, in supplying the demands of which most of our factories 
find their work. Naturally, knowledge of this study must be useful 
not only in the factory, but in keeping the products constantly abreast 
of modern improvements and the increasing demands of engineers and 

And certainly no practical clay-worker would consider an educa- 
tion complete without some instruction on the topic of mechanics, — 
the use of steam, the generation of power, how to convey and apply 

Also the design, construction, and repair of machinery is a sub- 
ject which he will learn by bitter experience in the shop, if he does 
not at school : for what clay-worker is there who has not put in many , 
a night and Sunday in patching up his machinery for another trial? 

Electricity has so far been of very limited use to the clay-worker. 
As a means of generating power, its development is proceeding so 
rapidly that none of us can tell to what extent it may be used in our 
time in our factories, and for this reason its principles ought to receive 
some notice in a technical course. 

The use of manual training as an adjunct to technical education 
has been lately introduced in some schools. No one can dispute its 
value, especially to a student who has never had any experience in the 
practical part of the study he is pursuing. It enables a man to judge 
of the work, both in quantity and quality, which others are doing for 
him, and makes him quick to detect laziness and negligence in his 
employees simply by the light of personal experience. This is un- 
c|uestionably valuable, and wellnigh indispensable to any man who has 
to handle the labor of others. 

In a full ceramic course extending over a period of four years, 
manual training should be incorp6rated. 

Some of the previous writers on this topic have contended that a 
clay-workers" school should be largely practical, and that it should con- 
tain machinery of all common types. — dryers and kilns, and everything 




that clay-workers use, — so that the scholar learn by experience the 
practical knowledge of the shop. In my judgment this plan is neither 
wise nor feasible. Men go to school to learn principles, not to learn 
the minute details of their life-work. No school of any kind pretends 
to turn out men competent to step at once to the front rank of practi- 
cal technical work. 

The idea and principle of education is to train the intellect so as to 
enable it to judge in later life of the correctness or fallacy of whatever 
comes before it. The best plan to learn practical clay-working is right 
in the brickyard or pottery. 

So much as to the studies of a ceramic course. 

As I have said before, no American college gives an\ thing in this 

While distributing some of the literature of the Ohio Geological 
Survey recently, I received a request for a volume for the professor of 
ceramics in the Imperial University of Japan, who is now in Berlin 
on leave of absence, perfecting himself in all that modern German 
chemistry and technology can add to his already rich store of informa- 
tion. It seemed to me a great reproach to this country that little 
Japan should teach branches of science which Americans have to go 
to Europe to study. 

There are two things needed in connection with this subject. 
One is a formal ceramic course attached to some university able finan- 
cially and scientifically to make it equal to that of any foreign school. 
This is no light matter; it cannot be done in a day, nor can it assume 
its place at the head of the American clay-working fraternity except 
by a process of growth. 

The second thing needed is one which is easier to get, and 
more directly and plainly valuable to the practical clay-workers 
of the country. This is a short ceramic course, designed to take 
as pupils the able and clear-minded young fellows whom we have 
employed in our factories as burners, firemen, and high-grade 
workers, and give them in a two years' course all that can be 
condensed into that period of the sciences which I have before 
mentioned. These 30ung men, the pick and flower of the clay- 
workers, would come to college full of the practical knowledge of the 
brickyard and pottery. They would have a good many erroneous 
ideas to knock out, and a good many prejudices to overcome, but, 
in two years' time devoted closely to the study of what tliey need 
most to know, they would go back to their work with new and 
enlarged ideas of its dignity and possibilities. 

Surely there is nothing impracticable or visionary about such a 

In Ohio we have a short mining course, devoted to the education 
of practical miners, who come to the school at the age of thirty or 
thirty-five years frequently, and who have been prevented from rising 
in their work simply from lack of the very technical education they 
are thus enabled to get ; also, we have a short agricultural course, 
in which the young farmers can get in two years the heart and core 
of what the. full and formal degree would give them. 

Tliere has never been a more beneficent application of the edu- 
cational machinery of the State than in these short technical cour^^es. 
It is the simplest and most successful way to raise the standard of 
technical industry, and if the plan has been tried successfully on 
miners and farmers, why should it not .succeed on clay-workers? The 
importance of the industry certainly demands it, and the utter lack of 
such training in any regular course makes it still more urgent that a 
short practical course should be prepared. What can the N. B. M. 
A. do toward furthering this cause? 

It is not for me, a new member, who is attending his first conven- 
tion, and who is not yet familiar with the objects and aims and possi- 
bilities of this Association, to suggest any radical sttps, even on a 
line so directly important for the good of the industry as this kind ot 
education undoubtedly is. But there are others here who will be able 
to formulate some steps to put us on record as conscious of our need, 
and our willingness to assist the cause forward. 

Columbus, O. 

Edward Oktcjn, Jr. 



" For pallid Autumn once again 

Hath swell'd each torrent of the hill; 
Her clouds col'ect, her shadows sail, 
And watery winds that sweep the vale 
Grow loud and louder still." 

— Campbell. 

\ T Basel we engaged a voitiirier to take us to Baden, whence the 
*■ old Swiss railway was to have the privilege of conveying us to 
Zurich. Our scheme for reaching Italy was to pass by the lakes of 
Zurich and Wallenstadt, and then, following the valley of the Rhine, 
to cross over the pass of the SpUigen to Chiavenna, and so to reach 
Lake Como. 

We left Basel at two o'clock in the afternoon, hoping to reach 
Baden by about nine ; the weather looked threatening, but we took a 
cheerful view of this, as of everything else, as all good travellers 
should, and comforted ourselves with the thought that at any rate we 
could better afford to have a wet day between Basel and Baden than 
between Zurich and the SpUigen. 

The view of the city as you leave it is certainly very striking ; the 
cathedral spires are picturesque in their outline, and the number of 
churches with turrets and steep roofs combine with them to produce a 
most ecclesiastical-looking town. Nor need any one interested in 
architecture despair of finding much pleasure in a more careful in- 
spection of its buildings. They are full of interest, though generally 
passed too rapidly by people in a hurry to get on to enjoy the pleasures 
which await them beyond. 

The roofing of the cathedral is worthy of notice as being com- 
posed of variously colored tiles, arranged in diamond patterns over 
the surface of the roof, and giving a degree of richness to the coloring 
of this generally heavy part of the building which is very admirable. 

In another fine church of the early part of the fourteenth century 
here, I remember being amused to see how quietly the storks possess 
themselves of all kinds of places for their nests, and think even the 
ridge of the steep roof of a church a proper place for their abode. The 
good people at Basel build their chimneys with flat tops for the express 
benefit of their long-legged friends, who, from their elevated and 
well-warmed abodes, look down sedately, and with a well-satisfied air 
upon their unfledged brethren below. 

Why the people here love storks, the people of Venice pigeons, 
and the people of Berne bears, I leave to more industrious inquirers to 
decide, satisfied only to notice the fact that it is so, as each of these 
fancies adds one to the list of local peculiarities so valuable in the 
recollections of a journey. 

The road from Basel to Baden is for the first half of the way very 
pretty : we came in. unfortunately, for rather drenching rain, and so 

lost all beyond the suggestion of 
some striking views. The towns 
through which we passed were 
not of much interest, though 
there were many picturesque and 
pleasant-looking subjects for the 
pencil. The most striking place 
on the road was Rheinfelden, a 
largish village (or perhaps I ought 
to say small town, as it rejoices in 
a Rath-haus of some pretension), 
surrounded by very high walls, 
and entered by tall stone gate- 
towers, pierced with pointed 
arches, and surmounted by upper 
stages of timber, with tiled roofs of quaint and effective character ; and 
here and at .Stein and Baden I noticed that almost all the houses were 
old and very little altered. I observed particularly the old shop win- 
dows of very simple design, closed with folding shutters, and taking 
one back to old times most decidedly in their design. 




LJcvond Rheinfelden the road, which so far has skirted the Rhine 
rather closely, leaves it again lor a few miles until it touches it for the 
last time at the small town of .Stein. 

From Stein we saw an imposing-looking church on the other side of 
the river at Sekingen. It has a great western front with two bulbous- 
topped steeples, and is of very considerable length. The division 
between choir and nave is marked by a delicate turret, and tlie whole 
church, as far as one can judge by a distant view, looks as though it 
would well repay a visit. There are six bays in the nave, five and an 
apse in the choir. The former has very simple windows, whilst in the 
latter they are rather elab- 
orate. There is no aisle to , 
the choir and no transept. 

The rain continued in- 
cessantly until we reached 
the long, straggling village 
of Frick, a quaint and an- 
tique-looking place, where 
our voiturier stopped for an 
hour to bait his horses, 
who, however, at Rhein- 
felden had enjoyed a treat 
in the shape of a loaf of very 
brown bread, a kind of food 
second only, in the estima- 
tion of foreign steeds, to 
the precious viorceanx of 
lump sugar with which 
.Swiss z'oituriers are so tond 
of encouraging and petting 

We were nothing loth 
to stretch our legs ; and, 
finding that the church was 
worthless, — one of those 
u n h a p p y , b u 1 b ous-roofed 
erections so common in 
some parts of the Continent, 
and the roof of even the 
eastern aijse of which was 
twisted into a most ingen- 
ious and ugly compound 
curve. — we took u]) our 
quarters in the respectable 
hostelry and " Bierbrau- 
erei " of the Angel, and 
devoted ourselves to the 
consumption of coffee and 
beer of no bad quality. Our 
host wished sadly to see us 
located under liis roof for 
the night, but we were re- 
solute in our determination 
to reach Baden that night, 
and so persisted in going, 
though to our subsequent 

It was soon dark, and the new moon, which shone cheerfully upon 
us. gave us just a glimpse occasionally of the scenery, which about 
Brugg, where we crossed the Aar. and again at Kcinigsfelden. seemed 
to be remarkably good. 

At last, at about half past ten o'clock, we reached what we fondly 
hoped was to be our resting-place. But Baden chose not to take us 
in, and to our horror, as we drove up to the chief and only available 
inn, we were met with the dismal announcement from the mouth of 
the civil landlord, that all the rooms were full. 

However, we dismounted, and found that there was no other inn 
in Baden proper, but that at the Baths there were several : at them 


our landlord assured us that he knew we should find no room, and so 
we thought it useless to return and try. Our only course seemed to 
be to feed our horses again and then go on to Zurich : and as Swiss 
drivers and Swiss horses never seem to tire of trotting on slowly and 
drowsily along the road, there was no difficulty in at once coming to 
an arrangement with our coachman. 

-Accordingly, at midnight we started again, hoping at some early 
hour in the morning to reach Zurich. It was sufficiently provoking to 
be toiling on slowly and sleepily for nearly four hours almost alongside 
of a railroad which would have taken us early the next morning in 

three quarters of an hour: 
but there was no help for it. 
and so we dW the best we 
could, by sleeping when- 
ever we were able, to pass 
the weary hours away. 

At last, just as the day 
began to dawn, we came 
in sight of Zurich and its 
lake, and last, not least, 
we reached the great hotel. 
Here we pulled up. knocked 
desperately, awoke the 
slumbering porter — but, 
alas I only to hear again the 
unwelcome sounds which 
had greeted our ears at 
Baden 1 He suggested, 
however, that at the Hotel 
Belle Vue we should prob- 
ably find beds, and so on 
we drove, rather in despair 
at our prospects, though, 
happily.unnecessarily so. for 
the Belle \"ue gladly opened 
its arms for our reception, 
and ere long we were, ob- 
livious of all our toil, com- 
fortably ensconced in bed. 
From our windows we had 
a pleasant view of our quar- 
ter ; it was broad daylight, 
and the prospect was — as 
from such a position, look- 
ing up a lake, it always is 
— very fair and charming. 
We were up again soon 
after eight, and were glad 
to find the morning fine, 
though the clouds were low. 
and we saw, consequently, 
nothing of the distant view 
of mountains which lends its 
greatest charms to Zurich. 
The town is. however, 
pretty and striking. The 
])icturesque houses, with 
wooded liills on all sides beyond them, and very charming views of 
the lake, if they do not make its attractions first-rate, at any rate make 
them very considerable. 

The main feature of interest for me was the cathedral, a fine 
Komanes(|ue church, very fairly perl'ect, but mutilated in its interior 
arrangements by the Calvinists, in whose hands it now is. In plan, 
it has a nave with aisles of six bays, a short choir, and east of this a 
s()uare-ended sanctuary, the aisles having apses, roofed with semi- 
domes. In the nave two of the aisle-arches make one groining bay. 
The transverse groining-ribs are of a simple square section, the 
diagonal ribs having in addition a large round member. The triforium 



is very large and line, and is made use of for congregational purposes, 
being fitted up with seats, which, curiously enough, are all made to 
turnup as misereres. There are no transepts. The sanctuary arch is 
loftier than the choir arch, and seems to have been intended to be 
very distinctly marked. In the clerestory there are two simple round- 
headed lights in each bay : the choir is arcaded all round internally, 
and for frigidity of eflpct cannot be surpassed ; the internal fittings 
comprise an immense pulpit, but, so far as I could see, not even an 
apology for an altar. 

The exterior has two western steeples, and a north doorway, each 
jamb of which has three detached shafts, standing considerably in ad- 
vance of the wall, which is entirely covered with diapers. The arch 
itself is semicircular, and very simple in its moulding: but this sim- 
plicity rather adds to than detracts from its general grandeur of effect. 
The whole is inserted in an additional thickness of wall, set on, 
as it were, against the original wall ; and the e.xtreme width 
of the doorway itself is no less than eighteen feet nine inches. 
The cloisters were remarkable, and very good of their kind ; 
the arches rested on detached shafts, the capitals of which were elab- 
orately carved in a very peculiar manner, but very effectively. The 
whole design was unlike any Northern Romanesque, and bore much 
more similarity to the best Lombard work. Unfortunately, the whole 
of this cloister was rebuilt in 1851, the carving having been re-worked 
or renewed throughout in imitation of the original. It will be seen, 
however, that, in spite of alterations, this is a very fine church, of a 
very early type, and peculiarly valuable in a country which, like 
Switzerland, has comparatively little left that is really good in the way 
of architectural examples. 

There are other churches in Zurich, but I believe not old, and at 
any rate I had no time to examine them. One of them is appropriated 
to the use of the Roman Catholics : and there is one desecrated, rising 
from the edge of the lake, aud forming a prominent object in the 
general view of the town as you leave by the steamer ; this is of good 
outline, but has no details remaining of any value. The point chiefly 
to be noticed in the churches of Zurich appears to be the way in which 
their spires are all painted red, looking in the full sunshine very bright 
and picturesque. 

The Swiss have a great feeling for bright color, and on our -vay 
from Basel to Baden we noticed one of the many instances of this in 
several turrets covered with brightly colored glazed tiles. A light 
green seems to be the favorite color, and is commonly used without 
mixture with any other. They look best with their lower side 
rounded, and when of small size ; and are constantly used in tur- 
rets rising out of roofs which are entirely covered with plain tiles. I 
remember, two years before, noticing with extreme pleasure the 
beauty of some dark-green tiles used at SchafFhausen ; and I have 
already had occasion to mention those on the cathedral at Basel with 
equal commendation. Unhappily, we have to lament that English 
people, in their insane hatred of bright colors, if they saw such tiles 
used in England, would be horrified at such a violation of the correct 
simplicity and uniformity of color to which the cheapness of slate has 
made them accustomed. Some modern attempts, however, at intro- 
ducing colored tiles have not been so successful as could be wished ; 
and of all, perhaps the least so is the roof of the new Maria Hilf 
Church at Munich, on which tiles of light-blue color are used in such 
large masses that at first sight it seems that half the roof is stripped, 
and that the pale-blue sky is seen instead of roof. 

At ten o'clock we left our hotel by the steamer for Schmerikon at 
the head of the lake of Zurich. The weather still looked doubtful, 
though much better than on the previous day, and our host of the 
Belle Vue, taking a good view of this, as is a landlord's duty, con- 
ducted us to the boat with smiling anticipations of fine days to come. 

The shores of the lake are, for the greater part of its length, 
literally fringed with houses all painted white, and contrasting 
violently with the trees, vineyards, and green hills by which they are 
backed. On the north, the shore is low and gradually shelving down 
to the water ; on the south it is rather more precipitous, but after all 
not very striking. At the head of the lake heavy, dark, round clouds 

hung upon the hills, and left us in pleasant doubt as to whether or 
no we had fine mountains to discover when they cleared away ; a 
doubt, as it happened, not settled as far as we were concerned, save 
by certain lively and not too trustworthy representations which we 
afterwards met with, in the shape of advertisements of the Zurich 
hotels, and which showed a line of snow mountains as the ordinary 
horizon of their visitors. 

The churches on the lake are very numerous and very similar. 
The steeples are almost always gabled, and from these gables rise 
spires painted red, and very thin and taper in their form. The 
gabled sides of the towers are generally made useful rather than 
ornamental by the introduction of enormous clock dials. The only 
decidedly mediaeval church which I saw between Zurich and Rapper- 
swyl was at one of the villages on the north shore of the lake, I think 
at Meilen, but I am rather uncertain as to the name. Its design is 
both novel and very good ; the pinnacles on the gable being unusual 
in saddle-backed steeples, and giving considerable picturesqueness of 
outline. The accompanying woodcut will show the general character 
of the design, and it will be seen that the tower is on the north side 
of the choir. The steeple roof is covered with grayish-red tiles, with 
a pattern marked on them with yellow tiles. 

The steamers on this, 
as on most Swiss lakes, are 
somewhat tedious in their 
journeys, as they take a most 
zig-^ag course, first calling 
on one side of the lake and 
then on the other, until one 
doubts whether one will ever 
reach the journey's end. At 
Horgen, of course, we dis- 
charged a large proportion of 
our English passengers, who 
were all bound for the Rigi, 
but their places were soon 
occupied by the umbrella- 
loving natives, who flocked 
in and out of the boat in 
great numbers at every sta- 
tion, and by the time we 
reach Rapperswyl we had no 
more fellow-countrymen in 
the boat, and, perhaps, like 
many Englishmen, to say the 
truth, we then first thor- 
oughly realized that we were 
abroad. Much as one loves 
one's country, certainly one 
source of pleasure when abroad is the not hearing too much English 
spoken, or seeing too many English faces. 

At Rapperswyl, famous for having the longest bridge in the world, 
there is a most conspicuous group of buildings on rising ground above 
the lake, very picturesquely thrown together ; it consists of a church 
and a castle ; the latter has several towers capped with pyramidal 
and saddle-backed roofs, and the former has two towers in the posi- 
tion of transepts, with saddle-back roofs gabled north and south, the 
southern tower being considerably the larger of the two. Altogether, 
the group is one of uncommon variety and picturesqueness of outline. 
Below, in the town, is a small church, with a most happily conceived, 
though very simple bell-turret rising out of the roof, square in its plan, 
but capped with an octagonal spirelet. This is a not uncommon plan 
in this part of Switzerland, and is always most agreeable in its effect. 
The views from the terrace by the side of this castle are of singular 
beauty. It is high enough above the lake to command a good view 
of its whole expanse, and to secure a not tgo distant view of some of 
the mountain peaks of Glarus. Rapperswyl is a good point to stop 
at, for the sake of a visit to the famous pilgrimage church at Einsie- 
deln, certainly one of the spots in Switzerland most curious and 




interesting, thougli its building liave no claims to our regard on the 
score of architectural beauty. 

Passing under, or, rather, tlirough the bridge, we found that it 
was very narrow and had no side railing of any kind, so that it ap- 
pears to be far from a pleasant contrivance for crossing the mile or 
two of shallow water which here scarce ser\-es to keep up the ajjpear- 
ance even of a lake : and perhaps it is upon the score of the absence 
of real dangers of drowning if one fell over that they dispense with 
any protection. At Schmerikon, which we reached in four hours 
from Zurich, we left our steamer, and immediately embarked on a 
barge, in order to go by the Linth canal to '.Vesen ; but we found that, 
however expeditious this might be in descending, it was a kind of con- 
veyance not to be recommended highly to any one wishing to ascend 
the canal, inasmuch as — unlike ordinary canals — this is neither 
more nor less than the glacier torrent of the Linth, l)ringing down the 
melting snow from the Glarnitsch and Todi glaciers, and rushing 
along at a really tremendous pace. To those, however, who have 
time, it may be commended as affording magnificent views of the 
mountains of Glarus, and of those which rise so grandly above the 
Lake of Wallenstadt. 

As we entered the canal from the lake we were amused by the un- 
successful attempts of our crew to secure some wild fowl, two of 
which they succeeded in shooting, and then, without any kind of re- 
gard for the feelings of passengers panting to arrive at Wesen in the 
promised two hours and a half, they deliberately proceeded — of 
course in vain — to chase the unhappy birds, which, though wounded, 
were quite able to dive much deeper than their enemies could reach, 
and so the only consequence of the chase was a hearty laugh at the of the baffled sportsmen, lialf an hour's delay, and much lost 
ground to be made up. 

The entrance to the canal was very striking; a low hill covered 
with larch and birch rose from the water's edge, and above this, the 
mountains, gradually shelving upwards, were terminated in a line of 
rocky ridges of very grand and ragged character. Whilst we were ad- 
miring the view a slight shower passed over us, and the sun. suddenly 
breaking out, produced one of those lovely effects of color so peculiar 
to mountain scenery : a rainljow seemed exactly to fill up one of the 
great basins formed by the undulations of the mountains, and. after 
bathing a great sweep of moimtain side in the richest and most dis- 
tinctly marked colors, gradually died away. 

The canal, which at first looks more like a river, soon takes a bend 
to the southwest, and then, passing under a quaint wooden bridge, 
over which passes the road to U«nach, we found ourselves in what 
certainly looked sufficiently canal-like. The stream is so rapid that 
the walls built up on either side are preserved from being washed away 
by stone groins running out into the stream and acting as so many 
breakwaters to keep the water in the centre. Slowly and steadily our 
horses pulled us up, whilst we, mounted on the top of the cabin, were 
able to see over the walled sides of the canal and to enjoy the glorious 
prospect before us. 

Before long our cajjtain blandly informed us that he was going to 
stop for dinner at a wayside house, so we, anxious to make the same 

good use of our time, attempted to follow his examjile. Unfortunately 
the landlord, though very jolly-looking, had a very badly stocked 
larder, and we had to satisfy ourselves with bread, honev, and wine. 
It is true, indeed, that our host did produce same cold meal, — portion, 
as I imagined, of a goat dressed some ten days back, — but this was 
not eatable, and was valuable only as furnishing an opportunity to 
him of showing his perfect power of making the best of a bad thing. 
To season the goat he brought in vinegar and oil, and. putting them 
upon the table, exclaimed with some empressement, •• Voila, monsieur ; 
itiais la vuiaigre n'est pas bott!" just as if this was the strongest 
recommendation he could give us ! We laughed heartily, avoided the 
vinegar, and parted good friends with our host, thanking him from 
our hearts for having saved us the painful operation of making the 
discovery about its quality for ourselves I 

Our not very satisfying repast finished, we embarked again upon 
our barge, and in the occasional intervals, when sudden and heavy 
storms of rain obliged us to seek shelter in the cabin, we were much 
amused in watching the proceedings of some men belonging to the 
boat, who spent the whole of the five hours consumed in the jour- 
ney in an unceasing game of cards: I must do them the justice to say 
that they played very good-humoredly, and laughed without ceasing. 
Under no circumstances coukl we have seen the scenery more glori- 
ously : occasional bright gleams of sunshine broke in upon and fol- 
lowed clouds of tile most inky hue. and then came pelting down heavy 
showers, accompanied by howling wind, and darkness; and as we 
reached the opening of the valley, looking up beyond Glarus to the 
great mountains which close in its upper end, I think the effect was 
really more grand and terrific than anything I have ever seen. The 
mountains are of very fine outline, and of great height, as we saw by 
the more than occasional glimpses which we had of snow about their 
summits. By the time we reached Wesen the wind was so violent 
that we found it difficult to keep our places upon the top of the cabin ; 
and we disembarked just before the dark, in time to see the fine 
mountains on each side of the Lake of Wallenstadt here and there 
through the storm clouds, and its waters beaten by the wind into not 
insignificant waves. We had to walk I'lirough the entire length of the 
villajie — jjicturesque. quaint little place, sheltered under the almost 
overhanginji rocks at the side of the water — and arrived at List at 
the ca])ital and thoroughly .Swiss inn. the Hdtel de I'Ep^e, where we 
were to sleej}. 

Travellers now speed very difTerently along this country, and, I 
fear, see less than they ought of its beauties. Steamboats no longer 
attempt to pass beyond Rapperswyl, and the railway hurries one along 
by the beautiful Lake of Wallenstadt to the valley of the Rhine, only 
earning one's gratitude when one is in violent haste, and because by a 
branch line it makes a detour to Glarus and Stachell)erg much more 
possible than it was when first 1 made the journey. On the whole, I 
ear, where railways pass through beautiful scenery, the tourist loses 
more than he can possibly gain, not only in the views of the country, 
but equally in the incidents of travel, which are becoming only too 
monotonous and similar everywhere. 

( To be continued. ) 


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The brick paving in some of the larger Western cities has proven 
to be in every way superior to other paving materials used. 


'"p^HE Eighth Annua! Convention of the National Brickmakers' 
*■ Association of the United States, held in the Auditorium. Chi- 
cago, beginning Jan. 23, and continuing through the week, cer- 
tainly must have been productive of results gratifying to the committee 
having the affair in charge, and the some three hundred and fifty mem- 
bers of the Association who were present. 

Chicago's reputation for hospitality, and doing things generally on 
a broad and liberal scale, was well taken care of by Messrs. D. V. 
Purrington, W. H. Alsip, W. D. Gates, and others of the committee, 
representing the Chicago craft, whose special purpose it was to extend 
visiting members a royal welcome ; while the convenience and general 
well-being of all were as usual looked after by that prince of good fel- 
lows, Theo Randall, secretary of the Association, who, by the way, 
is the William H. Sayward of the brickmakers' craft. 

The banquet was a grand affair, which must have taxed not only 
the Chicago brethren's purses, but the resources of the Bonifaces who 
hold forth at the Auditorium. 

The postprandial exercises were made particularly brilliant by the 
speech of R. B. Morrison of Rome, Ga., who, in the absence of George 
M. Fiske of Boston, responded to the toast, '• The Old North and 
the New South," in a very eloquent manner; while Hon. Anthony 
Ittner of St, Louis rendered, in masterly style, Knox's poem, "Oh, 
Why Should the Spirit of Mortal be Proud.'" 

The toast, " The Ladies," was well taken care of by W. D. 
Gates of Chicago, whose droll, characteristic style has made him a 
great favorite as an after-dinner speaker at these annual feasts. 

The business meetings held during the week were characterized 
by harmony and good-feeling throughout, and the close attention given 
by members to the several very excellent papers read, some of which 
we reprint in another column. 

In fact, the interest manifested by members in the open dis- 
cussions which followed the reading of these papers ; the character of 
the remarks, in many instances taking the form of experiences which 
had been productive of good or poor results, intended as they were 
to be of assistance to fellow-manufacturers ; the free exchanging of 
ideas and suggestions ; the complete devotion to their profession ; and 
the manifest desire of all to improve their own methods, and be in every 
way up to date, — stamped the memljers of the National Brick Manufac- 
turers' Association as progressive, broad, and liberal, and well worthy. 
to look after the interests of the coming building material. 


'Rah for Chicago and Chicago hospitality ! 

Presidents may come, and presidents may go, but Secy. Randall 
goes on forever. Selah ! 

Messrs. Chesholm, Boyd & White had the winner of the blue 
ribbon on exhibition. 

No need to send out for a chaplain when Mr. W. A. Endaly of 
Cincinnati is present. 

We print in another column the very able paper by Joshua Mil- 
ler of Phoenixville, Pa., on enamelled brick as compared with glazed. 

We are indebted to Mr. D. V. Purrington, chairman of the 
Reception Committee, for many courtesies extended. 

The century card of the Wallace ALnnufacturing Company, 
Frankford, Ind., was quite the taking thing of the convention. 

There was no doubt in the minds of many that brick is the com- 
ing paving as well as building material. 

Many ladies, wives, and daughters of the members were present 
during the convention, and we agree with the gentleman from the 
South : they should have attended the banquet. 

Congratulations to A. S. Blalifer, of New Orleans, the genial 
third vice-president, upon his escape from serious difificulty into which 
he was led by his characteristic gallantry. 

First Vice-Pres. Edwin McGraw of Pittsburg presided very grace- 
fully in the absence of Pres. Alsip. He is well placed in the line 
for promotion. 

The exhibit of J. W. Penfield & Son of Willoughby, O., 
must have been made at quite an expense. But we are told that the 
results were quite satisfactory. 

New Haven was well represented by J. Wheaton Stone of the 
McLargon Brick Machine Company, Capt. S. P. Crafts, and Isaac 
L. Stiles. Mr. Stiles has the honor of being second vice-president for 
the ensuing year. 

Mr. Frank B. McAvoy, of the firm of T. B. McAvoy & Sons, 
brick manufacturers of Philadelphia, offered to pledge his concern for 
one thousand dollars towards the establishment of a course of techni- 
cal education at some college or university as a preparation for the 
clay-working business. 

Each year one of the ablest men is selected president. It is 
certainly wise to continue these men upon the executive committee 
after the expiration of their terms as president, as it thereby insures 
the best interests of the association being well taken care of. 

The relative merits of the Simpson Brick Press and the Boyd 
Press formed a never-ending topic for discussion between young 
Simpson and John Maroney. When we left Chicago, neither had suc- 
ceeded in convincing the other that he was wrong. 

Pres. W. H. Alsip is a college-bred man, who gave up the prac- 
tice of law to enter the brick manufacturing business. 


/^N Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday, Feb. 13, 14, and 16, the 
^^ Eighth Annual Convention of the National Association of 
Builders was held at Cotillion Hall in the Mechanics' Building, Boston. 
The first day was largely taken up by routine business, but was 
characterized by Secy. Sayward's very able report, Mayor Matthews's 
address of welcome, and some lively discussion. After the committee 
on credentials had reported, it was found that ninety-five delegates 
were on hand. The important matter of the afternoon was the 
secretary's report, a long but very well prepared one, setting forth 
clearly the work of the association, and suggesting sundry directions 
for improvement. A motion to refer the report to a committee brought 
a Mr. McCarthy, of Chicago, to his feet, with a general denunciation 
of the association, and particularly its secretary, in the course of 
which he defied any member to name a single thing the association 
had accomplished. This brought Mr. Anthony Ittner up, but Mr. 
McCarthy insisted upon holding the floor, and before Mr. Ittner 
secured the chairman's recognition Mr. McCarthy had been apolo- 
gized for by Mr. Stevens of Philadelphia, and his remarks had been 
repudiated by Mr. Ginderle, another delegate from Chicago. Mr. 
Ittner then took the floor, and made a very forcible criticism of Mr. 
McCarthy's position. The remainder of the afternoon was taken up 
with a large number of resolutions and reports. We regret that lack 
of space does not allow of our printing the secretary's report ; but as it 
will be printed by the association, and published in other journals, we 
would refer our readers to these, with the remark that it is a paper 
well worth looking up and reading. 


The chief topic for discussion during this session was arbitration, 
Hon. Carroll D. Wright, United States Commissioner of Labor, giving 
an address on " The Relations of Employer and Workman." 



The attendance was a little larger than the clay before, some 
snowbound delegates having reached the city. The first business of 
importance was a resolution introduced by Mr. Watson of Phila- 
delphia, on the death of Col. Richard T. Auchmuty, the founder and 
maintainer of the New ^■ork trade schools. Mr. McCarthy of 
Chicago, Mr. Harris of Philadelphia, Mr. V\'right of .New York, 
Mr. Ittner of St. Louis, Mr. Blair of Cincinnati, and others eulo- 
gized Col. Auchmuty. Resolutions were also adopted on the death 
of James Boland of Buffalo. N. B. Hussey of Omaha, Hugh Sisson 
of Baltimore, and B. D. Whitcomb of Boston. 

After the intermission for lunch, Hon. Carroll D. Wright was 


in favor of arbitration, but called attention to the fallacies of compul- 
sory arbitration. He outlined the difference in the labor question 
between the present time and a generation ago, when it was merelv a 
matter of wages and time. To-day it involves many important con- 
siderations, psychological, sociological, and industrial. It is a ques- 
tion which reaches every interest of man, which is as many-sided as 
the minds of men. Therefore, it is necessary to devise some method 
of harmonizing different bodies to one line of action ; hence the value 
of true arbitration. With all that has beerr said of compulsory arbitra- 
tion, it is a step backward. It means the enslavement of all the 
personal elements of industry. It would result in a more narrowing 
system than the Feudal. It means the development of the fighting 
nature of men. It means the death of industry. True arbitration 
brings men together for the purpose of comparing views and settling 
difficulties. It dignifies and ennobles industry, and embodies in its 
principles the reciprocal relations of men. To establish arbitration is 
to elevate the reciprocal relations to a plane of mutual recognition of 
the rights of all. 

Individualism, which was the ruling spirit years ago, is supplanted 
by altruism. We have developed from a condition of fi.xed relation 
to one of contract, by which a workman can make such an arrange- 
ment as he chooses. Labor difficulties cannot be settled until each 
man recognizes the rights of the other man. The time is coming 
when neither party to a strike or lockout will feel that he is doing the 
right thing. .Mr. Wright described the methods of compulsory arbi- 
tration and gave many illustrations to show its fallacy. He said that 
our mechanics have been taught they are free : they have been taught 
the principles that surround governments ; they have been studying 
economic relations. Notwithstanding the objectionable features, one 
must recognize that in strikes and in lockouts there is much that is 
right on both sides. This results from the attempt of man to get the 
best of what he can out of his environment. " You should have a 
perpetual court of arbitration, to which you can refer. If you have a 
judiciously selected board of members on both sides of the great prob- 
lem of industry, you have taken a great step towards the right : for you 
have recognized the rights of men, and those men have become just 
so much better as a result." 


Mr. Harris of Philadelphia said that the experience there was strongly 
in favor of arbitration. He instanced the good that had been done 
in the case of an association of bricklayers, independently organized, 
which had been brought to recognize the benefits to be derived from 
arbitration, after causing the builders no end of trouble by sudden 
strikes. There had been no friction since. .Mr. Harris thought the 
workmen had more right to organize than the builders. Mr. Ginderle 
thought it became the employers to make more concessions than the 
employees did. He stated that in Chicago there had not been a ma- 
sons' strike since 1887, when they first began to arbitrate. He advised 
arbitration before, not after, the difficulty. .Mr. Blair of Cincinnati, 
chairman of the committee on arbitration, urged the formation of the 
several trades in each city into compact organizations, which could 
treat successfully with the men in their employment, who are strongly 

.Mr. .Say ward then explained 


of the association, and said he introduced it in order to bring out any 
suggestions leading to its improvement. He said the spirit of the 
agreement was the spirit of .Mr. Wright's address, and asked whv ex- 
changes have done nothing with the agreement, which was the careful 
work of a capable committee. The convention ought to endorse it 
and instruct the filial bodies to introduce it. Mr. Hussey announced 
that he was in full accord with the spirit of arbitration, but wished to 
make the point that arbitration had no business to concern itself with 
the right of a non-union man to work, which was guaranteed him bv 
the Constitution. He was in the same position as at the first session 
of the association. He held that no man and no body of men, 
whether master builders or union organizers, have the right to say that 
men shall not have the right to work, or that men shall not have a 
right to learn a trade. 

Mr. McCarthy of Chicago was again heard from, as he promised 
the convention the day previous he should be. 

Mr. Woodbury spoke with two years' experience on the arbitration 
committee, which has treated with bricklayers', stone mason.s', and 
laborers' unions. To his mind the form of arbitration proposed was 
the best way of settling all vexed questions that came before the board. 
There had been no strikes or lockouts of importance since the com- 
mittee had been in existence. 

Mr. Baker presented a resolution to the effect that delegates 
should urge upon their respective bodies the adoption of the associa- 
tion's form of arbitration. This was seconded by Campbell & Hopper 
of New York, with favorable instances of the force of arbitration, also 
by Mr. Sayward, and unanimously carried. 

A large number of resolutions was referred to the committee on 
the same. (Greetings from the National Association of Building In- 
spectors, in session at Steinert Hall, were received ; and a vote of thanks 
was passed to the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Associa- 
tion for the use without pay of Cotillion Hall. 


This, the closing day of the 
convention was in many respects 
the most important, as the sub- 
jects of trade schools, the uni- 
form contract, and the per capita 
tax were considered, and the 
election of officers was held. 

Mr. Watson of Philadelphia 
and Mr. Ittner of St. Louis pre- 
sented resolutions recommend- 
ing the establishment of trade 
schools, Mr. Ittner asking mem- 
bers to obligate themselves to 
give young men graduating from 
such schools a finished trade in 
event of proscription by trades 
unions. Resolutions were finally 
adopted to the effect that the 
character of the work of the Na- 
tional Association is largely ed- 
ucational, and should not be 
limited to any one class ; that the trades unions display antagonism 
to the association's plan for educating apprentices primarily on account 
of lack of understanding of trade schools; that the National Secretary 
be instructed to prepare a description of the plan, setting forth the 
fact that the time occupied by a course of trade training shall be 
deducted from the full term of apprenticeship, and that the remainder 
of the term shall be served in acquiring the necessary manual dexterity ; 
that proper means for the distribution of this description among the 
workmen be taken, and that their co-operation with employers be 
urged in the establishment of trade schools. 

The Uniform Contract was discussed with considerable vigor, 




but some of the speakers seemed to overlook the fact that there are 
two parties to every contract. For instance, Mr. Grace of Chicago 
thought amendments should be made without reference to the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects. The latter might kick, but they would 
have to come to terms finally. But in the majority of cases the 
speakers thought that the aim to secure in this contract was a thor- 
oughly fair relation between the parties in a building contract. The 
matter was discussed until the dinner in the lower hall grew cold, and 
finally tabled. Mr. Say ward suggested that if all delegates who had 
suggestions to make would send them in writing to the committee 
much good would be accomplished. After all, as Pres. Herse)' 
remarked on opening the discussion, the action of the convention was 
prescribed. The only action which could be taken was to recommend 
the delegates to the joint committee on uniform contract to urge the 
adoption of changes which, after discussion, were approved l)y the 

A vote on the per capita tax resulted in the adoption of three 
dollars by a small majority. Secy. Sayward favored reduction to 
two dollars on account of hard times, and offered to work for a frac- 
tion of his present salary to reduce expenses so that the lower tax 
would suffice. 

Mr. Wingate introduced a resolution restricting immigration, 
which was opposed on the ground that the American boy can look 
after himself, and finally tabled. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, Noble H. 
Creager of Baltimore; first vice-president, Charles A. Rupp of 
Buffalo ; second vice-president, James Meathe of Detroit ; secretary, 
William H. Sayward of Boston; treasurer, George Tapper of Chicago. 

Mr. Creager, the president, belongs to the large brick manufact- 
uring firm of Pitcher & Creager of Baltimore. He is the president of 
the Baltimore Exchange, and is very ]irominent in Baltimore business 

Mr. Meathe is a plumber, and president of the Detroit Exchange. 

It was voted to hold the next convention at Baltimore on the 
third Tuesday in October, 1895: In the evening a smoker was given 
by the Boston Exchange, and delegates and visitors royally enter- 
tained. A banquet to the visiting ladies was held the same evening 
at the Vendome. 


'' I ^HE fifth annual convention of the National Association of Com- 

missioners and Inspectors of Buildings was opened at Steinert 
Hall, Boston, on the morning of the 13th of this month. 

Pres. John S. Damrell of Boston was in the chair. Mr. J. J. 
Barry of Boston presented a paper on the " Responsibilities, Quali- 
fications, Duties, and Powers of Building Inspectors." In this Air. 
Barry stated that a building inspector should have the same power to 
arrest transgressors of the law that a police officer has. Such power, 
he claimed, would make a man conservative, and injudicious use of it 
would be suitable cause for his removal. 

Several inspectors stated that they had similar powers, and could 
at any time arrest work on a building, and that no building could be 
erected without. their permission. 

Inspector Entwistle of Washington read a paper on the buildings 
of that city, which was followedby apaper on the " Tower Fire Escape" 
by Mr. William J. Gillingham of Philadelphia. This was essentially 
the same paper contributed by Mr. Gillingham to our last month's 
number, and its discussion occupied the remainder of the morning 
session. It was received very favorably, and strongly endorsed by 
many of the inspectors. The subject of this form of escape will be 
further considered in future issues of The Brickbuilder, in the 
department devoted to fireproofing. At the afternoon session Mr. 
Fitzsimmons read a paper on the " Relation of the Architect to the 
Building Department,'" which was warmly approved by the con- 

On Wednesday the Arsenal at Watertown was visited and the 
big testing machines inspected. Bunker Hill and the Navy Yard 
were taken in on the way back. 



PUHLisHEii nv 

The Brickbuilder Publishing Company, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Sjreei, Boston. 

p. O. BOX, 3282. 

.Suljscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... S2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3.00 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

No person, tirni, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

^X/K wish many of 
our architectural 
readers who are pos- 
sessed with the idea 
that the brickmaker is 
\ery little higher in the 
industrial scale than the 
day laborer could have 
attended the Chicago 
convention. They would 
have found there as fine 
a body of representative 
business men and manu- 
fjcturers as any industry 
in the United States 
could show. The brickmaker of to-day is a manufacturer in 
the highest sense of the word. Producers of lumber and stone, 
raw and finished, have comparatively few of the difficulties to 
contend with that the manufacturers of clay goods are con- 
stantly meeting. The obstacles of this industry, in forcing the 
manufacturers to overcome them, have developed a class of self- 
reliant, successful men that everywhere hold leading positions in 
the industri:il world. 

CROWN Mour.i 

\OI.lA IllKKM' Mni.DINC. 

VXT'I'^ also wish to in- 
vite our architect- 
ural readers to read 
carefully the papers b\' 
Mr. Miller and Mr. 
Engle, on glazed and 
enamelled brick, pub- 
lished in this issue. 
What is therein con- 
tained is of vital impor- 
tance to every architect, 
as the necessity for using 
glazed materials is in- 
creasing day by day. 


It can be said in this connection that 



thfse papers held the 
attention of the con- 
vention in a manner 
which proved beyond 
question the sound- 
ness of the views put 
forth in them. 

npHE desirability 

V/J*? \»/ W ■ V W • W Itf I °^ ^°'^^ course 

riiif W"1liri rmf-aTWt^ m technical educa- 

coRNicF. OVER FRONT ENTRANCE DonR. ^j^^^ ^^ ^ preparation 

for the clay-working business has often been advocated in these 
columns, and we are pleased to note that the Chicago con- 
vention considered it with decided favor. Mr. Orton's paper, 
which preceded the discussion, is published in full in this issue, 
and ably sets forth the reasons for such a preparation and the 
ways in which it may be useful. It is a matter that we recom- 
mend to the governing bodies , of technical schools, with a sug- 
gestion to look into the extent of the clay-working industry. 
We can think of no other representing so large an investment 
of capital, and so great a value of products, for which preparation 
is not provided by some one of the technical or scientific institu- 
tions; and yet it is an industry where special knowledge is indis- 

I T is encouraging to note 
that the sentiment of 
the National Association 
of Builders was opposed 
to the views advanced by 
some speakers when the 
u n i f o r m contract was 
under discussion, to the 
effect that the American 
Institute of Architects 
should be forced to come 
to terms and accept changes 
introduced by the Buildtrs. 
This appears to us not only 
a one-sided, rather pig- 
headed way of looking at 
the matter, but one that 
is absolutely foolish, in that 
the architects have, and 
probably always will have, 
the whip hand. Competi- i^'^ ^i "L'ldi 

tion is so strong that architects will have no difficulty in securing 
honest and capable builders to take contracts, the terms of which 
are fair. The view of Mr. Grace of Chicago should have been 
condemned by the National Association. It throws out the 
question of fairness altogether, and we are led to wonder whether 
Mr. Grace has not run up against some architect who insisted 
upon a contract being carried out according to specifications. 

Editors of The Bkickbuildek : 

Dear Sirs, — In reading Mr. lioyden's article on •• Hollow Brick 
W'alls," in the December number of your paper, I was impressed by 
the following statement, and particularly by the part printed in italics 
(which are mine) : — 

•• From exhaustive tests made during the building of the Alle- 
gheny County Court House and tower, — a most important work, the 
tower being three hundred and twenty feet high, — it was ascertained 
hat the strength of brick built in walls or piers is very nearly one 

third of the crushing strength when cnishcd between smooth sur- 
faces, or imbedded in plaster : so that, in work where it is necessary to 
be near the margin of safety, ;'/ »iay be assumed t/iat well-laid brickwork 
will carry in a wall one third the crushing strength of a single bricks 
It would prove interesting reading to many of your subscribers, 
I think, if a description of the above-mentioned tests were gixen, as 
the conclusions based upon them are certainly at variance with other 
tests and the practice of engineers. It may be that part of the brick- 
work in the above-mentioned tower carries twenty-four tons per square 
foot, although it seems inii)robable : and in any case, I do not think 
it is a safe load to place upon even the best of brickwork. 

As the assumption of .Mr. Hoyden, printed in italics, is certainly 
contrary to results obtained from a large nuniljer of tests made on 
the crushing strength of brick and brick piers, at the United States 
.Arsenal at Watertown, .Mass., and as the general tendency of Mr. 
Boyden's article is to attribute a greater strength to brickwork than 
seems to be warranted, I would like to call attention to the following 
facts, which have been developed from various tests made on the 
strength of bricks and brick piers. 

First. In the tests on the strength of seven brick, published in 
Mr. Boyden's article, it should be noticed that in every case the brick 
cracked under less than one half of its ultimate strength, and brick 
Xo. 3, which, was next to the strongest of the seven, cracked under only 
thirty-tive per centof its ultimate load. The same condition is shown 
by nearly every set of tests on the strength of brick that I have seen. 
Second. Tests on brick piers built of Sand's Cambridge (Mass.) 
brick (the results of which are given on page 178 of the Architects'" 
and Builders' Focket-Dook, ninth and later editions) show that the 
strength of carefully built brick piers averages one tenth of the 
strength of a single brick, when built of common brick, in lime mor- 
tar, and about one sixth when built of pressed brick. 

Piers built of common brick in Portland cement mortar were one 
tifth'stronger than those laid up with lime mortar. 

Besides the small ratio which the strength of the pier bore to the 
single brick, every one of the piers built of common brick commenced 
to crack under a load of less than one half of its ultimate load, so 
that the cracking strength per square inch of the piers built of com- 
mon brick in lime mortar only averaged about one twentieth of the 
strength of a single brick. But we do not wish our piers to crack, 
and it would hardly be considered safe to load a pier to more than one 
third of its cracking strength, or one sixtieth of the ultimate strength 
of a single brick. 

The average crushing strength of the seven bricks given in the 
taide quoted by .Mr. Boyden is approximately eighty-three hun- 
dred pounds per square inch, and one sixdeth of this would give 
one hundred and thirty-eight pounds per square inch for the working 
strength of the brickwork, or nine and nine tenths tons per square foot. 
This value is a little more than that generally used by engineers 
tor brickwork in lime mortar, or that given in the recent building laws. 
The following tables give the greatest allowable load for brick- 
work, as specified in the Boston and Chicago building laws. 

Boston Law. — .Maximum load in tons jser square foot : — 

Walls. Piers, 

6 to 12 Diameters. 

Brick laid in cement and sand, i to 2 15 13 

" " cement, liine, and sand, i, i and 8, 12 10 

. , . . "lime mortar 8 7 

Chicago Law. — .Maximum load in tons per square foot for brick- 
work in walls : — 

Bnck laid in standard cement mortar i^h 

" " ordinary cement mortar 9 

' lime mortar °s 

On page 181 of the Architects" and Builders' Focket-Book 
(ninth and later editions) the writer gives values for the working 
strength of brickwork, which agree very closely with the above. 

Regarding the advantages of hollow walls, I believe them to be 
better than solid walls, when bonded with metal ties, and when not 
exceeding three stories in height ; above that height I should prefer 
to use solid walls, lined with terra-cotta furring blocks. 








Plates 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13. Elk\'.\tio\s axd Details of the 
\'OLTA Bi'REAU, Washington. D. C. A/essrs. Peabody &^ Stearns, 
Architects, Boston. 

This is one of the examples of teira-cotta work in this 
country. The ornament is not only well designed but admirably ap- 
plied, and made to count for something by the plain, unbroken sur- 
faces of the walls. Just what the detail is may be seen by the photo- 
graphs reproduced on the preceding pages, which show nearly every 
decorative feature on the building. The terra-cotta work was exe- 
cuted by the Perth -Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. The bricks from 
which the building is built were made by the Partridge, Powell & 
Stone Company, the corporate name of which was on Jan. 31 
changed to the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. This company now 
combines the manufacture of architectural terra-cotta, in all colors, 
with the special colored front brick that has heretofore been its princi- 
pal product, thus enabling architects to purchase brick and terra-cotta 
of one factory, insuring a successful combination of colors as well as 
avoiding the annoyance of making two contracts for materials so 
closely related. Our best wish to the E.xcelsior Terra-Cotta Company 
is that the same success attend this combination that has character- 
ized a similar combination in other cases. Tiie company's ofifices are 
at 105 East 22d -Street, New York. 
Plates 14, 15, and 16. Elevation and Dictails of the Eukeka 

Club Building, Rochester, N. \ . Messrs. Nolan, Nolan fi^ 

Stern, Architects, Rochester. Drawings by J . Alills Piatt. 

There may be many larger and more extravagantly furnished 
clubs than the Eureka of Rochester, but there are few more complete 
and thorough in their appointments. From top to bottom every care 

has been exercised by the architects to get the most perfect results ; 
and, as the fame of this building is already established, we haive gone 
to considerable trouble to secure the names of the more important 
sub-contractors, that our readers in that section of the country may 
profit by the information when they have similar work which requires 
careful and conscientious execution. 

Urst that claim attention are the materials of clay from which it is 
made. The Peerless Hrick Company of Philadelphia furnished all 
front and special shape hrick, as the\' have already done for a long list 
of buildings throughout New York State. The rich terra-cotta detail 
was executed by the Corning Terra-Cotta Company of Corning, N. Y., 
and is the best kind of evidence that this compain- is in line for the 
best class of architectural terra-cotta. 

The Rochester lirick and Tile Company furnisiied the common 
brick, tile, etc. The mortar of the front brick and terra-cotta work 
is buff, colored with the mortar color made by the Ricketson Mineral 
I'aint Works in Milwaukee, Wis. 

Messrs. Whitmore, Ranler & Vercinus of Rochester supplied the 
cement manufactured by the Buffalo Cement Company, and also laid 
the cement walks and cut and finished the Gouverneur marble. 

Messrs. A. Freiderich & Sons, 601 Ellwanger & Barry Building, 
and F. C. Seitz, 605 same building, did the general and mason and 
the carpenter contracting, respectively. The Messrs. Freiderich are 
also the contractors for a new ;?7o,ooo building on Piatt Street, 
Rochester, for C. B. Woodworth. 

The Tennessee marble wainscot, lavatory tile floors, tile and 
Pompeiian brick fireplaces and fittings, were furnished and set by 
J. C. Barry, 49 North Street. 

Of the iron work, the structural was done by J. J. Young of 
Rochester, the ornamental by the Winslovv Brothers Company of 

THE R R I C K R U I L D E R . 

The inside finish and mill work was contracted for by John A. 
Smith, 175 Exchange Street, and the furniture was specially designed 
and made by the Hayden Furniture Company of Rochester. 

It is upon them and the other interior furnisliers given below that 
much of the success of the club depends ; for the furniture, draperies, 
carpets, chandeliers, etc., in the large reception, dining, and ball 
rooms, the ladies' parlors, and the general club rooms, produce the 
strongest impression upon members and visitors. With the two 
above-mentioned houses must also be catalogued Howe & Rogers of 
80 to 84 State Street, who put in the carpets and rugs ; Gorton & 
-McCabe, 43 State Street, who furnished the draperies and hang- 
ings : Albert Will, 28 Exchange Street (C. K. Summerhays, mana- 
ger), from whom the gas and electric features were secured ; Hamilton 
& Mathews, 26 Exchange Street, who supplied the hardware (a very 
important part of a fine building) ; and Henry Waltjen of 38 Exchange 
Place, who did the painting and decorating. 

Of course the Graves elevators were put in, for why go away 
from home to get work other cities send there for? The same com- 
l)any also furnished the dumb-waiter service. 

In a well-appointed club building like this there is much that is 
out of sight, often inaccessible, that must be put in to stay. One of 
the most important contracts of this sort is the electric instalment, 
for lighting, for bells, and often for power. Messrs. R. Schmiit & 
Co. of 51 East Main Street were intrusted with this work. The 
plumbing, while not inaccessible, is nevertheless a nuisance if put in so 
that access for rei)airs is often neces.sary. and the selection of W. G. 
Keid & Sons for such work as is here ie(|uired is a decided compliment 
to their skilf. Not less important is the steam heating, which was 
installed by Samuel Sloan, 24 Exchange Street ; two boilers from the 
Sterns Manufacturing Company of Erie, Fa., and a large blower sy.s- 
tem by the 15. K. .Sturtevant Company of Boston, are the principal 
features of the jjlani. 

CUib men are good livers, and a club so well appointed in other 
respects as the Eureka must needs have a kitchen with every modern 
convenience. C. W. Trotter & Son, 46 North Clinton Street, Roch- 
ester, attended largely to this portion of the building, putting in 
a twelve foot, three-fire French range, cojjper cooking utensils, a 
carving-table, and a thirty-inch broiler. The refrigerators, meat boxes, 
and cool rooms were built in by the Wickes Refrigerator Company of 
Chicago. The firm of (ioggan & Knowles, 50 Franklin Street, 
Rochester, did all the sheet metal work, and roofing. 

One more feature needs to be mentioned, — the bowling-alleys and 
gymnasium in the basement ; the former of the kind patented by Emil 
Reiskey of Rochester, and made with the gymnasium appliances by 
the Narragansett .Machine Company of Providence, R. I. 

The Eureka Club is about twelve years old, and has always been a 
prosperous, well-managed organization. It has at present 159 active 
members, comprising the best and most prominent of Rochester Jew- 
isJ! citizens. Mr. Abram Dinkelspiel is the president. 

\>rESSRS. FISKE, HO.MES & CO. treated the delegates to the 
-'- National Builders" Convention to a very fine display of their 

specialties. There were three very noticeable things in the way of 
faience that attracted marked attention. — a large mantelpiece, a 
panel similar to the ones used in the Reading terminal at Philadel- 
phia, and a frieze and ceiling decoration. Smaller pieces were advan- 
tageously displayed, so that, with the faience counters and railings 
that are a part of their ottice furniture, this material received a good 
demonstration of its possibilities. In the line of fire-Hashed and Pom- 
peiian terra-cotta some interesting exhibits were shown, and the appli- 
cation of Pompeiian bricks in special sizes to the construction of fire- 
places was illustrated by several carefully built examples in varying 
sli.ipes and sizes. 



S Porous I 

Co. . . 

Offices, 874 Broadway, 

Corner 18th Streer, 

New York. 

Telephone 685 — iS'ih. 





Keasbey's Landing, N. J. 

Branches at 

Boston, Philadelphia, Buffalo, Washington, Toronto. 




A department devoted to methods of erecting and equipping buildings to prevent loss from fire. 


/\ T the banquet given by the Chicago Association to the National 
■^^- Bricl< Manufacturers' Association, the following toast by Mr. 
W. L. B. Jenney of Chicago calls for a leading place in this depart- 
ment : — 

' ' Mr Toast master, and Gentlemen of the National Brick Manufac- 
turers'' Association, — 'What is a brick?' was the favorite question 
with a celebrated French professor of engineering, whom I once knew. 
His students soon ' caught on ' to the only answer that the old gentle- 
man would accept, under any circumstances. 

" ' A brick is a parallelopipedon of baked earth.' Any other form 
was terra-cotta. For him there was no such thing as an ornamental brick. 

" I am informed that your society entertains a much broader view, 
and admits in its membership all the manufacturers of clay for build- 
ing purposes. Those of you who are not so fortunate as to be resi- 
dents of Chicago no doubt have remarked sundry peculiarities in our 
city. Most notable, perhaps, is the extreme modesty of the Chicago 
citizen. This is no joke. 

"When a Chicago capitalist or a Chicago syndicate decide to erect 
a big sky-scraper, they do not brag about it for months, attracting 
attention to themselves on account of their wealth and their enterpri/.e. 
Their modesty is such that the first intimation they give the pub- 
lic is a notice in the real estate column of the Sunday papers of a 
transfer of a big block of property, a cut and description of the build- 
ing, and the name of the fortunate architect. 

" The next morning, when that architect reaches his office, he will 
find waiting for him the representatives of the brick manufacturers of 
the neighborhood, each anxious, then and there, to make a contract 
for the brick of that building. 

"Chicago is always short on time. We cannot afford to put a lot 
of stone-cutters at work pecking away at big blocks of granite, and 
spending two or tliree years in the erection of a building. The carry- 
ing charges arc so enormous, consisting often of the interest on more 
than two millions of dollars, besides taxes, insurance, etc., that the 
whole thing must be done in twelve months from the turning out of 
the old tenants, the tearing down of the old structure, the erection of 
the new, to the installing of the new tenants, that a revenue may 
begin. We must have materials that can be manufactured by machin- 
ery ; great quantities in a very short time. Clay and steel adapt them- 
selves most admirably to these requirements. We must have a style 
of construction that can be erected rapidly, and so arranged that if the 
terra-cotta of the lower stories is not ready, which is usually the case 
on account of the excess of work in these stories in the shape of columns 
and other ornamentation, the setting of the terra-cotta can commence 
in the second or third stories without waiting for those below. The 
Chicago steel skeleton construction meets these requirements. 

" In these tall buildings the skeleton is of steel. The walls, the 
floors, the partitions, are carried story by story, each story indepen- 
dently on the columns. The carrying lintels and brackets are wrapped 
around with clay in the shape of ornamental string courses and medal- 
lions. Terra-cotta pilasters cover the exterior columns. The plain 
surfaces are filled in between with pressed brick or terra-cotta ashlar. 
The whole is backed up with clay in the shape of common brick. The 
floors are of steel beams filled in between with hollow clay arches. The 
partitions are of clay tile. The fire-proofing is of clay. The whole is 
cemented together with another form of clay, for cement is little more 
than clay roasted and ground. So that we are entering upon a new 
building era, — an era of clay and steel. There was a stone age, — an 
age of savagery. Then followed a bronze age, — an age of barbarism. 
Then came the iron age, — the age of civilization. And now we enter 
upon an age of steel and clay, — an age of science, an age of advanced 
civilization, in which the technic arts are making most enormous strides. 

" These great buildings of clay and steel arc in every respect 
superior to the old style of masonry construction. They are fire-proof, 
cyclone-proof, and earthquake-proof. They are very substantial, and, 
moreover, are economical. These buildings are calculated and de- 
signed with tlie same science, the material is inspected with the same 
care, the construction is superintended with the same thoroughness, as 
in a great railway bridge of the first order across the Mississippi or 
Niagara. To some extent these buildings resemble the human 
figure. The bones and the sinews are of steel, the flesh and the 
ornamental exterior of clay. All the art, all the architecture, and all 
the beauty are in the clay. That this society should have chosen 
rather the beautiful exterior instead of the bones of the structure is 
easy to comprehend ; one has only to glance around the room. By 
way of illustration, permit me to say that I am sure that there is not 
one of you but what would choose rather the rosy cheeks and coral 
lips of a beautiful, blushing maiden in preference to her bones." 

'TpHE Wall Street Daily News says that cheap building materials, 
*■ principally those which go to make up a fireproof building, are caus- 
ing an epidemic of tall office and apartment buildings. Ten years ago 
a strictly fireproof building would cost fully two dollars per cubic foot. 
But, with improvements in manufacture, the cost of steel for the frame- 
work and hard or porous terra-cotta for covering has steadily dwindled 
until the cost is now only about thirty-five or forty cents per cubic foot. 
Taking Mr. Kidder's recent article in the American Architect as author- 
ity, this is an adequate figure for a strictly fireproof building, that is not 
extravagantly decorated on interior and exterior. Of such buildings we 
can select, as fair examples, the Auditorium, Chicago, costing thirty- 
six cents ; the Stock Exchange in the same city, 33.2 cents ; the Schiller 
theatre, also in Chicago, 30.8 cents. These are all by Adler & Sullivan, 
who, like other prominent Chicago architects, are past-masters in the art 
of fireproof construction. Taking these as a basis, it is not unreasonable 
to jjlace the cost of the average steel frame fireproof building at thirty 
cents ; for it is not likely that materials will increase in cost. On the 
other hand, it is more than likely that their cost will be still further re- 
duced. According to Mr. Kidder's figures, this is only twice the cost of a 
good-sized brick house with ordinary finish. A house, however, could 
be rendered practically fireproof with much less expense than a large 
office building, provided special materials did not have to be made. 

As yet, however, judging from published lists of various fireproof- 
ing companies, only an occasional residence has been built of fireproof 
materials. In the construction of residences porous terra-cotta is 
particularly suitable. It is extremely light, a non-conductor, can be 
cut with edged tools, and holds nails and screws. As a protection to 
wooden construction it is admirable, and it can be made in slaljs or 
boards, which can be cut to fit any desired space, and nailed into 
place, the plastering covering and protecting the nails. 

Porous terra-cotta seems easily enough made, but those who 
attempt its manufacture with ordinary brick clay are pretty certain to 
meet with failure. The successful manufacturers wse. fre clay vi\\.\\ 
.some combustible material, usually sawdust. With a clay that 
vitrifies at a low heat there is danger that the combustion of the sawdust 
will generate heat sufficient to vitrify easily burning clays, and the 
product will not possess the desired spongy or porous character. We 
firmly believe that thorough methods of fireproof construction will 
extend in a short time to the better class of residences. In large ware- 
houses, where it is of the greatest importance, the tendency is still to 
reduce expense by the use of certain methods of slow-burning con- 
struction. These are almost as expensive, if carefully carried out, as 
thorough fireproof construction ; and they seldom serve to save the 
building when a fire once gets started. It can be said in their favor 
that they are less a menace to surrounding property, but they are seldom 
successful in saving themselves or their contents from destruction. 




TT 7]C were <;lad to note at tlic convention that the subject of 
* * enamelled bricks received a good share of attention, and much 
general interest was shown in the discussions that followed upon the 
subject ; also the disposition of our manufacturers to enter the field 
with an article e(|ual in all respects to that of foreign make. The 
Tifiany I'ressed lirick Company of Chicago are turning out an enamel 
brick that is receiving very favorable comment, being white and clear, 
with a highly finished surface and possessing great durability. They 
guarantee the brick equal in every way to any manufactured, not ex- 
cepting the imported article. 

IT is encouraging to note the increased popularity which fireproof 
construction is earning for itself, its use being extended to nearly 
all grades of buildings. 

In response to the demand from the architects and owners for 
fireproofing adapted to residential purposes, the manufacturers are 
putting forth some new ideas that are meeting with de.served favor. 
We have had our attention called to the new one-inch hollow tile for 
partitions, etc., that the Pioneer Fireproof Construction Company are 
now putting on the market. These tiles are designed especially for 
residential work and flats where economy in space and cost is desired. 
The company report a rapidly growing demand for them. 

WE note that the architects are giving more attention generally to 
selection of colors in mortar, and securing .some very pleasing 
effects by proper choice. We feel that a great deal can be done in 
this direction, and are glad to know that it is interesting the profes- 
sion more than formerly. 

.Some very fine specimens in mortar color are Ijeing put upon the 
market by the Ricketson Mineral Taint Company of Milwaukee. Wis. 
They claim absolute fastness of color in all their goods : that their 

material can be handled forty-eight hours after mixture, not harden- 
ing in that time. The popularity of their brand would seem to war- 
rant the claim. Besides the straight colors, they make a feature of 
special shades manufactured to order. 

A handsome shade of their buff mortar color appears in the 
structure of the Eureka Club House, the half-tone print of which will 
be found on page 29. 

/^N page V ap])ears the advertisement of tlie Simpson Hrick Press 
^^ Company. This concern are the manufacturers of the cele- 
brated Simpson presses, and notwithstanding the financial depression 
report business as being good. They have recently con.strucled sev- 
eral large plants in the East, and are figuring on many more. 

Those intending to embark in the dry press process of making brick 
would do well to correspond with this firm, as their machinery is well 
known to be of the highest ijuality. As further evidence of the .superi- 
ority of their line, they were given nine points of advancement in dry 
press brick machinery by the official judge on thai class of machinery 
at the World's Fair. 

XT rE have recently had the pleasure of visiting the Chemical Sand 
* *^ Brick Works, owned by Mr. W. H. Lathrop, of Racine, Wis. 
It is a model plant of its kind, having all the latest improvements in 
machinery for the production of chemical sand brick, and this past 
year has turned out some half million handsome specimens of the 
same. Mr. Lathrop claims for bricks all the virtues of a de- 
sirable building brick, laying particular stress on the quality of the 
increasing hardness of the bricks with lapse of lime. He further 
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tract's "Brick and Marble," illustrated by over 200 illustrations, which in future will be largely photographs, will be two of several strong features of The Brick 
uiLDER for 1894. 



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Vol. III. 


No. 4. 


By periTiisbion of The Ciaytvorker. 

Messrs. Jenney & Mundie, Architects, Chicago. 

TTTHEN "skeleton construction'* is mentioned, Chicago appears 
^^ to be naturally associated with the term. That system seems 
to have had its greatest development in this city, and, too, in an aston- 
ishingly short period of time. The first building to embody the idea 
was the Home Insurance Building, which was built in 1883. From 
the windows of its twelfth story can be counted to-day more than 
thirty office buildings, all ten or more stories high, at least ten of them 

having their fa9ades entirely of terra-cotta (save in some cases the 
first two or three .stories, which are stone), and all of them employing 
in a greater or less degree terra-cotta cornices, band courses, sills, 
lintels, etc., in the construction of their exterior walls. 

So far as Chicago is concerned the extended use of terra-cotta as 
a building material is due to the almost necessity for its application 
in " skeleton construction." The Brickbuilder will publish details 



later, illustrating the methods of construction of modern office build- 
ings varying from the old system of heavy walls through various 
stages to the latest most highly organized steel stnicture covered from 
sidewalk to roof with a veneer of terra-cotta. 

Terra-cotta is such an adaptable material for veneering steel con- 
struction, it is so easily moulded to fit an angle or an I beam, that even 
when pressed brick curtain walls and piers are used the natural re- 
course is to terra-cotta for sills, lintels, and mullions. This we say 
from a constructive standpoint, without considering terra-cotta as a 
medium for architectural possibilities not yet realized. 

The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of terra-cotta 
for minor buildings, taking a residence as an example. What more 

The foundation walls of this house are rubble limestone, coated 
outside with composition. The interior floors and partitions are or- 
dinary wood joist and stud construction. The roof is of stained 
wood shingles, though by preference it would have been Spanish tile. 
The ridges, hi]3 rolls, chimneys, and the entire exterior down to the 
ground level, are terra-cotta, excepting the steps, which are stone. 
Even the basement coal window sill, designed to be stone, was actu- 
ally made in terra-cotta. 

As regards the construction of this terra-cotta house, nothing 
could be more simple. The terra-cotta was made in the form of four- 
inch ashlar, and built up just ahead of an eight-inch brick backing to 
which it was firmly bonded by means simply of occasional brick pro- 

By permission of The Claytvorker. 

VIEW OF PORCH, RESIDENCE OF W. D. G.\TES, HILLSD.\LE, ILL. (See detail on Plate 25.) 
Messrs. Jknnkv & Munuik, .\rciiitf.cts, Chicago. 

natural than for the president of a terra-cotta company to say, as did 
Mr. W. D. Gates of the American Terra-Cotta Company : "Why 
shouldn't 1 build my of terra-cotta, instead of stone or brick?" 
No good negative answer could be found to that c|uestion, and a terra- 
cotta house in the charming suburb, Hinsdale, was the result. Illustra- 
tions are published herewith showing the exterior appearance of the 
house, together with some details of its constniction. 

If this house were for any other than a terra-cotta manufacturer, 
the cost would be naturally one of the first questions. Terra-cotta 
facing at present costs more than pressed brick, but as compared with 
Buff Bedford, the cheapest, best, and most commonly used cut stone 
in Chicago, the same design, executed in terra-cotta, costs ten to 
twenty-live per cent less than in the Bufl^ Bedford limestone. 

jecting into the cellular backs of the ashlar. Each projecting brick 
was bedded in a corner of a cell, so that one side and one edge of 
each britk has a mortar bearing. With the exception of these bond 
brick, the hollow terra-cotta remained without filling, thus gaining 
all the advantage of a hollow wall. The plain blocks were made in 
sizes averaging seven inches and ten and a half inches in height, of 
alternate courses respectively, by about eighteen inches in length. 
A rule is to make the vertical dimension a multiple of two and a half 
inches, so that it will suit the ordinary brick backing. It is considered 
best to keep the greatest blocks within the dimensions of a two-foot 
cube, although the veranda column shafts were nicely made in single 
pieces (the shells being one and a half inches thick), and often still 
larger pieces are made, without too perceptible shrinkage and warping. 




Wit// Line 
IP/an of -Soffit at Centre 

Porc/r ^ — 

PL/]fi H ^LEvATion or rj/iiry HfiTM/iCE Door 

For special cases of construction, where rolled beams or cast 
lintels were desirable, nothing could be adapted so easily as terra-cotta. 
For example, see the head of a second-story window, a section of which 
is shown in Fig. i (Plate 27). Where an arched head was allowable, 
the terra-cotta as well as the brick backing, each easily carried it- 
self, — see third-story window in Fig. i . The arches of the front 
veranda, where there is little superimposed weight, carry themselves ; 
care being taken, of course, to counteract thrusts by means of suitable 
ties. Wood scantling were thrust down into the shafts of the corner 
columns (iron angles would have been better), which, acting as verti- 
cal beams, required no horizontal tie below the crown of the arches ; 
the wood plate under the rafters being the only tie. The vertical tie 
rods, shown in Fig. 5 (Plate 27), were omitted. The veranda 
rafters were well bolted to the main walls. The veranda columns, 
arches, and balustrade is a nice piece of work. The balustrade required 
special care, as it is open work and finished both inside and outside. 
In the case of the rear porch or loggia (Fig. 6, Plate 27), where a 
heavy load had to be carried over the arch, steel beams could be used 
sunk into the voussoirs in a way quite impracticable with any other 
material than terra-cotta. 

In deciding on the color of terra-cotta for his house, Mr. Gates 
tried a bold experiment with spotted or mottled surface. Spots of 
black, brown, and white were scattered thickly over a warm buff 
ground, giving a raindrop effect. All of the terra-cotta was treated in 
this way before going into the kiln. The general effect is surprisingly 
successful. Mr. Gates considers that this mottled effect and a combed 
or otherwise roughened surface are two important considerations for 

plain ashlar work. With 
a plain tint on a smooth 
surface, the play of light 
reveals the slightest 
warping from a perfect plane and unpleasantly shows every inac- 
curacy of the joints. These objections, which might obtain in work 
on a fine residence to be viewed close to the eye, were entirely 
olwiated by thfe above expedients. 

Terra-cotta can be made in colors of a wide range (one con- 
tractor has a sample list of two hundred shades), from almost pure 
white through the yellows, grays, browns, to dark red ; it is strong 
and yet light jn weight ; it can be bolted and anchored with ease ; it 
can receive a semi-glaze which will keep out moisture without injuring 
its appearance ; in short, terra-cotta is so " ductile," as some one has 
said, and it is so easily moulded to suit the designers' ideas in any style, 
that there is surely a pleasant future for it in residence work. The 
architect can visit the artistic modeller in the factory, criticise and 
change any of the ornament, and even have the individuality of his 
own thumb-nail appear in the surface of the finished building. It is 
to be hoped that the artistic standard of terra-cotta work may be put 
upon a high plane ; that improved processes and constant cheapening 
will come rather in fire-clay floor arches, and partitions, so that fire- 
proof dwellings may become more common ; that the sleeping family 
may be as safe at home as the insurance policy in the incombustible 
office building; and that then " burned earth" may be a thing of use, 
a thing of beauty, and a joy for a lifetime. 
Chicago, April 11, 1894. D. Everett Waid. 





Translated from the French of Aguste Choisy by 


'TpHE edifices of antiquity have been often described from an archi- 

tectural point of view, but the details of their construction are 
still but vaguely known. When during the first years of the fifteenth 
century architects reinstated in honor the ruins of these long-forgotten 
monuments, they thought first of all to create a new art by imitating 
classic models. In accordance with this idea they chiefiy observed 
the forms, the proportions, and the ornaments which they wished to 
revive by new applications ; and the impulse given by them to archce- 
ological research is felt up to the present time : their pupils, following 
the way opened to them, have turned over the soil of Italy and of 
Greece to continue the work of restoration thus begun. During 
three entire centuries discoveries have multiplied with extreme rapidity, 
but the spirit of investigation was not sensibly changed ; it stopped at 
the surface of the monuments, without studying the skeleton, and the 
progress consisted principally in a better appreciation and a better 
knowledge of the exterior beauties of antique architecture. 

To-day the results of so much labor are almost completely classi- 
fied ; the scattered fragments have resumed their places, and without 
great effort we can picture to ourselves the monuments of Rome and 
Athens in all the splendor of their primitive decoration. To complete 
the undertaking of our forerunners, it remains to make known the 
structure of the edifices of which they so learnedly interpreted the 
forms. Without doubt their writings throw .some light on the means 
of construction ; but the indications they offer in this regard are 
ordinarily very summary. They are given nearly always incidentally as 
isolated facts, as simple remarks connected by no theory. These 
general glim])ses suffice to arouse our curiosity, but are' far from 
satisfying it ; they rather make us understand the utility of a special 
study in which the practical rules which were observed in antiquity 
would be collected and explained with more exactitude and develop- 

Such a review of abandoned methods would offer more than that 
undefined interest which is attached to the beginnings of all human in- 
dustry. The construction, such as it is shown by the scattered details 
in descriptions of ruins, seems as ingenious as it is strong ; it sums up a 
long and laborious experience consecrated by monuments which have 
undergone the test of centuries ; it permits us to appreciate the extent 
and the nature of the resources made use of by the ancients, the de- 
velopment the applied sciences had attained in their day ; in a word, 
the circumstances of antique construction form part of the social his- 
tory of the peoples who have preceded us, and in more than one respect 
the questions they raise merit from us serious attention. 

In the treatise which follows, I will touch on some of these ques- 
tions, insisting especially on those which have relation to Roman art. 
With the Greeks the analysis of construction would be so involved with 
that of the architecture that it would be difficult to separate them so 
as to examine them apart ; but the difficulty ceases when one examines 
the monuments raised under the domination of Rome. Their authors 
troubled themselves little enough about refinements of form ; the 
arrangement of plans, the choice of methods of executions, was better 
suited to the entirely practical turn of their minds. As if they felt them- 
selves incapable of embracing, as did the Greeks, architecture in its 
entirety, and following out together the various operations it com- 
prises, they established a well-defined diflerence between structure, in 
which they were masters, and decoration, for whicii they affected a 
disdainful indifference. They left to others the task of ornamenting 
their edifices, charging themselves with the arrangement and building 

» See ndvertitiiiy page ix. 

of them, two problems which they made their own, treating them 
in a manner truly Roman. The way they imprinted, in the extent of 
their vast works, the traces of their character, needs, and customs has 
often been remarked ; what they did in the art of building is less 
known ; -but here one must expect to meet the stamp of their 
organizing genius, and the use of processes without precedent in 
accordance with the exceptional nature of their resources. 

In fact, the vestiges of construction which date back to good 
epochs of Roman art show arrangements which it would be hard to 
find even indicated in monuments of another period ; it suffices to 
observe one of those vaults which denote by their presence the points 
to which Roman empire extended, to be struck with the series of 
details which establish between ancient methods and our own such 
profound differences. These are on every hand : arches built in the 
thickness of the masonry; chains of supports of unusual forms; 
strengthenings of divers sorts, formerly hidden in the middle of stone 
work or veiled by plaster, which the decay of the edifices reveals to 
us by portions often disfigured or incomplete. What functions did 
these curious ruins fill? Of what use were these big, roughly con- 
stnicted arches swallowed up in the masses of the vaults, these skele- 
tons of brickwork which often checker the surfaces? Hy what rules 
and with what object were these members of this plastered framework 
combined in the body of the masonry, always light, put up with little 
trouble, hastily, and without precision? Nothing in our own construc- 
tion corresponds to these auxiliary works ; and nevertheless, judging 
their importance by the universality of their employment, they seem to 
have played a capital part in the economy of Roman building. With- 
out doubt they were not there for ornament ; they were too irregular 
and put up with a too evident haste for one to have thought of leaving 
them apparent ; they constituted a kind of interior framework for the 
building where practical ideas were manifested the most freely and the 
most sincerely because there were no exigencies of architecture to 
complicate or hinder their expression. Thus the rules of the art of 
l)uilding are written, so to speak, in these singular works; and if one 
had to choose certain details to characterize the Roman's methods of 
construction, no partial study of their edifices would be better suited 
to this object than that of the ribs with wliich they braced their 

These ideas struck me forcibly the day I found myself for the first 
time in the presence of the ruins of ancient Rome, and they have 
served as a point of dejjarture for my researches among ancient monu- 
ments. It seems to me that the history of these monuments, regarded 
from the point of view of an engineer, could easily be written and 
set forth without confusion, if to establish a system in the work one 
profited by the close connection which in general joins the details of 
Roman construction to the principles which govern the building of 
vaults. Kspecially placing my.self at this point of view, and, more- 
over, guided and sustained by the counsels and good wishes of a mas- 
ter who united to the science of an engineer the talents of an archi- 
tect, I endeavored in a series of voyages whicli the administration 
des potits et chaiisst^es kindly encouraged, or prescribed, to gather to- 
gether the principal documents likely to throw light on the technical 
questions which relate to the monuments of Roman art. It is the re- 
sults of this research which I publish to-day. Without undertaking to 
reconstruct in all its parts a lost system of construction, I shall try at 
least to describe various details at i)resent too imperfectly compre- 
hended, to give an account of processes of which the significance has 
seemed clear to me, and to simply call attention to those whose mean- 
ing I have not fully grasped. 

To tell the truth, I have thought of writing a history of con- 
stmction among the ancients than of furnishing the documents for 
such a work ; and I had before all to be on my guard, in a case where 
observation is so often so delicate a matter, against documents ot 
doui)lhil origin and capable of misleading a critic. Therefore I have 
imposed on myself the express condition of citing no examples without 
having personally established their exactitude or without clearly indi- 
cating the sources from which I have drawn them. Sometimes it has 
been necessary to complete my observations by hypotheses, but in no 


case have I done tliis without making the point wliere observation 
ceases and hypothesis begins very clear. 

As to theoretic explanations, I should have liked to have sur- 
rounded them with the same guarantees, confining myself to advanc- 
ing only those confirmed by ancient writings ; but this verification has 
not always been possible and the writer on whom I counted most to 
guide me has too often failed me. Vitruvius speaks of vaults only 
incidentally, in a vague manner, and with a brevity which is but little 
in accord with the importance of the subject. It is, in fact, because at 
his time vaulted construction had by no means reached the develop- 
ment it afterwards attained ; no vault of very great span and built on 
the system of rubble masonry, which later was so widespread, can 
with certainty be attributed to an epoch anterior to that of Vitruvius ; 
the author of the only ancient treatise on construction remaining to us 
assisted only toward the end of his life at those colossal enterprises 
which recall to us the names of Augustus and Agrippa, and which 
marked the beginning of a new era in Roman architecture; he himself 
had no part in the magnificent impulse which produced the Baths of 
Agrippa and the Pantheon of Rome, and his book, the work of his 
old age, offers us less a picture of the innovations of a contemjjorary 
epoch than a souvenir of the procedure in use during the last days of 
the Republic, — a sort of return toward the methods he had applied 
in the course of his long career. 

Vitruvius excepted, the ancient writers do not treat construction 
with enough detail for one to have reason to expect from them any- 
thing really useful. Pliny, given above all to speculative observations, 
develops less the methods followed in the use of materials than the 
natural history of the materials themselves. Frontinus regards con- 
struction more as a director of works than as an architect ; and 
though he may often mention vaulted works built under his direction, 
he nowhere enters into the details of the process. There still remain, 
perhaps, writings on Roman agriculture or on military arts, in which 
are found short descriptions relative to building ; but the constructions 
mentioned have too special an object, and the writings, which treat 
of them briefly, can only throw a doubtful light on the general 
principles of practical architecture. Moreover, the rare allusions 
which they make to ordinary methods are very obscure, and many 
would remain, I think, unintelligible, if the ruins were not there to 
serve as commentaries. 

The almost absolute silence of writers forced me to explain 
theoretically the facts I have observed ; but the explanatory hypotheses 
have fortunately shown characteristics of great truth, and the perfect 
clearness which the ancients have shown in all their applications of 
the art of building fills out, to a certain extent, the blanks in the trea- 
tises they have left us. Strictly economical calculations were to 
me manifestly evident as the principal cause of the various charac- 
teristics of ancient construction, and in spite of the very natural 
distrust with which I was inspired by such an hypothesis applied to 
the monuments of the great IJoman power, it constantly forced itself 
on me at the end of my studies as the inevitable conclusion to which 
I must come in spite of myself. 

Thenceforth I perceived that one accustoms himself too easily to 
look upon the Romans as a people who, disposing of immense riches, 
had never to consider material means, and who could disdain without 
a scruple the expedients which are sometimes suggested to us by the 
insufficiency of our resources. The passion for large things assuredly 
was not a stranger to their enterprises, but the genius of the Romans 
knew how to reconcile the vastness of projects with a facility of execu- 
tion. The more closely I examined their monuments, the more it 
seemed to me impossible not to recognize the employment of a thou- 
sand artifices, having for their object, if not the reduction of skilled 
labor, at least a simplification of it. While architects have aimed in 
their conceptions of the ensemble at a majesty of effect and an endurance 
worthy of the power and eternity of the Roman people, an evident eye 
to rigorous saving guided them in the execution of every part ; they 
always aspired to achieve by the use of processes, as easy as they were 
simple, the double merit of perfect solidity and incomparable gran- 

This observation led me to look at Roman construction as having 
a practical aspect I did not at first suspect ; as the Romans sought 
economy in their edifices perhaps we might gain something in reviving 
some of their processes. Every day we borrow from the ancients forms 
of decoration ; apparently they have something to teach us in the art 
of building as well, and the history of their edifices more completely 
known may interest the future of the art of construction as well as that 
of architecture. This conjecture seems incontestable, but it is not 
absolute, and to appreciate the importance and degree of fidelity which 
in these days would be allowable in the imitation of ancient processes 
one should take account of the differences made by the interval of fif- 
teen centuries between the Roman resources and our own. I shall not 
speak here of the slaves the Romans so frequently employed in build- 
ing; they had, especially in the provinces, a resource still greater and 
more ordinary, which was to use on the public buildings that part of the 
population of the empire subject to public labor. They thus recruited 
in corv^es as many laborers as they wished to employ. But these im- 
provised workmen, torn from their habitual occupations and dragged 
by force to the works, were generally found very ill prepared for their 
new role. The Romans did not hesitate to put them to any fatigue 
whatever, but they were obliged to apportion the difficulties of their 
tasks according to their inexperience ; it was neces.sary to demand from 
them purely physical efforts only, and to reduce as far ;is possible the 
part left to their intelligence and dexterity. Thanks to the progress 
of civilization, such resources and the methods which facilitated their 
employment are now forbidden us. 

Moreover, the methods employed by the Romans have not all 
this exceptional character ; they do not all present such close correla- 
tion with a social system which ceased long ago to weigh upon the 
world, and besides these methods of execution, the study of which 
henceforward belongs exclusively to history, we find among the 
Romans quite a number of artifices of less special character which 
may be employed in our own time as they were at the time of the 
Cassars. Such are the expedients which the ancients invented, as we 
shall see, to reduce the importance of the auxiliary works ; centrings, 
for example, or scaffoldings, and, in general, those expensive acces- 
sories which hamper the progress of the work and increase its price. 
The adoption of any complex processes or roundabout ways was 
repugnant to the Roman mind. Physical labor cost them little, and 
nowhere in the durable parts of their buildings have they been saving 
of it, but nowhere have they expended it for temporary work without 
regret. The rule which they followed was, on the contrary, to 
utilize for permanent work, and in the simplest way, all the resources 
drawn on for the construction of their edifices ; this very elemen- 
tary rule will account for the greater part of the artifices peculiar to 
Roman art which we are to show. 

So, independent of the methods whose employment we cannot 
renew without placing ourselves in formal opposition to the economic 
system of our times, we meet in the old traditions of the art of build- 
ing with processes whose merit does not result exclusively from their 
appropriateness to the people who used them, but whose generality 
permits them to be applied to new uses. Still the general principles 
followed by the Romans are very few in number ; the reapplication of 
the resultant processes will alwa3s be subjected to certain restric- 
tions, and to use them for our purposes it will often be neces.sary to 
modify them more or less profoundly. But even if imitation should 
be forbidden us, these processes are well worth studying. One who ap- • 
plied himself exclusively to their form would have but an imperfect 
knowledge of the monuments of antiquity, and a description of these 
monuments, from the point of view of construction, will aid at least in 
filling up some of the gaps in the history of a justly celebrated archi- 
tecture. ( To be contiiuted. ) 

'"p^HE principal object of our greatly reduced club rates, which are 
*■ given on page ii, is to enable draughtsmen and students, by 
sending their subscriptions through some one of their number, to get 
the paper at a very low price. We therefore request architects to call 
the attention of their draughtsmen to our club rates. 





( Continued. ) 

" But now 'tis pass'd, 
That turbulent chaos; and the promised land 
Lies at my feet in alt its loveliness! 
l"o him who starts up from a terrible dream. 
And lo, the sun is shining and the lark 
Singing aloud for joy, to him is not 
.Such sudden ravishment as now I (eel, 
At the first glimpses of fair Italy." 

— Rogers. 


'TpHE situation of Chiavenna 
■*■ is eminently beautiful : in 
a deep valley surrounded on all 
sides by mountains whose slopes 
are covered with soft and luxu- 
riant foliage of oak and chest- 
nut, and where every available 
open space is devoted to trellised 
vineyards, it contrasts strongly 
with the pine-covered hills so 
lately passed on the northern 
slopes of the Alps; placed, too, 
at the confluence of two streams, 
— the Meira and the Lira, — it 
rejoices in the constant, rushing 
sound of many waters. 

It was only necessary to 
move out of the shade of our 
hotel into the melancholy piazza 
in which it stands, to discover 
that an Italian sun lighted up 
the deep-blue sky ; and a walk 
to the principal church, dedi- 
cated in honor of St. Lawrence, 
a stroll through the narrow 
streets, and a rather toilsome 
ascent through a vineyard formed 
upon a rock which towers up be- 
hind a kind of ruined castle, and 
from which a capital view is 
obtained of the singular and 
beautiful cul-de-sac in which the 
town is planted, sufficiently con- 
vinced us of its power. 

The church of St. Lawrence 
is entered from a large, oblong 
cloister, in one angle of the 
space, enclosed by which rises a 
tall campanile, its simple form, 
and its arcaded belfry full of 

musical bells, contrasting well with the outline of the hills, which over- 
hang and hem it in. On the east side of the cloister are the church, 
an octagonal baptistery, and a bone-house, all ranged side by side, and 
opening into it, and the latter curious as an example of the extent 
to which the people of Chiavenna amuse themselves by arranging skulls 
and arm bones into all kinds of religious and heraldic devices, and 
with labels to mark the names of their former owners. The tout en- 
semble is picturesque in its effect, and the cool, pleasant shade of the 
cloister, with the view of the church and its tall campanile, and irregu- 
larly grouped buildings looking brilliantly white in the clear sunshine, 
was very pleasing.* 

* Probably most travellers who pass by Chiavenna are now on their way to or from the 
Engadin, by the beautiful Maloja Pass. They will do well before they reach the top of the 
Pass to notice on their left the ruined remains of a Gothic chapel of the fifteenth century, 
which may, I suppose, aspire to the honor of being at a greater height above the sea than 
any other Gothic church in Europe. Its architectural merit is not great, but still it has a 
certain value, as showing how well a simple little Gothic church looks among the wildest 
mountain scenery. 


Italian beggars, persevering, and, at any rate in appearance, very 
devout, did their best to annoy us here and everywhere when we ven- 
tured to stop to examine or admire anything; antl Italian beggars are 
certainly both in pertinacity and in filth about the most unpleasant of 
their class. 

My voiturier gave me a lesson worth learning, and not perhaps 
unworthy of note for other unsuspicious travellers. We had a written 
contract to Chiavenna, and thence to Colico he had agreed verbally 
to take us for a certain sum ; before we started I found, however, 
that he intended to charge us three times as much as we had agreed 
upon, and as very luckily we found a diligence on the point of starting, 
we secured places in the cabriolet at its back, from which we had the 

best possible position for seeing 
the views, and so left him in 
the lurch, with divers admoni- 
tions to behave himself more 
honestly for the future. 

At ten we left, and had a 
very enjoyable ride to Colico. 
The valley, however, ' bore sad 
traces of the havoc made by 
the inundations of the Meira, 
and of the storm of the previous 
night. We soon reached the 
shores of the little Lakeof Riva, 
along whose banks our road took 
us sometimes in tunnels, some- 
times on causeways built out 
into the water, until at last we 
reached the valley up which runs 
the Stelvio road, and then, after 
passing along the whole length 
of a straight road lined on each 
side with a weari.some and end- 
less row of poplars, we were at 
Colico. Here we prudently 
availed ourselves of the oppor- 
tunity of an hour's delay in the 
departure of the boat for an 
early dinner, and, then embark- 
ing, waited patiently the pleas- 
ure of our captain. 

The scenery of I^ike Como 
has been so often extravagantly 
])raised that 1 was quite prepared 
to be disappointed : but for the 
whole distance from Colico to 
Lecco it is certainly on the whole 
more striking than any lake 
scenery I have seen. The moun- 
tains at its head are extremely 
irregular and picturescjue. and 
throughout its whole length there is great change and variety. In this 
respect it contrasts favorably with most other lakes, and I certainly 
think that not even in the Lake of Lucerne is there any one view so 
grand as that w hich one has looking up from within a short distance of 
the head of Como over the Lake of Riva to the mountains closing in the 
Stelvio. and rising nobly above the sources of the Meira and the Lira. 
Somewhat, too, may be said of the innumerable villages and 
white villas with which the banks of the lake are studded ; they give a 
sunny, inhabited, and cheerful feeling to the whole scene, and, re- 
flected in the deep-blue lake, in those long-drawn lines of flaky white, 
which are seen in no other water to such perfection, add certainly 
some beauty to the general view. 

One of these villages, Gravidona. within half an hour's sail of 
Colico, ought not to be left unvisited by any one who cares about 

Close to its little harbor stand two churches, side by side, one 



The exterior is best ex- 

an oblong basilica, the other a baptistery of, as it seems to me, such 
great interest that I give illustrations both of its plan and of its exte- 
rior. It will be seen that the dimensions are small, the total internal 
width being less than forty feet, whilst the design of the east end is 
most ingeniously contrived so as to give no less than five eastern 
apsidal recesses. There are two stair turrets in the wall, on each side 
of the western tower, which lead up to a sort of triforium passage, 
which is formed behind an arcade in the side wall of the church, and 
one of them leads also to the first floor of the tower. The triforium 
consists of an arcade of seven arches in each side of the wall. The 
three small apses at the east have each their own semi-dome, and the 
chancel, as well as all the other apsidal recesses, are similarly roofed. 
All the walls retain more or less traces of old paintings, the Coronation 
of the Blessed Virgin occupying the principal apse, and the Last Judg- 
ment the west wall. The whole church is built in white marble and 
black limestone, used in courses, or stripes, with extremely good 

The roof of this baptistery is of wood, 
plained by reference to my drawing of the 
west front. It stands on a charming site, 
with a background of lake and mountain, 
such as one seldom enjoys. There is a 
contrast here, which strikes one very 
much, between the ingenious skill of the 
planning of such a building as this and the 
rudeness of the execution of the details. 
I know nothing as to the history of Gravi- 
dona ; but it looks as though the plan came 
from the hands of men who knew some- 
thing of the church of San Vitale at Ra- 
venna, whilst its execution was left to 
the rustic skill of the masons of the 

The baptistery is dedicated to St. 
John the Baptist. Close to it, as I have 
said, stands the church of San Vincenzo, 
which, though Romanesque in its founda- 
tion, has been much modernized, and is 
now mainly interesting on account of the 
exquisite examples of late fifteenth century 
silversmiths'' work which still enrich its 
sacristy. Conspicuous among these is a 
silver processional cross. This cross is 
nearly two feet across the arms by three 
feet in height from the top of the staff. 
There is a crucifix on one side and a sit- 
ting figure of Our Lord on the other, 
figures of SS. George, Vincent, Sebastian, 

Christopher, and Victor, and Our Lord on the base or knop, and half- 
figures of the Evangelists on the arms of the cross. The ornaments 
consist of crockets bent and twisted, of blue enamels, filigree work, nielli, 
and turquoises set in the centre of dark-blue enamels. It is, in short, a 
piece of metal work which might well make a modern silversmith run 
down swiftly into the lake and drown himself in despair at the appar- 
ent impossibility in these days of rivalling such a piece of artistic and 
cunning workmanship, in spite of all our boasted progress! 

Not much less splendid is a chalice of about the same age. It 
is ten and three-quarter inches high, has a plain bowl, but knop, stem, 
and foot all most richly wrought with figures, niches, and canopies, 
and the flat surfaces filled with fine blue and white Limoges enamels. 
The paten belonging to this chalice is very large, nearly ten inches 
across, and quite plain. 

Half the passengers on the steamboat were, of course, Austrian 
soldiers and officers, the other half English or Americans, either resi- 
dent at or going to Como. We, however, stopped on the way, and, 
leaving the steamboat in the middle of the lake, after a row of about 
twenty minutes found ourselves at Varenna, a village exquisitely placed 
just where the three arms of the lake — the Como, the Lecco, and the 


Colico branches — separate, affording, whether seen from here, from 
Bellagio, or from Cadenabbia, the most lovely lake views it has ever 
been my good fortune to see. 

Here we had what seemed likely to be an endless discussion up- 
on the relative merits of a four-oared boat and a carriage as a means 
of conveyance to Lecco. We inclined to the latter; but, leaving the 
matter in the hands of an active waiter, we busied ourselves with eat- 
ing delicious fruit, admiring the tall cypresses growing everywhere 
about the shores of the lake, and watching the exquisite beauty of the 
reflections of Bellagio and the opposite mountains on the smooth 
bosom of the water. 

We were soon off again, and well satisfied to find ourselves trot- 
ting rapidly along the well-kept Stelvio road, instead of dragging 
heavily and slowly along, as one always does, with a Swiss voiturier; 
soon, however, we were to find that our driver was an exception to the 
Italian rule, and that he who wishes to travel fast must not expect to 
do so with vetturini. 

The churches which we passed were in no way remarkable ; they 
all had campanili, with the bells hung in 
the Italian fashion in the belfry windows, 
with their wheels projecting far beyond 
the line of the wall ; but they all seemed 
alike, uninteresting in their architecture, 
so that we were in no way sorry to pass 
them rapidly on our way to Lecco. This 
eastern arm of the lake, though of course 
much less travelled than the rest of its 
course, is very beautiful, and its unin- 
habited and less cultivated looking shores, 
with bold clitfs here and there rising pre- 
cipitously from the water, were seen ,to 
great advantage, with the calm, unrippled 
surface of the lake below, and the sky 
just tinged with the bright light of the sun 
before it set above. 

Lecco contains nothing to interest a 
traveller ; we had an hour to spend there 
before we could get fresh horses to take 
us on to Bergamo, and wandered about 
the quaint-looking streets, which were full 
of people — some idly enjoying them- 
selves, others selling luscious-looking fruit. 
We went into a large church not yet quite 
completed ; it was Renaissance in style, 
almost of course, and on the old plan, with 
aisles, but very ugly notwithstanding. In 
the nave was a coffin, covered with a pall 
of black and gold; six large candles stood 
by it, three on either side, and two larger than the others on each side 
of a crucifix, at the west end. The whole church revelled in compo, 
inside and out, and there was external access to a wretched bone- 
house in a crypt. 

Leaving Lecco, we had a long drive in the dark to Bergamo ; the 
night was very dark, but the air was absolutely teeming with life, and 
sounds of life ; myriads of cicale seemed to surround us, each giving 
vent to its pleasure in its own particular note and voice, with the 
greatest possible determination ; and had I not heard them, I could 
scarcely have believed it possible that such sounds could be made by 
insects, however numerous they might be. We changed horses at a 
village on the road, and went on rapidly. The old town of Ponte San 
Pietro was passed, having been taken at first to be Bergamo, and 
remembered by the sound of a troop of men singing well together as 
they passed us in the dark in one of its narrow streets, awakening 
with their voices all the echoes of the place, which, till then, had 
seemed to us to be supernaturally silent. It was eleven o'clock before 
we reached Bergamo, and, tired with our long day's work, we were 
soon in bed. 

A prodigious noise in the streets before five o'clock the next 



morning gave us the first warning that the great fair of Bergamo was in 
full swing; sleep was impossible, and so we were soon out, enjoy- 
ing the busy throng which crowxled the streets of the Horgo, in a 
before-breakfast walk : the crowd of women selling fruit, the bright 
colors of their dresses, the rich tints of stutF hung out for sale, the 
display of hairpins and other ornaments in the innumerable silversmiths' 
shops, and the noisy, laughing, talking people who animated the whole 
scene, made the narrow arcaded streets of the busy place most amusing. 

After breakfast we started at once for the Citt^, as the old city 
of liergamo is called. It stands on a lofty hill overlooking the Borgo 
San Leonardo, within whose precincts we had slept, quite distinct 
from it and enclosed within its own walls. The ascent was both 
steep and hot, but the view at the entrance gateway of the Citti over 
the flat Lombard country was very striking, and well repaid the labor 
of the ascent. This vast plain of bluish-green color, intersected in all 
directions hy rows of mulberry-trees and poplars, diversified only by 
the tall white lines of the campanili which mark every village in this 
part of Lombardy, and stretching away in the same endless level as 
far as the eye could reach, was grand, if 
only on account of its simplicity, and 
had for us all the charm of novelty. 

Through narrow and rather dirt}- 
streets, which do little credit to the 
cleanly habits of the Bergamask nobilitv , 
to whom it seems that the Citta is sacred. 
and whose palaces are, many of them, 
large and important buildings, we reached 
at last the Piazza Vecchia, around which 
is gathered almost all that in my eyes 
gives interest to Bergamo. 

Across the upper end of the Piazza 
stretches the Broletto, or town hall, sup- 
ported on open arclies, through which 
pleasant glimpses are obtained of the 
cathedral and church of Sta. Maria Mag- 
giore, which last is the great architectural 
feature of the city. 

But we must examine the Broletto 
before we go farther. And first of all, its 
very position teaches a lesson. Kormin^ 
on one side the boundary of a spacious 
piazza, on the other it faces, within a few 
feet only, the church of Sta. Maria Mag- 
giore, and abuts at one end upon the 
west front of the Duomo. It is to this 
singularly close — even huddled — group- 
ing that much of the exquisite beauty of the whole is owing. 
No doubt Sta. Maria and the original cathedral were built first, 
and then the architect of the Broletto, not fearing — as one would 
fear now — to damage what has been done before, boldly throws 
his work across in front of them, but upon lofty open arches, 
through which glimpses just obtained 'of the beauties in store be- 
yond make the gazer even more delighted with the churches when 
he reaches them than he would have been had they been all seen from 
the first. It is, in fact, a notable e.xample of the difference between 
ancient grouping and modern, and one instance only, out of hundreds 
that might be adduced from our own country and from the Continent, 
of the principle upon which old architects worked ; and yet, people, 
ignorant of real principles in art, talk as though somewhat would be 
gained if we could pull down St. Margaret's, in order to let West- 
minster Abbey be seen; whereas, in truth, the certain result would 
be, in the first place, a great loss of scale in the Abbey seen without 
another building to compare it with and measure it by ; and in the 
next, the loss of that kind of intricacy and mystery, which is one of 
the chief evidences of the Gothic spirit. Let us learn from such ex- 
amples as this at Bergamo that buildings do not always require a 
large open space in front of them, so that they may be all seen and 
taken in at one view, in order to give them real dignity. 

The whole design of the Broletto is so very simple as to be almost 
chargeable with rudeness of character. The ground on which it stands 
is divided by columns and piers, the spaces between them being all 
arched and groined. Towards the Piazza three of these arches, 
springing from rather wide piers, support the main building, and 
another supports an additional building to the west of it. Above the 
three main arches are three windows of which that in the centre, 
though very much altered, still retains a partially old balcony in front, 
and was evidently the Ringhiera, from which the people standing in 
the Piazza were wont to be addressed by their magistrates. The win- 
dows on either side are very similar in their design and detail ; their 
tracery is of fair middle-pointed character ; and the main points in 
which they strike one as being different from English work are the 
marble shafts' with square capitals in place of monials, a certain degree 
of squareness and flatness in the mouldings, and the very pronounced 
effect of the sills, which have a course of foliage and moulding, and 
below this of trefoiled arcaded ornament, which in one shape or 
another is to meet the traveller everywhere in Northern Italy; either. 


as here, hanging on under the sills of windows, or else running up the 
sides of gables, forming string-courses and cornices, but always un- 
satisfactory, because unmeaning and unconstructional. The origin of 
this sort of detail is to be found in the numerous brick buildings not 
far distant, where the facility of repeating the patterns of moulded 
bricks led (as it did in other countries also) to this rather unsatisfactory 
kind of enrichment. The detail of the arcades supporting the upper 
part of the building is throughout bold and simple, and I should say 
of the thirteenth century; the bases are (juite Northern in their 
section, the caps rather less deep in their cutting, but still in their 
general design, and in the grouping of tufts of drooping foliage regu- 
larly one above the other, reminding one much of Early French work, 
though they are certainly not nearly so good as that generally is. 
There is a flatness about the carving, too, which gives the impression 
of a struggle, in the hand of the carver, between the Cla.ssic and 
Gothic principles, in which the latter never quite a.s.serted the mastery. 
The lesson to be learnt from such a building as this Broletto appears 
to me to be the excessive value of simplicity and regularity of parts 
carefully and constructionally treated ; for there are no breaks or but- 
tresses in the design, and all its elements are most simple, yet never- 
theless the result is beautiful. 

To the west of the Broletto is a good open staircase (much like 



that in the Piazza dei Signori at Verona), forming a portion of one 
side of the Piazza, and leading to the upper part of the buildings, and, 
I think, to the great clock-tower, which, gaunt and severe in its out- 
line, undecorated and apparently uncared for, rears its great height of 
rough stone wall boldly against the sky, and groups picturesquely with 
the irregular buildings around it. I have omitted to notice that the 
whole of the Broletto, with the exception of the window shafts, is ex- 
ecuted in stone, and without any introduction of colored material, so 
that it in no way competes with the exquisite piece of colored con- 
struction which we have next to examine, immediately behind it. 

A few steps will take us under the open-arched and cool space 
beneath the Broletto, to the face of the north porch and baptistery of 
Sta. Maria Maggiore. This is a 
very fine early Romanesque* church, 
but with many additions and alter- 
ations on the outside, and so much 
modernized inside as to be quite 
uninteresting to any one who thinks 
good forms and good details neces- 
sary to good effect. The plan is 
cruciform, with apses to the choir, 
on the east and west sides of the 
south transept, on the east of the 
north transept, and at the west end 
of an additional north aisle ; in 
all no less than five apsidal ends. 
The nave is of three bays with aisles, 
and to each transept have been 
added, in the fourteenth century, 
porches, thoroughly Italian in their 
whole idea, and novel to a degree 
in their effect upon an English eye. 

A domed chapel, erected as a 
sepulchral chapel by Bartolomeo 
Colleoni in the Renaissance style, 
on the north side of the nave, is 
most elaborately constructed of 
colored marbles. The effect is too 
bizarre to be good ; there is an 
entire absence of any true style in 
its design ; and thtre is nothing 
which makes it necessary to criticise 
it with much minuteness. 

The best and most striking 
feature in the whole church is the 
north porch, a most elaborate struc- 
ture of red, gr^y, and white marble, 
to which a drawing without color 
can hardly do justice. It is .sup- 
ported upon detached marble shafts, 
whose bases rest upon the backs 
of rather grand-looking lions, curi- 
ously grouped with children and 
cubs. Above the arches which 
rest upon these shafts, and which, 
though circular, are elaborately cusped, is another stage divided 
by columns and trefoiled arches into three spaces, the centre of 
which is occupied by a noble figure of a certain Duke Lupus on horse- 
back, with a saint on either side in the other divisions. All the 
shafts except those in the upper division are of red marble ; the 
highest stage of all is entirely of gray marble ; in the middle stage all 
the moulded parts are of red, and the trefoiled arches and their 
spandrels of gray marble ; the space at the back of the open divisions 
and the wall over the main arches of the porch are built in courses of 
red and white marble. All the groining is divided into diamond- 
shaped panels, composed alternately of black, red, and white marble, 
all carved in the same kind of pattern. In liie great arch of the 

"The church was built in A. D. 1134 hy Maestro Kedro. 


porch the outer moulding is of red marble, and all the cusping of 
gray. The construction of the whole is obviously very weak, and 
depends altogether for its stability upon iron ties in every direction. 

The approach to the porch, by seven steps formed alternately of 
l)lack and white marble, increases the impressiveness of the grand 
doorway, in front of which it is built, the whole of which is of white 
marble, whose carved surfaces and richly moulded and traceried work 
have obtained a soft yellow color by their exposure to the changing 
atmosphere, and are relieved by one — the central — shaft being 
executed in the purest red marble. There are three shafts in each 
jamb, carved, twisted, or moulded very beautifully. These shafts are 
set in square recesses, ornamented, not with mouldings but with 

elaborate flat carvings, in one place 
of saints, in another of animals, 
and with foliage very flat in its 
character, and mainly founded on 
the acanthus. 

To an English eye these col- 
umns in the doorways are some of 
the most charming features of Ital- 
ian architecture ; but they must be 
always looked at as simply orna- 
mental, and not as constructional 
features ; and perhaps in all door- 
ways the shafts, being really incap- 
able of supporting any considerable 
weigiit, would be better if, by their 
twisting and moulding, it were 
clearly shown that their architect 
meant them to be simply orna- 
mental. In the Bergamo doorway 
the spaces between the shafts are 
so strong in their effect, though 
carved all over their surface, that 
any lightness in the columns them- 
selves is amply atoned for. Such 
a work as this northern porch at 
Bergamo is indeed a great treat to 
an English architect, teeming as 
it does with fresh and new ideas, 
and in a small compass showing 
so many of the radical points of 
difference between Northern and 
.Southern Gothic, and at the same 
lime offering so beautiful a study of 
constructional coloring, that it is 
impossible to tire of gazing at it. 

The porch to the south tran- 
sept is of a simpler but somewhat 
similar design. Both are placed 
against the .western half of the 
gable against which they are built, 
with a pleasant ignoi'ance of those 
new-fangled views of regularity of 
plan which are tiie curse of modern 
architects. Tliis southern porch is round-arched, and fitted exactly 
to the doorway which it shields. Its outer arch is carried on de- 
tached shafts resting on the backs of monsters, and it is mainly con- 
structed of black and white marble. It is of only one stage in height, 
and has a deep cornice enriched with a series of niches with figures. 
An inscription below the cornice gives the date as 1360.* Above the 
porch, but independent of it, is a lofty monumental pinnacle corbelled 
out from the wall, and richly sculptured with crocketed pinnacles and 
gablets. When the church is entered, the reason for the apparently 
eccentric position of the porches is seen. They were so placed to 

Cri''nOC'()PtJS." This Giovanni da Campione was one of a family of architects of much 
celebrity. See their genealogical tree in " Italian Sculptors," p. 106. 



give more space for the altars to the east of the transepts, and their 
successful eftect is good evidence that no artist need ever distress him- 
self about a want of regularity, if it is the result of a little common 
sense attention to convenience in the arrangement of his plan. 

The southern side of the church gives a very fair idea of what the 
general character of the original building of 1 134 was. The windows 
were very plain, the walls lofty, the roof flat, and ornamented with 
corbel-tables up the gables and under the eaves, and pilasters were 
used at intervals instead of There is a central octagonal 
lantern which may be old, but which is entirely modernized. The 
most interesting remains arc the various apses already mentioned. 
They are of two divisions in height, the lower adorned with very lofty, 
boldly moulded arcades, above which is an elaborate cornice, and 
above this again a low arcade on detached shafts, behind which tlie 
walls are considerably recessed to form galleries, which jjroduce a very 
deep shadow. The capitals are elaborately carved, and the upper 
cornice is again very rich. Altogether, little as remains unaltered of 
the old fabric, it is enough to give an idea of a very noble and interest- 
ing phase of art. Near a doorway into the north chancel aisle the 

mind as has the beautiful campanile to whose grace so much of the 
charm of Verona is due. 

The cathedral at Bergamo, which is close to the Hroletto and 
Sta. Maria, may be dismissed in a word. It has been rebuilt within 
the last two hundred years, and appeared to be in no way deserving of 
notice. In a courtyard on its north side is a small detached polygonal 
baptistery, founded in 1275, which must have been very interesting. 
It is all built of marble, and richly adorned with shafts ; but so far as 
I could see every portion of it has been renewed within a few years. 
Beside Sta. Maria Maggiore and the Broletto, we found little to see. 
Two churches — one in the Citti, and another, desecrated, in the 
Borgo — have very good, simple pointed doorways, with square- 
headed openings and carved tympana ; but beyond these we saw- 
scarcely any trace of pointed work. We had a luxuriously hot day in 
Bergamo, and as we -sat and sketched the Broletto, a crowd, thoroughly 
Italian in its composition and proceedings, 'gathered round us and 
gave us a first lesson in the penance which all sketchers must be con- 
tent to underijo in Italy. Before long I found that my only plan was 
to start an umbrella as a defence, both against the sun and the crowd, 

and this, though not entirely 
successful, still effected a 
great improvement. 

The walk down the hill 
to the Borgo was more pleas- 
ant than the climb up, and 
we were soon at our inn 
again, and then, after a 
delicious luncheon of exquis- 
ite fruit and coolest lemon- 
ade, concluded by a very 
necessary dispute with our 
landlord about the amount 
of his bill, ending, as such 
disputes generally do in Italy, 
with a considerable reduction 
in the charge and the strong- 
est expressions of regard and 
good wishes for our welfare 
on our way, we mounted our 

CA.STLE OF .M.\L1'A(;.\. 

external walls have traces, faint and rajMdly decaying, of .some very 
exquisite frescoes, or, more probably, tempera paintings. 

The steeple is in a most unusual position, — east, namely, of the 
south transept, — not less, I believe, than some three hundred feet in 
height, of good and very simple pointed character, without any ap- 
proach to buttressing, and remarkable .is having an el.iborately arcaded 
string-course a few feet below the belfry windows, which have geomet- 
rical traceries enclosed within semicircular arches, affording, like the 
south transept i)orch, a curious illustration of the indifference of 
Italian architects to the use of the pointed arch where strength was 
not of consequence. 

Italian campanili have cjuite a character of their own, so distinct 
from and utterly unlike the steeples of Northern Europe, that this, 
the first Gothic exam])le I had seen, interested me exceedingly. Per- 
haps its detail was .ilmost too little peculiar, if I may venture to say 
so; for certainly it has left no such impression of individuality on my 

carriage, and were soon on the road towards 

Not far from this road and within about 
eight miles of Bergamo lies one of the most 
interesting of the many castles of which one 
so frequently sees remains in the north of 
Italy. This is the caslle of Malpaga, which 
was inhabited by the famous Condottiere 
Bartolomeo CoUeoni, of whom we have 
already heard at Bergamo, and of whom we 
.shall .see something again at Venice. It 
belongs now to a nobleman who lives in the 
Citta of Bergamo, and leaves this old and 
stately pile to the kee])ing of his hinds, who 
tend his silkworms, gather his grapes, make 
his wines, look after his corn and cattle, and 

CAMl'AMI.i;, l;I.UUA.Mi 



do as much as in them lies to gather the fruits which Mother Karth 
yields in these parts with such ungrudging profusion, but trouble 
themselves little about the preservation of the old castle or its belong- 
ings, seeing that they seem to give scant pleasure to their lord. 

The castle as originally built was a square building enclosing a 
courtyard built of brick externally, and adorned with a forked battle- 
ment which is common everywhere in old buildings between this and 
Vicenza, and with four square corner towers, of which one larger 
than the others has a very bold and fine overhanging machicolated 
parapet. In the centre of the south front the drawbridge still remains 
in use, and was lowered for our exit from the castle. Outside the 
square castle was a space, and then a low wall again furnished with the 
forked battlement. This must have been a very picturesque arrange- 
ment ; but unfortunately its real character is now only intelligible to 
the skilled eye. For the great Colleoni, finding him.self in possession 
of a castle which gave him insufficient spice for his magnificence, built 
up walls on the top of the old battlemented outer wall, and created his 
state rooms in the space between this new wall and the old external wall 
of the castle. These rooms of his have much damaged the effect of the 
outside of the castle ; but internally they are still interesting, owing to 
the sumptuous character of the painted decorations with which he had 
them adorned. These were executed at about the time of the visit of 
Christian II. of Denmark to Colleoni, and are interesting if not great 
works of art. The old courtyard, though small, is very fine in its effect. 
The upper walls are carried on pointed arches and are covered with 
fresco or distemper paintings, said to have been executed by (Giovanni 
Cariani of Bergamo, or by Girolamo Romanino of Brescia, extremely 
striking and attractive in their general style of color and drawing. The 
most picturesque incidents are illustrations of Colleoni's career, — the 
Doge of Venice giving Colleoni his baton in the presence of the Pope, 
and a fine battle subject. 

A squalid area for rubbish, children, pigs, cats, and what not, is 
left all round the moat, and beyond this are all the farm buildings and 
laborers' residences, which go to make up the tout ensemble of a great 
Lombard farmyard. The surroundings are not clean nor very pictur- 
esque, but the castle itself has so great an interest that no one who visits 
Bergamo should pass it by unseen.* 

( To be continued. ) 

Carrerk & Hastin(;s, Architkcts. 

'TpHE accompanying detail from the Central Congregational Church 
at Providence was photographed before erection at the works of 
Stephens, Armstrong & Conkling, now the Philadelphia branch of the 
New York Architectural Terra-cotta Company. The terra-cotta all 
over this church is most charmingly executed. The brick was supplied 
by T. IVIiltdn .Shafto & Co., of Philadeljjhia. Mr. F. J. .Sawtclle, at 
Providence, superintended the work for Messrs. Carrire & Hastings. 

* The round cliurcli of San Tommaso in Limine, described by Mr. Gaily Knight as 
similar in plan to San Vitale, at Ravenna, is only eight miles to the north of Bergamo, and 
ought, equally with Malpaga Castie, to be seen. I regret that I have never yet visited it. ^ 




T 7NT1L within three or four years the public and business buildings 
of P rovidence have been either of stone or of the traditiona 
brick with stone trimmings. Nearly all the private houses were of 
wood. Fifteen years or so ago Messrs. Stone & Carpenter did intro- 
duce terra-cotta on a large scale in Slater Hall, at Brown University, 
in the Hotel Dorrancc, and in some private houses ; but the quality of 
the work did not quite suit them, so the attempt was never followed 
up. And although these gentlemen have always seized any oppor- 
tunity to make ornamental use of brick, yet, with the exception ot 
some single panels, it was not until they built the Burrill Building, at 
the corner of Westminster and Mathewson Streets, that they again 
took up the new material. 


The Burrill Building, however, is not altogether of clay material. 
The first three of the five stories on Westminster Street are of light 
stone supported by the usual plate glass and iron; those above, and 
the whole Mathewson Street elevation, are of brick with terra-cotta 
trimmings. A glance at the photograph will explain the treatment. 
The top story has round-arched openings, the fourth, on Westminster 



Street, has windows with s<|uarc licatls funned by terra-cotta lintels 
which are supported in the centre by cleanly modelled columns of the 
same material, standinj; free, while the jambs are ornamented with a 
pattern in brickwork. The same arrani^cment, without the jamb 
ornament, is used on Mathewson Street. The color of the brickwork 
is light bufT, with wide joints, while the terra-cotta is a little darker. 
While the distinction between brick and stone on the front is perhaps 
a trifle marked, the building as a whole is the best on the street. It 
is simple, dignified, and tinely detailed. 


I mill 


Mr. Ely's Traync lUiilding. nearly opposite the Hurrill, is a 
studied design in gray brick and lighter terra-cotta, with very fine detail, 
and the whole makes one wish that he had not used copper bays to 
fill his three main openings, which rise through two stories and are 
round headed. The first story of iron and glass, with a side entrance 
of stone, leading to the oflices in the upper stories, is very well 

Perhaps the best use of copper bays in this neighborhood has 
been made in the Conant liuilding, in Pawtucket, which is a city 
almost continuous with Providence, by Messrs. Gould, .Angell & 
Swift. This design is executed in old-gold brick, with brownstone 
trimmings and galvanized iron cornice. The bays, on the side, are 
of small projection and are enriched with delicate Renaissance ara- 

As an example of Renaissance detail, the Telephone Building of 
Messrs. Stone, Carpenter & Willson, of which the elevation has al- 
ready been published in Tiiii BiucKiii'iLDER, is worth careful study. 
Above a first story of iron and stone, better handled than such stories 
usually are, rise two stories of brick and terra-cotta, divided vertically 
by fluted pilasters, and crowned with a terra-cotta cornice and balus- 
trade. Over each of the store fronts which flank the main entrance 
to the Telephone Company's offices projects in the second story a bay 
window, which in this case is of terra-cotta, with engaged columns at 
the corners, and highly ornate frieze and cornice. Even here it seems 

that the building would hardly in dignity if the bays were not 
u.sed. The proportions of the buildings are right, and the detail is 
cx(|uisite ; do we really need the bays, finely handled as they are? 

The outer walls of the Telephone Building carry the steel beams 
without the aid of columns, but the interior is all of skeleton con- 
struction ; terra-cotta arches on steel beams are carried by steel col- 
umns, which, in their turn, are protected by terra-cotta. The roof is 
ijuilt in the same way and covered with concrete and asphalt. 

The telephone wires in this city are carried underground in a 
sub-way accessible through manholes. When the cables reach the 
new building they i)ass under the sidewalk into a tunnel-like space 
partitioned otT for them in the cellar, where they are carried on racks, 
projecting horizontally from eacii side wall until they reach the cable 
toVver which communicates with the rest of the building only on the 
top floor at the distributing room. They are carried up the opposite 
sides of this lower, which is provided with ladders and with platforms 
every seven feet in height, on alternate sides, for convenient access to 
tlie cables. From the distributing room the wires are carried under 
the rai.sed floor of the operating room to the switchboard. 

The same architects have in hand the new Central Police .Station 
for the city. This building is also in the Italian Renaissance, and, 
though not so ornate as the Telephone Building, has just as fine 
proportions and a very fine arrangement of It is a good 
example of the truth, which our architects have been slow in learning, 
that however much good ornament may help a well-proportioned and 
well-ma.ssed building, such a building will lose none of its power or 
charm if it be left quite plain. 

Though all of the terra-cotta work just spoken ot has been done 
with Renaissance detail, as is indeed largely the case in other cities 
since the Classic style is once more in the ascendant, the material 
lends itself with equal ease to Gothic forms. 

Another building now going forward for the city is the Museum 
of Art and Natural History at Roger Williams Park.* Here the 
architects, Messrs. Martin & Hall, have used yellow brick and 
terra-cotta together in a very pleasing way. The inspiration of the 
design, which is very refined and skilful, has been drawn from the 
French chateaux of the early Renaissance. 

There is something very attractive in the outbreak again and 
ag:iin of the irrejjressible Gothic spirit among the classic forms which 
were just coming into use in those old buildings. The style has all 
the picturesque (|uality which we enjoy in Gothic, while it is nearer 
our own time and taste in its forms; at the same time it is in its 
best work scholarly and refined without being so learned and precise 
as the Italian is apt to be, and withal it is perfectly adaptable to any 
needs which it may have to meet. All these points the architects 
have seized, and, while they have kept their work simple and dignified 
and have avoided all temptation to be pictures(|ue and use angle 
turrets and other startling effects, they have allowed their fancy 
considerable play in the details. 

Thus far the city work is in competent hands. But a stop is 
soon to be put, it seems, to this sort of nonsense. There is a resolu- 
tion now before a committeef of the Common Council (it has been 
jjassed by the Aldermen, and I understand the Mayor favors it), which 
will turn over the official architecture of the city to the tender mercies 
of the city engineer's office ! The scheme seems to be no,t to create 
the office and department of city architect, but to add to the force of 
the engineer's de]jartment a few architectural draughtsmen and an 
architectural superintendent. 

Of course all interested in art foresaw the result. The Chapter 
of the Institute here took up the affair and tried to make a fight for 
reasonable methods of doing business. The tide is too strong and 
they have had to drop the matter. The Council think they are sav- 
ing money, and they are blind to any other view. The engineers 
department costs fifty-three thousand dollars a year. Foi» four recent 

years, years, too, in which there was more than the average amount 

of building, — the city paid about .seven thousand a year for architects' 

*Asc.ilcil<:tailof partof this building was published in thclast number o( Tmk Bkick builder. 
t The resolution has been t.ibled by Council, 1 am informed, and there the matter now stands. 

VOL. 3, NO. 4. 


PLATE 25. 



1— f 
























































\()1.. 3, NO. 4. 


PLATE 26. 


t-l ^s •> ■ — 




VOL. 3, NO. 4. 


PLATE 27. 

T^chtwin) /Irth 

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't fyotft one/i arti^ 

SECTion AT DoRHER ifi Towm 



Co^ptr l,„,^ 

'Mf3 Shtalhing 


--f to ruiTt 
Co/umn ana 6m 



5,1/ C;fft„m 

^ yy-o// 

SECTion TmouGti Ycrahda Comc£ 

StcTion OF Coal Chuth Wmoyvs 

~'7/'- Space 




m ffnm OF tiousF 

"^ Section THRoi/Gn I^fm 



ZtM r/ot 

2' O" ^ C§rttre% 
Ca/>^er Lining 

Copper Hart£er 


JFCTion OF fIfliN ComicF 

Section of BnsFnFnr Wjudows 


VOL. 3, N< I. 4. 






PLATES 28 AND 29. 





VOL. ■;. NO. 4. 


PLATE 30. 






















































































VOL. 3, NO. 4. 


rr.ATE 31. 

VOL. 3, NO. 4. 


I'l.ATK 32 





commissions. That this sum, which is only a trifle over the engi- 
neer's yearly salary, is extremely low when considered as the cost of 
a city architect's department, and that for this sum it is possible to 
obtain first-class work, while if architectural draughtsmen are added to 
the engineer's department, it must augment the cost and at the same 
time lower the character of the work, — all this seems not to enter 
their thoughts. VVe can save money — why can't the engineer take 
care of the work ? Before such questions the extravagant architects 
retire abashed, for with such men those questions cannot be answered. 
It is the old story of the materialist against the idealist, of science 
against poetry, and, unfortunately, the judges are prejudiced and 
must be educated by experience. 

tlie most aristocratic street in the town, yet the course of empire, 
moving eastward this time, had long since carried the greater part of 
its congregation into the newer and more fashionable part of the 
" East Side." The new church, therefore, stands on quite high 
ground in one of the pleasantest spots in the city, and in one where 
the best architectural effort of the last few years has had a chance to 
show itself, for around the church are houses by Messrs. Stone, Car- 
penter & VVillson, Rotch & Tilden, Gould, Angell & Swift, and 
W. E. Chamberlain. Mr. Sawtelle, the architect who had charge for 
Carrere & Hastings of the erection of the church, has built the par- 
sonage beside the chapel, and Martin & Hall are now filling the last 
vacancy in this Stimson Avenue colony. 


MiissKs. Carrekic & Hastincw, ARCiiiTKcrs, Nkw V'ork. 

St. John's Church, on North Main .Street, to turn to a pleasanter 
subject, has within a year or so finished a parish house designed by 
Messrs. Peabody & Stearns. The material is yellow brick of differ- 
ent dark tones, and the treatment is very simple and quiet, and 
depending for its effect not upon ornament but upon mass, proportion 
and the color harmony of the different bricks employed. 

The old St. John's itself is of stone, but there are several brick 
churches in Providence. Some of them are exceedingly evil in 
design, one of them attains to no mean rank, and that one only, ot 
which more in another article, can be compared with the new build- 
ing which Messrs. Carr^re & Hastings have recently built for the 
Central Congregational Church. The growth of the city has left 
several churches, still occupied, on streets which are now more or 
less crowded thoroughfares. Though this was not the case with the 
Central, whose old church, built about fifty years ago, was then upon 

Hut these houses, save here and there the first story of one, are 
not of brick, and we must return to the church. The mass of it, as 
seen from a distance, and it is on high enough ground to be seen in 
some directions from far away, is very good, though possibly the 
dome is a little flat. All the near views of the church are good. The 
best of course is one of those which bring the tambour over the cross- 
ing into the centre of the picture. The view from the east end, really 
the north end, up over the chapel and the apse, is full as fine as from 
the front. The mass from these points is most excellent, though the 
tambour is a trifle bare and perhaps the cornice of the dome is a little 
too shelf-like for the splendid detail of some of the other parts of the 

The view we have just taken emphasizes the cruciform plan of the 
church, with its chapel !)ehind the semicircular apse. The west 
front, here really tiie south front, has the traditional two towers, the 



three doors, and the central windows, though these here are blank, 
all beautifully handled, with some of the feeling of the old Spanish 
work of the Southern Americans, but with the clean-cut, classic 
detail of Italy. A short nave, with a barrel vault, — a real barrel vault 
of tiles, — forming the roof as well as the ceiling, a nave which has its 
regular side aisles, leads us to the crossing over which, sustained by the 
four heavy brick arches which form the square and by the pendentives 
drawing the square into an octagon, and then into a circle, rises the tile 
dome. Tran.septs extend with their side aisles east and west, and an 
unlighted, early-Christian-looking apse with its concha or hemis])heri- 
cal roof, forms the sanctuary on the north, here the ecclesiastical 

The interior detail of the church is very tine and interesting. 
The organ loft is somewhat unsatisfactory in execution, though the 
design is excellent. The angel figures with musical instruments, in- 
stead of being modelled in full round, or in relief against a back- 
ground, are in low relief, with the background cut through, and the 
effect troubles one. 

.Aside from the organ loft, the pews, the pulpit, and the sanctuarv 
furnishings, which are of wood and very finely detailed, the interior 
detail is of terra-cotta and of plaster. The tiling of the dome and of 
the vnultint; shows inside, except in the apse. The brickwork is 


j.\'.KLU.ViIU.\Al. LlILKLll. iKu.Xr I.M l..U\'.- L. 

plastered. It is of course intended to decorate the whole church in 
color after the manner of the beginning made in the apse dome, and 
if .Mr. .Scliladermundt has the chance to finish the work as he has be- 
gun, the church will i)e an example of what color decoration ought to 
be as a support to architecture. 

The color scheme of the outside of the church, too, has been 
well handled. IJufi" bricks, which here have a pinkish tinge, and 
there have turned a beautiful green under the weather ; light terra- 
cotta, beautifully modelled; tile roofs of a dull, purplish red, with 
terra-cotta lantern again over the dome, and gilf cro.sses on the 
towers, on which the tcwa-cotta at the roof angles contrasts well with 
the tiling, form a very pleasing combination. 

The crosses on the lowers and the cruciform plan of the church 
show the progress toward ritualism which the " Lord ISrethren," as 
lUackstone called them, are making in the wake of the " Lord 
Bishops." In fact, considerable has been the comment on the action 
of a sober Congregational society in building its •' meeting-house " in 
a stvie which reminds the laitv, at least, of cissocks and berettas. 


To the architect, of course, the question simply reads. Does the 
building meet the requirements of the problem and does it meet them 
beautifully? Whether Renaissance ortiothic is the more to be preferred 
for churches, is a mere matter of personal taste. This church seems 
to meet its problem beautifully. There is, then, no need to talk, 
after all, of denominational fitness or unfitness as absolutely fixed, for 
this or that style. Let the architect go straight through the problem 
with his best ability according to the best taste he has, using such 
forms a.s seem to him pleasing, and, if he is an architect, he need not 
be afraid of the verdict. M. Isii.a.m. 





qUCH a variety of styles, if I may call them such, are to be found 
^ in Washington that the cultured visitor is really bewildered as he 
walks up and down its streets. On every hand one finds hideous ex- 
amples of what the average citizen points to with pride and calls 
" modern architecture." 

Here and there the eye is relieved by the sight of a quiet front, 
so modest and retiring that it seems to shrink from the loud clothes 
and gaudy finery of its ostentatious neighbors. It is scarcely noticed 
by the novice, and if at all, the remark is heard : " Anybody can de- 
sign a thing like that." 

These quiet fronts are, for the most part, relics of the taste of the 
past, and show great skill and refinement in the relative proportions of 
openings to wall surfaces. Built of hand-made pressed brick of de- 
lightful color, crowned with good 

cornices, usually of moulded brick 
painted white, of a pattern not now 
in stock, with doorways generally 
of Colonial treatment, they stand 
as landmarks of the artistic appre- 
ciation of two generations ago. 
One who has not seen them cannot 
imagine the charming effect pro- 
duced by these cornices of brick. 
The projection is not great, — about 
four and a half inches. The soffit 
is ornamented with mutules, and 
the returns at the corners with the 
conventional honeysuckle, as is so 
often seen in the Greek Doric. 

Apparently the architects of 
Washington have but recently thor- 
oughly appreciated the artistic 
possibilities of terra-cotta in combi- 
nation with brick, and many still 
are learning. Preferring stone for 
the solution of their problems of 
decoration and constniction, the ex- 
amples of really good treatment of 
brick fronts are the exception, not 
the rule. Here, as in other East- 
ern cities, public taste is improving 
sufficiently to be able to distinguish 
the superiority of the present woik 
over that done ten years ago, and 
to wish for more. This is a good 
sign, and we may well feel glad 
that it is so. 

Of private residences done in 
brick, those of John Hay, Esq., 
and General Anderson, designed 
by H. H. Richardson, are probably 
familiar. They are very quiet, 
moulded brick being confined to the 

base courses and cornices. The wall surfaces are given life and color 
by pattern-work, and often hexagonal shaped brick are used, which, 
from their peculiar shape and color, make the design more pronounced. 
Many houses by Hornblower & Marshall have well-studied brick 
friezes, surmounted usually by copper cornices, lending character to 
otherwise plain but well-proportioned fronts. The house of Repre- 
sentative Dalzell, on New Hampshire Avenue, has the wall surfaces of 
the fac^ade slightly enriched by pattern-work of darker headers. The 
entrance is unique in its way. It is a semicircular opening within a 
square frame, framed by a running conventional design carved in lighter 
brick, making the whole quite Moorish in feeling. 

A very nice bit of brick and terra-cotta work is that of the I'arish 
Hallol St. John's Church, on Sixteenth Street. It is to be regretted 

that it is so small, as a larger building worked out in a similar manner 
could not fail to be an ornament to the city. The Army and Navy 
Clubhouse shows what refinement can begotten by the use of perfectly 
plain, rough red brick with red mortar joints. Perhaps the most 
striking example of a structure wholly of brick and terra-cotta is the- 
United States Pension Office. This building has been the cause of 
as much comment, both of praise and condemnation, as any building 
ever erected in the District of Columbia. Its popular name is the 
" Beer Brewery." One well-known gentleman of high standing has 
been known to remark -of it, " The only fault with it is, it is fire- 
proof." All this adverse criticism arises from its having a hideous, 
barn-like structure towering above the main roof, entirely out of keep- 
ing with the building proper, and forming the roof of the large court. 
Moulded on the lines of the Palazzo Farnesi at Rome, the principal 
facade is considerably longer. By thus altering the proportions, a 

good deal of the character of the 
original is lost. But, standing at a 
point where the ugly cupola cannot 
be seen, the building is very im- 
posing and quite pleasing. The 
details are entirely of terra-cotta, 
and well executed. 

In the new power-house of 
the Washington and Georgetown 
Railroad Company, by Burnham 
& Root, the design fully expresses 
the character of the l)uilding. It is 
of dark-red brick with black mor- 
tar joints, and has just enough stone 
to relieve the monotony. Terra- 
cotta might have been substituted 
for the stone without artistic loss. 
Many residences recently erected 
are of various shades of buff and 
mottled brick. One in particular, 
on the corner of Massachusetts 
Avenue and Twenty-first Street, 
is worthy of notice, as in it the at- ■ 
tempt has been made to grade the 
color from chimney top to ground 
level from dark to light, with con- 
siderable success. 

It is to be regretted that, 
with so many colors from which to 
choose, more harmony among 
buildings in the same block cannot 
be gotten. Perhaps an improve- 
ment might be made if there were 


more concerted action on 
the ])art of the architects. 
While slight differences of 
color do not cause any one 
to deter from tiie harmony 
of the whole as viewed from 
a distance, when we see 
jumbled together red, white, 
yellow, brown, with perhaps 
here and there a green one, 
the effect is anything but 
pleasing. The very fact 
that they ha\e such variety 



Mkssks. Wai.kkk & KiMiiAi.i., Akchitf.cts, Boston and Omaha. 

of color to choose from is tlicir undoing. It is a case of em- 
barrassment of riches, which the able man may know w'ell how to 
handle with the taste insuring the best results, but wliicli the average 
unailistic builder-architect considers his opjjortunity to concoct some- 
hing original. 

Many buildings have details in brick and terra-cotta so good as to 
save the whole from utter failure as works of art. Chimneys, door- 
ways, cornices, gables, can be picked out all over the city as being 
better than the buildings they adorn. The cornice of the new addition 
to the Washington (las Light Com)jany's offices, a sketch of which is 
here shown, is a good sani|)le. E. W. Donn, Jk. 


Plates 25. 26, and 27 are illustrative of the first article published 
in this number. 

Plates 28, 29, and 30 give the two elevations of the building 
shown by the ])rospective sketch on this page. The plain walls are 
laid with sand-struck common hand-made brick (light burned). 
The trims are of red front brick (Omaha Hydraulic-l'rcss) somewhat 
darker than the others. Joints white for body, red for trims, and 

Plate 31. Ilendenson IJuilding, Philadelphia, Yamall & (".oforth, 
architects. The brick were furnished by the Eastern Hydraulic-Press 
lirick Company and the terra-cotta by Stephens, Armstrong & 
Conkling before their consolidation with the New York Archiiectural 
Terra-Cotta Company. The plate is one-eighth-inch scale. 





Plate 32. Cornice of the Berkeley Lyceum, New ^'o^k. Alfred 
]■;. Harlow, architect. Terra-cotta work by the New York Architec- 
tural Terra-Colta Company. This is a good example of a brick and 
terra-cotta cornice with practicall) no jMujection. gaining in height 
what it loses in projection. 

■ I 






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Single numbers ........ 25 cent 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... JP3.00 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connections, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

A PROMINENT manufacturer of terra-cotta criticises the 
editorial in our last number, on brick and terra-cotta color- 
ing, as apt to give architects a wrong view of the subject. He 
himself takes exactly the opposite view from that of our editorial, 
and supports it with these arguments. 

A brick manufacturer will sort a kiln of bricks of one color, 
into ten or twelve different shades, and of each shade he will have 
enough stock to supply an ordinary job. Now, while the apjili- 
cation of color by a " slip " is simple enough, burning it to 
exactly a certain shade is not so easy. If, for instance, an archi- 
tect wishes uniformity in brick and terra-cotta, and selects one 
of the several shades of a certain colored brick, the terra-cotta 
manufacturer may have considerable difficulty in exactly match- 
ing it, although he would strike so near it as to match a shade 
two or three degrees above or below the one selected. The 
architect, then, it is suggested, should give the terra-cotta manu- 
facturer the first place, allowing him to make a color to match a 
certain ^olor, not a certain shade of brick, though keeping his 
terra-cotta of a uniform tone. The terra-cotta will certainly 
match one of the several sha(ks into which that color of brick 
is sorted, and that shade can be taken for the work. 

/^UR article in the last number was written from the recent 
experiences of several architects who had tried to have a 
brick made to match terra-cotta, and possibly the inspection of 
a very well-equipped terra-cotta plant was so fresh in our minds 
that we over-estimated the ability of terra-cotta manufacturers 
to produce exact matches. However, having stated the criticism 
as nearly as we remember it, let us suggest that this criticism 
might not apply to the cases we had in mind. Brick manu- 
facturers are not found in every market, carrying stocks of a 
large number of different colors- Suppose the brick the archi- 
tect wanted was riot to be had in his locality, in stock. It could 
be made, and come pretty close to the required shade. The 
question is. Can the average well- equipped brickyard make a 
special run of brick and closely match a certain shade, easier 
than one of the scientifically operated terra-cotta factories com- 
manding every facility for securing special color-work? We still 

hold to our position, with a concession in the case of the several 
large cities where every variety and shade of brick is found in 
stock, and there is no need of having a color made to order. 
As, however, we base our opinions upon the experiences of a 
comparatively few architects, we invite correspondence for publi- 
cation, from both manufacturer and architect. If there is any 
question as to which is the better and fairer method, Thk Brick- 
builder columns are the place for its discussion. 

ly/TR. GLENN BROWN of Washington, in his article "Gov- 
ernment Buildings compared with Private Buildings," in 
the American Architect of April 7, gives some interesting tables 
showing cost and time of construction, and completion of first, 
second, and third class structures, from which the following aver- 
ages of cost are instructive. Eight first-class structures, that is, 
structures that are fireproof throughout, cost an average per cubic 
foot of 37)^ cents. Six buildings of the second class, erected 
of less costly materials, but with iron beams and terra-cotta or 
brick arches for the floors, averaged 24)^ cents per cubic foot. 
Only two buildings of private nature are included in the third 
class, which is plain brickwork, and wooden joists and flooring. 
These cost 10 and 12^ cents per cubic foot. Much of the cost 
of the buildings of the first class comes from the highly orna- 
mental character, or the use of expensive cut stone work, and, 
judging from these buildings, it is safe to estimate that a good 
brick fireproof office or mercantile building can be built for not 
over 25 cents per cubic foot. 

npHE government, however, from these tables, appears to be 
paying 30 cents i)er cubic foot for a 121^ -cent building. It 
is getting nothing but wooden floors, while buildings privately 
built are made fireproof for five cents less per cubic foot. In 
first-class buildings it pays 60 cents against plain, ordinary peo- 
ple's 37 cents. It now looks as though Mr. Burnham's blunt 
letter to Mr. Carlisle had caused that gentleman, who is supjxjsed 
to guard the money interests of the country, to continue not only 
paying twice what ordinary people pay, but getting atrociously 
bad returns for his liberal investment. 

X /TR. CARLISLE made a mistake in considering Mr. Burn- 
ham and his associates on the committee of the A. I. A. 
some of those " ar/chitect fellows " who could be indefinitely put 
off. As a matter of fact, any one of that committee is probably a 
man of broader calibre than the honorable secretary of the treasury, 
and Mr. Burnham's professional career certainly proves him fully 
as strong a man as Mr. Carlisle. But the latter is in his castle and 
surrounded by political henchmen of all grades, whose general 
methods no member of the committee of architects could come 
down to. Mr. Burnham's letter has been criticised quite as freely 
as it has been com mended. But what other course wasopentohim? 
It was (juite evident nothing would be gained by submitting 
quietly, while, by putting the thing in plain, unvarnished fact, he 
did the one thing that no milder course would have accomplished : 
he drew the attention of the public by making an issue the news- 
papers would take up. 

pROF. A. D. F. HAMLIN, of the Department of Architecture, 
Columbia College, New York, makes the interesting an- 
nouncement that he will conduct a summer travelling school of 
architecture, limited to fifteen members, taking them to Italy 
early in June and returning early in October. The programme 



is made out especially with reference to a study of the Italian 
Renaissance style, and, starting from Naples, the trip will include 
Pompeii, Herculaneum, Capri, Rome, Spoleto, Foligno, Perugia^ 
Arezzo, Florence, Siena, Pisa, Lucca, Pistoja, Bologna, Ferrara 
Padua, Venice, Vicenza, Verona, Mantua, Milan, Pavia, and Genoa. 
Thus, it will be seen, most of the places in Italy of any architec- 
tural interest will be visited, and such a trip with a man of Prof. 
Hamlin's scholarly attainments cannot fail to result beneficially 
to the students who go. It is with great pleasure that we call the 
attention of our readers to this project. Full particulars may be 
had by addressing Prof. Hamlin at Columbia College. 




TT is supposed that a client has a forty-foot lot in New York 
City, u])on which he wishes to build a fine residence, which, if 
he desires to sell at some future time, he may convert into two 
separate houses, so that they will not only sell the easier, but so 
sold, bring a higher price than the one large house would bring. 
To this end the house must be planned so that it may be conve- 
nient to use as a single house, but so that very little and inex- 
pensive alteration would change it to two twenty-foot houses 
divided by a party wall. The exterior is to be of brick and terra- 
cotta, or wholly of terra-cotta. The cost is not limited. In jjlan- 
ning, ten feet at the rear of the lot, which is one hundred feet 
deep, must be left unoccupied. 

The problem is principally one of both planning and design, 
for to be successful it must have the appearance of a single 
house, and yet when divided appear equally good in design as 
two separate houses. 

The house will consist of four stories besides a basement and 
cellar. An elevation at one-quarter-inch scale, and a plan of 
each floor at one-eighth-inch scale, are the drawings required. 
A description of the alterations necessary to convert the house 
must be prepared and reasons given for the plans and the eleva- 
tion adopted. The drawings are preferred flat, but when it is in- 
convenient to so send them they may be sent in pasteboard rolls. 
They are to be made on white paper, imperial size, the elevation 
on one sheet, the plans on another, and sent, carriage paid, to the 
office of Thk BRICKBUILDER, Room 52, 85 Water Street, Boston, 
Mass., on or before June i, 1894. 


There will be three cash prizes; the first $100, the second 
$50, and the third $25. Three other prizes in books will be 
given; the first any architectural book listed at ^15, the second 
listed at $10, and the third listed at $5.00. If there be more 
than six designs considered by the jury as meritorious, the 
authors of those not receiving prizes will be presented with a 
year's subscription to The Brickbuilder. 

The award will be made by a jury of three competent archi- 

Each drawing must be marked with a motto or cypljer, and 
a sealed envelojje similarly marked, containing the full name 
and address of the designer, must accompany the drawings. 
These envelopes will not be opened until afcer the award is 

The six prize drawings shall become the property of The 
Brickbuilder, and any or all of the designs submitted will be 
I)ublished without further recompense to their authors. 

Ff)R a club of fifteen subscribers the yearly price of The 
IlkiCKRUiLDEK is only ;Si.5o. 

^ Porous 
Brick . . . 
Co. . . 

Offices, 874 Broadway, 

Corner i8th Street, 

New York. 

Telephone 685 — iSth. 





Keasbey's Landing, N. J. 

Branches at 

Boston, Philadelphia, Buffalo, Washington, Toronto. 


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tT is certainly gratifying to see Iiow mucli interest is now felt by 
-'• architects, engineers, builders, and owners in fireproof construc- 
tion. The desire for something durable, that will resist the great 
destroying elements of time and fire, is growing, and it is now gener- 
ally conceded that the most durable and reliable materials for all 
kinds of buildings is burned clay, and therefore in all buildings where 
protection of life and property is desired it is being used more than 
ever in this country. 

Insurance statistics tell us that the loss by fire is regularly and 
steadily increasing at the rate of $10,000,000 a year. In the year 
1893 the loss was over $160,000,000, which is over $512,000 for every 
working day. This does not include the loss by men thrown out of 
business or employment, nor the additional rates on insurance in 
consequence of the risk. Neither docs it include the ta.xes necessary 
to keep up the fire departments in every city and town in the country 
to gliard against the loss. 

Nearly all the writers on fireproof construction refer to protect- 
ing the inside of buildings. The ceilings, floors, and between the 
joists are filled in with hollow clay blocks ; hollow brick walls take 
the place of lath and plaster for partitions ; iron supports and columns 
are encased with burned clay to keep the heat from twisting, cracking, 
and even melting them. In every conceivable way, clay bricks and 
blocks are used to prevent the fire from spreading and extending. 
All this is done for the inside of buildings, and it is well enough. It 
costs money, but it does tlie work. While this is done for the inside 
of the building, a roof is put on that offers no resistance to fire, out 
in many cases attracts it. The roof is the most exposed part of the 
building, and, next to the foundation, the most important. 29.6 per 
cent of the fires in 1893, and in fact an average for many years, was 
caused by exposure. That means that $48,000,000 of property was 
destroyed by fire in the year 1893 that did not originate on the prem- 
ises. To guard against loss from exposure the best protection is to 
fireproof the outside of buildings — to put on a roof that will resist 
the heat. The same material that will protect the inside will protect 
the outside. It is fast coming to that. All will concede that the fire- 
clay roofing tile is the coming roof in this country, as it now is in 
many European countries. There are many reasons for this, but 
your space will only allow me to present a few of the advantages tile 
has over any other material for covering houses. 

FirsL Tile is fireproof, frostproof, and waterproof. To test the fire 
qualities, put a well-burned tile, and a piece of the best roofing slate, 
on your grate. See how quick the slate will crack and fly to pieces, 
while the heat of no grate can crack or melt the tile. Iron of any 
kind left in a kiln where tile is burned will be found melted when the 
kiln is opened. To test its frost qualities, put a tile under the drip- 
pings of your roof, and let it freeze and thaw the whole winter. You 
will see the frost will have no effect on it whatever. 

Second. Tile is ornamental and durable. If there is a tile roof 
in your city, compare it with the roofs on surrounding houses, and see 
how much it adds to the beauty and character of the house. The roof 
is the most prominent part of a handsome building, and a tile roof 
always attracts attention to it. There is nothing shoddy about a tile 
roof; it is there to stay, and it will be just as good, and look just as 
well, one hundred years from now as it does to-day. Tile has a his- 
tory of thousands of years ; no other roofing material has. 

Third. Tile is a non-conductor. Place a thermometer in an 
attic covered with tile, and another in an attic covered with slate, and 
see the difference. The rooms under a tile roof are cooler in summer 
and warmer in winter. It neither attracts nor retains the heat or 
frost. You never heard of a tile roof being struck by lightning. 

Fourth. Weight. The old forms of tile are heavy and cumber- 
some. They were made by hand, in plaster moulds, and nearly 
always had to be plastered together with clay or cement. The new 
tile is made by machinery, under heavy pressure, and is compact and 
light. It weighs six and one half pounds to the square foot, while 
slate and gravel weigh ten pounds. This difference in weight is a 
very important point in constructing the walls and rafters of a build- 

The new machine-made tile requires no paint ; it is a beautiful 
terra-cotta red, the most appropriate color for the roof of a handsome 
house. It requires no cement that cracks and breaks, and by its con- 
struction it laps and locks together so no wind can move it, and at the 
same time accommodates itself to the vibrations and settling of the 
building. In case a tile is broken a new one can be inserted without 
removing adjoining tiles, and its lock holds it in place. 

Price is an important factor in building. The old tile, made by 
hand, and the Spanish tile, laid in cement, are both expensive. The 
new tile, made by machinery, competes very closely in cost with slate. 
An ordinary dwelling of ten or twelve rooms seldom requires more 
than forty squares to cover it. If you can get a tile roof on a house 
of this size for an additional cost of less than $100, it certainly should 
not be considered. 

It is safe to say that in no branch of industry (except possibly 
electricity) has there been as much improvement in the last few years 
as in clay-working machinery, and it is to this improvement we are in- 
debted for the interest now taken in fireproof construction. Ten years 
ago the ornamental brick, the hollow blocks, and other forms now 
used for fireproofing were unknown, or if known were impracticable on 
account of the skilled hand labor required to form them. Now the 
machinery made for clay men do the work better, and cheaper, and 
bring the best formed materials within reach of the builder. The 
architects and machine men have worked together in this improve- 
ment, the one suggesting and planning, the other putting the sugges- 
tions and plans into practical working machinery. The result is a 
greater variety of more compact materials, at a much cheaper cost. 
While this is true of brick, and fireproofing hollow ware, it is also 
true of roofing tile. The machine of to-day takes the place of the 
plaster mould, the steam dryer of the uncertain sun and wind, the 
closed kiln of the open top arrangement; and the result in tile is you 
have a compact, smooth surface, uniform in size and color, straight 
and true, so they fit well together and do away with plaster and cement, 
lighter in weight, and so reduced in cost that they are brought in close 
competition with the next best roofing material known. Machinery 
has done all this, and has enabled our best architects to predict, with 
absolute certainty, that tile is the coming roofing material for this 

Another advantage machinery has given to the tile business is 
that they can be made so fast, and with so little loss, that a certain 
supply can be had without delay. Architects know the great difficulty 
and delay in the past in getting tile for their buildings. There were 
so few tile factories in the country, and they were always filled with 



orders months ahead. The Clay Shingle Com- 
pany of Indianapolis now have four large 
factories in ditTerent parts of the country making 
their form of tile, and are negotiating with 
others, so they are able to sujjply any amount 
of tile on short notice. Before this century 
closes every State in the Union will have its 
tile factory, and all first-class buildings will 
have fireproof construction on their roof as 
well as on the inside. 

John K. Eldek. 
Indianai)olis, Ind. 

'~p*HK most dangerous part of a theatre, in 
■'■ point of fire risk, is the stage. Here clay 
materials, so far, have found practically no 
apjjlication, nor will they ever, in all probability. 
To say that canvas and wood can be treated 
with a simple paint or liquid finish so that 
they will not burn, seems to most people 
parado.xical ; yet there arc at least two, and 
possibly more, concerns manufacturing such 
preparations. At the works of the Martin 
Process Firej)roof Paint Company, in New 
Y»rk, we were shown by Mr. George A. 
Nelson several tests of canvas, mosquito netting. 
wood, and straw, which had been treated with 
their paint and other protective preparations. 
By subjecting the materials to continued flame, 
they were slowly charred, but not once did any 
flames start. The principal theatres in New 
York have scenery protected by the Martin 
preparations, but in Boston we question whether 
a single manager has taken this precaution. 
We understand that the New York Fireproot 
Paint Company, on Maiden Lane, also man- 
ufactures successful preparations. Why could 
not such woodwork as is absolutely necessary 
in fireproof buildings be so treated? The 
preparation may be applied as a filler, to 
doors, floors, window frames, etc., before they 
are finally finished. 






■^ - — - - -^ 





i.- A« 

tttE are informed that .Minneapolis is to 
^^ have a plant for the manufacture of 
hollow brick, etc., for fireproofing. .The Mc- 
Mullan Brick Company been incorporated 
■ there with a capital of fifteen thousand dollars. 
Joseph Congdon, a prominent contractor and 
builder, is the president, and James McMuUan 
secretary and treasurer. The company will de- 
velop the plant of the .Minneapolis Hydraulic Pressed Brick Company. 

'"p^HE Central Congregational Church at Providence, illustrated on 
■'■ pages 6 1 and 62 of this issue, is interesting in showing an ap])li- 
cation of the Guastavino method of fireproof construction to dome 
and vault construction. 


YOKK. Orn.wik 

^ASS GILBERT, Endicott Building, St. P.iul, will advertise this 
^ month foi bids on the Armoury Building, at Shattock School, 
Faribault, to be a fireproof building, with five-inch segment arches, 
partitions, and furring of hollow tile. Red pressed brick for outside 
walls. Estimated cost, seventy-five thousand dollars. 

'T~<HERE will be erected in Philadelphia, on the corner of 15th and 
•'■ Market Streets, by Mr. Alfred Harrison, a twelve-story hotel, 
which is to be strictly fireproof throughout. The building will be en- 
tirely of terra-cotta. there being no bricks used at all, except possibly 
for the fire-escape tower. It will be a steel-frame building, every 


EKiALs: The Loru.larij Brick Works Co.mi'anv, 92 Liberi-v .St., New 
NiAi. TERRA-CorrA : New York Architecfural Terra-Cotta Company. 

particle of the steel covered and protected by terra-totti. The body of 
the walls will be of hollow cubes of terra-cotta extending through the 
entire thickness of the walls, modelled on the exterior to the required 
design, and scored on the inside to receive the plaster, which will be 
applied directly to the terra-cotta, and be of a quality that will resist 
the action of fire and water. There will be no wood floors nor stair- 
ways ; in fact, everything which can lie made of fireproof material will 
be so. 

The building, as before mentioned, will be twelve stories in height, 
and be in the F"rench Rennaissance style, very highly ornamented, 
and will contain all the modern improvements. E.vperiments are now 
being made by the architects, Messrs. Cope & Stevvardson, and their 
engineer, Mr. Furber, in order to determine what kind of partitions 
will be most thoroughly fire and sound proof, with particular reference 
to the latter requirement. The drawings are now being made and the 
work of erection will begin about June i . 






THE manufacture of high-grade Portland cement in the United 
States is really a new industry. For many years so-called Port- 
land cement has been made in sm;jll quantities in Pennsylvania, but 
up to within three years a cement has not been made in this country 
that could compare in quality to the highest brands of German and 
French Portland cements. While we possess raw material in Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey much superior to the raw material found in 
Europe, it has been only recently that several American manufacturers, 
by carefully studying the subject, have discovered correct methods of 
making cement and of using their raw material to the best advantage. 
With the exception of such works, built within the last three years, 
manufacturers are greatly handicapped by the impossibility of apply- 
ing correct principles, using, as they do, crude methods of calcination 
and a primitive mode of grinding. To keep up with improvements, 
and better the quality of their product, so many radical changes would 
be necessary that the cost would be even greater than in building new 
works. The English manufacturers, too, labor under this disadvan- 
tage. The Germans, on the other hand, engaging in the manufact- 
ure of cement much later, and profiting by the knowledge and ex- 
perience of the English, constructed their works in accordance with 
correct principles. It may be, also, that the Germans, of a more 
scientific and technical turn of mind than the English, discovered 
details in the manufacture of Portland cement unknown to tlie latter. 
At all events, it stands as a fact, that English Portland cements in 
general are not to be classified with German Portland cements ; there 
is a radical difference between the two. The English cements are 
coarsely ground, quick-setting, low in lime, and consequently not so 
strong; whereas the German cements are as a rule finely ground, slow- 
setting, and high in lime. These differences mean a great deal, hoth 
as to economy and strength in works of construction, as will be 
explained hereafter. On account of the superiority of German 
cements, doing so much more, better, and safer work, their price, as 
well as the demand for them, has increased, whereas the opposite is 
the case with English cements. 

In the United .States, there is an immense field for the manufact- 
ure of high-grade Portland cement, if the German methods are fol- 
lowed in every detail. The material found in the United States, 
especially in certain -j^arts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, is certainly 
superior to any yet discovered in Europe. At Whitaker, N. J., three 
miles east of Phillipsburg, on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, and sixty- 
four miles from New York, the cement rock deposit is very extensive. 
This rock is a slate marl, the analysis of which is as follows : — 

Silica 14.44 per cent. 

Alumina Sesquioxide of Iron . . 5.91 " " 

Carbonate of Lime . . 75-17 " " 

Carbonate of Magnesia . . . .yy " " 

This deposit of rock was bored in several places to a depth of 
two hundred feet, with no change in the character of the rock, or in 
the analysis, and from a number of borings in various parts of the 
deposit the analysis of the rock averaged the same within a half of 
one per cent. Nature could not be more kind in her gifts to man, 
than in this Whitaker deposit. It is impossii)le to find a material 
more adapted to the manufacture of the highest grade of Portland 

cement. The constituents of the rock are just in the proper amount 
and quantity to manufacture such a cement. This facilitates the 
process of manufacture, and guarantees the uniformity of the finished 
product, for it is not necessary, as it is elsewhere, to add lime to 
the raw material to get the proper proportions of component parts in 
the cement. The cement rock deposit of Pennsylvania runs low in 
lime, and to keep the finished product up to the proper amount of 
lime it is necessary to add limestone to the cement rock. It is a 
well-established fact that the limestones of Pennsylvania possess more 
or less magnesia; this, in quantities of over three per cent in the fin- 
ished product, is exceedingly detrimental to the stability of Portland 
cement, causing disintegration. It is what a manufacturer abhors. 
In quantities of less than three per cent it does not affect in any 
way the quality of the cement. Even in the best limestone quarries 
it is difficult to separate stone running low in magnesia from that run- 
ning high, and manufacturers who use limestone in connection with 
their rock cannot make as uniform cement as those who do not have 
to add the limestone. At Whitaker it never has been and never will 
be necessary to add limestone to the cement rock. 

Possessing the proper material is a very great advantage, and, in 
fact, it is the basis of success ; but it is not everything that is required 
to make the best cement. There are various processes of minufactur- 
ing Portland cement. The old me;hod, or the " lime kiln " process, 
is very imperfect ; yet considerable cement in Europe, and almost all 
in England, is made in this way, the kiln being an improvement on 
the lime kiln, but on the same principle. The Germans, however, 
have adopted the Portland draw kiln based on the Hoffman principle, 
which has produced most excellent results, and which is adapted to 
their raw material. .Most of our domestic Portland cements are made 
with what is really a lime kiln, ^ improved, it is true, by increasing 
the height of the stack, making it more solid, giving it a better lining, 
etc., but the same in principle. 

In manufacturing cement by this process the manufacturer first 
quarries his rock, adds chalk or lime in proportions, and grinds it as 
fine as possible. It is then placed in a pug mill and thoroughly 
mixed. This mixture is then made into a very stitT paste and moulded 
into bricks, which are dried artificially and then placed in the kiln, 
first a layer of coke and then a layer of bricks, and so on until the kiln 
is full. The contents are ignited and left to burn for a period of ten 
or more days, at the end of which time the contents are drawn out, 
coming from the kiln in a mixture. In brick manufacturing on the 
same principle it is well known that the light-burned brick are towards 
the side of the kiln, where the heat was less intense, and conse- 
(juently brick throughout a kiln of this kind vary in color, hardness, 
density, etc., according to the position they occupied in the kiln. 
It is the same in the manufacture of cement ; the properly burned 
clinkers are in the centre of the kiln, where the heat is the highest, and 
the imder-burned stuff lies towards the walls of the kiln. When the 
contents are drawn it is necessary for men to pick out the properly 
burned clinkers, which are ground for the finished product of the 
highest quality. The under-burned stuff is u.sually ground, barreled, 
and sold for a second or third grade cement, and sometimes worked 
over again and reburnt. The effect of this process on the quality of 
. the cement is very evident. First, it is impossijjle to separate all the 


under-burnt stuff from the good clinkers ; more or less of it will get 
in. These properly burned clinkers are in themselves all very large, 
sometimes as large as a barrel, and, beingso large, considerable under- 
burnt stuff is distributed throughout them. The effect of this under- 
burnt stuff on the finished product is very detrimental. It contains 
the same amount of lime as the properly burned clinkers do, and as 
the object of calcination is to combine all the lime and silica and 
alumina, the more under-burnt stuff there is in the finished product, 
the more free lime there is in the cement, and consequently the 
weaker and more unsafe it is. While under this process one barrel of 
cement may be very good, another may be very bad ; there is no 

Another disadvantage connected with this process is the inability 
to reach the high heat required to combine three parts of lime to one 
of silica. The best Portland cements show about sixty-two to sixty- 
three per cent of lime and twenty-one per cent of silica in the finished 
product, and the more perfectly the al)Ove amounts of lime and silica 
are combined, the greater the strength of the cement and the safer it 
is. This combination requires from three thousand to three thousand 
five hundred degrees of heat, and in a lime-kiln process it cannot be 
attained. Therefore those who use this process very generally 
decrease the amount of lime, and as the lime is decreased in the raw 
material the heat must be lessened, the principle being, the higher the 
lime, the higher the heat. Most American Poitland cements are 
made by this process, and architects and engineers have looked u])on 
them as unreliable and not uniform, they have so often tried them and 
found this to be the case. While the manufacturer using such a 
process may be honest in his efforts, he cannot succeed in attaining 
good results, for his methods are radically opposed to such results. 

When works were constructed at Whittaker, N. J., the 
manufacturers were well aware of this fact, and, realizing that the 
age is progressive and that inferior cements must eventually go, and 
those of the highest quality remain and be established, they deter- 
mined ■ to go even farther than the Germans and manufacture a 
cement which could not be surpassed in quality by any cement in 
the world. The Germans admit that the dry process, or making 
it from the raw material ground to a finely powdered state, is 
the correct principle ; but they have not as yet discovered a process by 
which this principle could be applied under the conditions they have. 
The rotary cylinder process used at Whitaker is especially adajjted to 
the raw material found there, whereas in Europe it would not prove 
a success on a basis of economy. There the raw material is too bulky 
and refractory. Petroleum, which is the fuel under the rotary cylin- 
der process, is too expensive for them. Where they have experimented 
with this process they have made the best cement, but it cost them 
too much. At Whitaker it is the cheapest, best, and most reliable 
process that can be used. The works were built several years ago 
and this process put in ; since then a number of improvements have 
been discovered and adopted, making the process more successful 
than ever. The following is a description of it : — 

The rotary cylinder is made of wrought iron, lined with best fire 
brick. It is forty feet long and about five feet in diameter. It re- 
volves on its axis, on an incline, so that the raw material enters at a 
point higher than where the clinkers drop out at the end of the cylin- 
der. The rock is taken from the quarries and always carefully anal- 
yzed, although this is not actually necessary, the rock being so uniform 
at all times. Yet this is an extra precaution used in the case of every 
batch of rock. It is then ground to impalpable powder, and pa.ssed 
from the grinding machine to the stock box at the head of the rotary 
cylinder. By a conveyor it passes into the cylinder from the stock box 
continuously. The cylinder revolves slowly on its axis. Petroleum, 
mixed with air, and ignited, is forced into the other end of the cyl- 
inder. This blast is continuous and heats the cylinder to three 
thousand five hundred degrees. The heat is easily regulated by in- 
creasing or diminishing the supply of oil. As the powder enters the 
cylinder and comes in contact with the heat all the carbonic acid gas 
is driven off through a stack connected with the top of the cylinder, 
and the powder gradually passes down, moved by the revolution of the 

cylinder. As it proceeds it is subjected to severer heat, and, turning 
over and over, is all submitted to the same high uniform heat. 
Calcination and vitrification gradually take place, and the clinkers, 
forming, drop out at the end of the cylinder into a receiving chamber, 
where they are allowed to cool slowly, and when perfectly cool are 
ground to the finished product. 

Under the old-style process as used in this country it takes fully 
ten days or more to make a barrel of Portland cement ; under the 
rotary cylinder process it does not take over twelve hours. The ad- 
vantages of the rotary cylinder process over every other process in ex- 
istence are as follows : — 

First. Every particle of the raw material is submitted to the 
same uniform heat, and consequently the clinkers coming from the 
cylinder are all alike in color, density, hardness, and state of vitrifac- 
tion, which results in making the finished product alike and uniform 
in every particular. If one barrel of cement is poor, all must be poor ; 
if one barrel is good, all must be good, as all the clinkers are alike 
as they come from the cylinder. 

Second. The heat is always under the full control oPthe manu- ■ 
facturer: he can lessen or increase it at his will. There is no other 
process in the \vorld where this can be done so perfectly as in the ro- 
tary cylinder. Also, it is possible to attain a much greater heat than 
is necessary on account of being able to reach so high a heat that the 
lime can always be, kept high in the cement, thus insuring a stronger 
finished product. It is for this reason that the rock at Whitaker is 
esi)ecially adapted to the rotary cylinder, being high in 'lime 
and more thoroughly under a high heat. 

Third. The clinkers are small in size, never larger than a bean, 
and consequently are uniform throughout and more ea.sily handled and 

Fourth. If anything should occur to mar the quality of the ce- 
ment, it can be discovered instantly and checked : whereas under the 
lime-kiln process it takes ten days to discover the results of a single 

I have tried to show why a cement manufactured under the ro- 
tary cylinder process, when proper material is used, as at Whitaker, 
for instance, is superior to any manufactured under any other process. 
1 ^ake it for granted, however, that, leaving out of the question where 
a Portland cement is manufactured, all engineers and architects are 
open to correction, and prefer to use a cement on their operations in 
which they have confidence and which they believe will do the best 
work. It must be admitted that there is a prejudice, and a very just 
one. against the use of American Portland cements for high engineer- 
ing work for the reasons heretofore stated. It is, however, the aim of 
the Whitaker Cement Company to overcome this prejudice by consci- 
entious effort, and they have certainly been very successful in whatever 
locality their cement has been used. Inquiry may be made why I dis- 
criminate so strongly against cements, though ordinarily good, in 
favor of some others. It is for this reason: There are .some cements, 
correctly manufactured, which possess characteristics which I claim 
are the distinguishing features of a proper Portland cement, and 
which characteristics are essential to insure economy as well as stabil- 
ity in work. It is a fact conceded by every one that all Portland 
cements running from sixty-two to si.vty-three per cent of lime and 
twenty-one per cent of silica, if hard burned, are stronger than oth- 
ers of lower amount of lime and lighter burnt. However, a cement 
running from sixty-two to sixty-three per cent of lime, and hard burnt, 
may have the strength, but under certain conditions not be able to 
manifest this strength. A cement of great strength, which is coarsely 
ground, will not show as great adhesive strength under scientific test as 
if it were finely ground. The finer a Portland cement is ground the 
greater are its adhesive qualities. The Portland cement of great 
strength, very finely ground, possesses one characteristic which distin- 
guishes it from others not so strong or so fine. It will get its maxi- 
mum strength in a much shorter time. This is nothing but ordinary 
common sense. The best portion of any cement is the hardest burnt 
portion, which is the most difficult to grind, and the impalpaljle por- 
tion of such cement has an intense affinity for the sand and stone in 



mortar and concrete. It is known that with hard-burnt cements the 
residue on a No. 100 sieve has no setting qualities, and if this re.sidue 
were ground much finer it would set, and exhibit more strength in set- 
ting, the finer it was ground. And if all the cement were ground to 
impalpable powder, it would take but a very short time for it to get its 
maximum strength, neat. It is a decided advantage when the harden- 
ing of the mortar is not too slow, because the structure is then placed, in 
a short time, beyond all dangers. In the works at Whitaker, this prin- 
ciple in manufacture is taken into consideration, and seventy per cent 
is guaranteed to pass through a 200 sieve, or forty thousand holes to 
the square inch. This seventy per cent is practically impalpable 
powder. An additional guarantee that not over ten per cent residue 
shall remain on a No. 100 sieve is made by the Whitaker Cement 

It is a most difficult thing to grind hard-burned cement finely. 
In England ordinary burr stones are used, and as a consequence the 
cement is very coarsely ground. In Germany the grinding is done 
by more improved machinery, and is finer ; but at Whitaker the 
clinkers are ground in steel grinding machines which require great 
power and endurance. As a result, the Whitaker cement is exceed- 
ingly fine, and will attain its maximum strength, neat, in a compara- 
tively short time. 

If architects and engineers would reject all cements not meeting, 
under the hands of a competent tester, the following tests, all Ameri- 
can manufacturers would be forced to put out a cement insuring better 
and more stable work, on an economical basis. The specifications I 
would recommend are these : — 

1. The cement, neat, must .'•tand a minimum tensile strain of 
four hundred pounds to one square inch seciion (briciuettus one day 
in air and six days in water). 

2. The cement, three parls of sand (standard crushed, quartz 
being used for testing) and one of cement, must stand a minimum 
tensile strain of one hundred and twenty-fi\e pounds to one square 
inch section (bric|uettes one day in air and six da\s in water). 

3. The cement must stand the boiling test, or test for safety. 
The test must be made as follows : Make a thick cake of neat cement, 

allow it to set hard in air, twenty-four hours, then immerse it in boil- 
ing water, and keep this water up to 212° Fahr. for twenty-four hours. 
At the end of twenty-four hours, if the cake shows no sign of disin- 
tegrating or cracking, it has passed the boiling test. 

4. The cement must pass the following test for fineness: There 
shall be only two per cent on a No. 50 sieve, ten per cent on a No. 
100 sieve, and thirty per cent on a No. 200 sieve. 

5. An experienced, capable man shall do the testing., 

A cement standing, in every particular, the above specifications, 
is much more economical than one which does not, and I would 
recommend, in concreting for heavy buildings, using such a cement, 
the following proportions : One part cement; four parts sand (coarse, 
sharp, and free from all loam) ; seven parts broken stone (clean from 
all dirt). For mortars, I would use one part of cement to three 
parts of clean, sharp, and coarse sand, with the addition of a very 
little cold and thoroughly slacked lime. One part cement, four of 
sand, and a very little lime — just enough to give plasticity to the 
mortar — would give most excellent results. 

Of course, in the use of large proportions of sand and broken 
stone in concreting, and the use of large quantities of sand in mortar, 
it is necessary to be most careful in the mixing. In making the con- 
crete, it is well to use as little water as possible, and to carefully ram 
the concrete until it sheds water. The concrete, when set, will then 
harden very rapidly, using the quality of cement recommended. It is 
fiilse economy to buy cheap cements and u^e more in the concrete or 
mortar. Better and more stable work would be attained, and cost less, 
by using larger proportions of broken stone and sand, with a high- 
grade cement meeting the foregoing specifications. It is highly im- 
portant, to insure success, that the best quality of liroken stone and 
sand be obtained, and that the work be done properly. 

I trust this article may be read with interest by architects, en- 
gineers, and builders, and that it may induce them to reconmiend or 
use the best of Portland cements for their work, which I know they 
will find will give them more satisfactory and economical results. 


{See Editor''s note on folhnving page. ) 

The Alpha Portland Cement. 

Its superiority is fully established ; fur lineness, uniformity of color, and 
great tensile strength it is unexcelled. Every barrel of "ALPHA 
PORTLAND CEMENT guaranteed equal to the very best brands of 
" (jerman Portland Cements," and its minimum tensile strength 
guaranteed as follows : 

Sole New England Agenis, Gen' I Agents, 


No. 92 State St.. Boston. Betz BIdg., Phila. 


1 clay in air, 6 days in water, ... - - 400 lbs. ) j^^^^ 

,, I, .1 ' .u • . i i< \ i er square men. 

1 ' ' ' 3 months m water . - - - 600 * J ^ 

3 parts of sand to i of cement. — Adhesive lest. 

I day in air, 6 days in water, .25 lbs. j p ; ,_ 


Residue on sieve No. 50, None. 

" '* " ** 100, 10 per cent. 

Passing through sieve No. 200, .--.-..-65" 

Every barrel guaranteed to stand the boiling test, the test for safety. 


Ts superior to any other Portland Cement made. It is verv finely ground, always uniform and reliable, 
and of such extraordinary strength, that it will permit the addition of 2.5 per cent more sand, etc., 
than other well-known Portland Cements, and produce the most durable work. It is unalterable in 
volume and not liable to crack. 

8,000 barrels have been used i*n the foundations of the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty, and it has 
also been used in the construction of the Washington Monument at Washington. 

Pamphlet uiith direciioiisfor its employment, testimonials and tests, sent on application. 


560 Albany Street, BOSTON. 78 William Street, NEW YORK, 

Sole Agent United States. 


WILLIAM N. BEACH, President. 




Guaranteed to stand all required tests. 


-, ]xrE-\7V Tron.It. 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 

TT tE think it is only fair to Mr. Donaldson, and to the cement he 
* ' has done so much to bring up to its hij^h quality, to state a 
fact which he has modestly omitted from his article, but which is of 
interest to all who have read it. Then, too, perhaps we can say it 
with better grace than Mr. Donaldson. The cement manufactured by 
the process he describes is the Alpha Portland cement, made by the 
Whilaker Cement Company. Mr. Donaldson, whose office is in the 
I5etz Building, Philadelphia, is the general agent for this cement, and 
here in New England it is handled by James A. Davis & Co., corner 
State Street and Merchants' Row, Boston. 

(^For further cement notes see page xii. ) 

Alsen's Portland Cement. 

The strongest, finest ground, and most uniform 
Cement in the world. Permits the admixture of 
more sand than any other, and is the best for mortar 
or stuccoing. 

143 Liberty Street, 

New York. 








Metallic and Graphite 


Cleveland, O. 

Peerless Mortar Colors, 


Our New Colors are novel and attractive and well worthy of attention. 



All Colors Permanent ami Stiperior to any Article in Use, 


Painters' and Builders' Supplies, 






Will Not Fade. 

Easy to Work. 

MS ■■ llf .^ 



Mr. Geo. H. Kuhrooke, ( Red Pressed Brick and) Messrs. P. J. Caklik & 
Architect, ! ' Granite, laid in j Co., Builders, 

New Vork. ( Clinton Hematite Red. ) Brooklyn. 


" A Little Talk on Metallic Paints and Mortar Colors." 

Write for this book, mailed free on application to the 

The Clinton Metallic Paint Co., 

Clinton, N. Y., 



. . A.Ml . . 


164 Devonshire Street, . . - - 





A Department devoted to the Market Side of Clay Production. 



'"T^HK manufacturing .side of the clay-working is already 
well taken care of by several periodicals. The market side, 
previous to the publication of The Bkickbuilder, has been neglected. 
It is the purpose of this paper, from cover to cover, to advocate the 
use of clay-building materials, and, by presenting their merits in every 
conceivable way, induce owners, architects, and builders to use them 
wherever possible to the exclusion of other materials. The Brick- 
builder will, in short, use every legitimate means to increase the 
consumption of brick, tile, and terra-cotta. Its success in this direc- 
tion means more business for the manufacturer, necessitating more 
and better machinery, and greater dyer and kiln capacities. It means 
the establishing of new yards where there are none at present. We 
therefore expect the hearty support and co-operation of every clay- 
worker and every manufacturer of brickyard equipment who wishes to 
see a larger and more general use of clay products. The columns of 
this department are open to the discussion of all questions relating to 
the market side. Every manufacturer who has a suggestion for selling 
more brick should put it into these columns. We especially request 
clay-workers to subscribe to, read, and write for our paper. Its suc- 
cess as an advocate of architecture in clay materials directly benefits 
every one interested in clay-working. 


To THE Editor of The Bkickbuilder: — 

Sir, — The writer first wishes to congratulate you on the 
neat ajjpearance, mechanical excellence, and general make-up of 
your publication, which will surely be appreciated by brickbuildcrs 
as well as brickmakers. If your publication causes better brickwork, 
the brickmaker is benefited ; the more attractive we can make brick 
walls, the more demand there will be for them. There are two essen- 
tial features necessary for a handsome brick structure : first, there must 
be bricks perfect in shape, uniform in color, with well-finished sur- 
faces; setond, they must be skilfully laid in the wall. To accomplish 
this result, there must be harmony between the brickmaker and the 
brickbuildcrs. Brickmakers have publications representing their inter- 
ests, brickbuilders have their interests represented through your 
periodical ; through these mediums the manufacturer and the builder 
can compare notes, which must prove mutually beneficial. The great 
question with both is how to increase the demand for brick for all 
purjjoses. In your article in March number you give the brickmaker 
sound advice, saying, " He should use every legitimate means to 
secure the use of brick wherever it can be substituted for other ma- 
terial." The builder should do likewise; he should post himself on 
the advantages of brick over other articles as a building material, 
especially over wood. A i;rick building is more durable ; it is cooler 

in summer and warmer in winter, with walls properly ventilated by 
.spaces for circulation of air between the outer and inner courses of 
brick ; it is as dry as wood ; it is in less danger from fire, hence 
insurance rates are less ; it saves painting. These are some of the 
points to make in the argument for brick walls. Again, people ought 
to be convinced of the fact that they can have a brick wall trimmed 
with stone, terra-cotta, and fancy patterns of moulded brick, that can- 
not be surpassed for artistic beauty by any other material. Articles 
on the lines of that referred to in March number will result in great 
good to our business. We do not adyertise the merits of our wares 
as others do in other lines. 

The demand in the Southern States for well-made bricks is in- 
creasing. Most buyers want all hard bricks. This necessitates the 
iHirchase of better machinery and the construction of improved kilns 
for burning all hard, sound bricks. No broken or damaged bricks are 
sent to buildings in this section. They must be all whole. For face 
bricks there is a growing demand for dry-press bricks. This is being 
met by manufacturers putting in the best dry-press machinery. There 
is also considerable inc|uiry for roadway pavers, or annealed bricks. 
This demand will no doubt soon be met by enterprising brickmakers. 
There are now signs of increased activity in building material, which, 
of course, has l:)een dull for twelve months past. Most of the large 
plants ship their product lo ni.irket by rail. 

R. I'l. MOKRIbON. 

Rome, (la. 

To THE Editor of The liRicKiiuiLDEK : — 

Sir, — \o\\ have been kind to me in sending your very excellent 
journal, which in its line has no equal, that I am aware of. Brick 
building, in all its forms, principles, practice, and economic interest, 
is the most important industry that concerns the growth, welfare, 
social and pecuniary interest of our cities. 

Utility, strength, health, and protection against fire are the great- 
est considerations. These are the factors with which you are to deal, 
1 think, with the most special care. It is true that architectural 
elegance and beauty must not be overlooked, but no amount of 
elaborated adornment in the exterior construction of buildings will 
in any reasonable degree compensate for ill-proportioned buildings 
or walls, or inferior materials or workmanship. I have no space here 
to discuss this subject, and it may look like presumption for me to 
say that about all true principles of building up cities are either 
ignored or violated. If I cannot show this fact in a few short articles, 
I will take a " back seat," and acknowledge that I don't know what I 
am talking about. I trust that The Bkickbuilder will take up this 
important subject and find more able help than I could give in its 

I am very truly 'yours, 

J. W. Ckaky, Sr. 
IJlufT Springs, Fla. 



The two foregoing letters are gratifying evidences that our re- 
marks on the market side, in last month's issue, struck home in two 
instances at least. Every word of Mr. Morrison's communication is 
solid common sense, yet there are thousands of clay-workers to whom 
his way of looking at the subject has never occurred. His statement 
that "if The Ukickbuildek causes better brickwork the brickmaker 
is benefited," only half covers the ground. We are working not 
only to cause belter brickwork, but more of it. We want to sec 
towns and villages as well as cities built of brick. We want to .see 
brick dwellings, brick churches, brick schools, brick stables, as well 
as brick stores, instead of stone or frame structures. Further, we 
want to see brick walls replace wooden and iron fences, brick 
in our pavements replace cedar block, asphalt, or stone, brick 
sidewalks, and, in short, a brick everywhere it can satisfactorily meet 
the requirements of its position. We ask any brickmaker to look 
about him and see what might have been done in brick, but was not. 
Mr. Morrison says brickmakers have publications representing their 
interests. We want to correct this by a statement that no publication 
more than half represents their interests, and there is only one, — The 
Hrickbuilder. representing by far the more important portion of 
their interests ; for we hold that the market side of any industry is the 
all-important side. Give an industry a market, and the processes of 
manufacture will be met ; but without that market no process is of 
the slightest value. This is so self-evident, and is so clearly proven 
every day of history, by the shutting dow n of works when the demand 
for their goods ceases, that it seems needless to dwell upon it for a 
moment. But it shows that the market is the key to the whole situa- 
tion. Upon it depends the operation of existing plants, and the 
equipment of new ones, and, consequently, every sale of brickyard 
machinery or equipment. To try and increase this market is the 
mission of The Hrickhuii.dek — to cover the portion of the brick 
manufacturer's business upon which depends directly every other por- 
tion covered by the journals devoted to manufacturing processes. 

The increase in the market for clay goods depends largely upon 
the users, not the makers, of these goods. The owner who erects a 
building, the architect who designs it, the contractor who builds it, 
are the parties upon whom the selection of material depends. The 
Hrickhuii.dek works to increase the demand for brick by placing 
arginncnts in its favor directly before the building classes, and also 
by placing at the di.sposal of the manufacturer a weapon to use in 
counteracting the influence of the several papers u.sed by wood-work- 
ers. By showing what the leading American architects are constantly 
doing in succe-ssfully using clay materials, through the publication of 
photographs, sketches, and working drawings, and by publishing ex- 
amples of the best historical work in Europe, together with strong 
articles advocating brick and terra-cotta work, we are each month dis- 
tributing, in rapidly increasing numbers, a series of convincing argu- 
ments, proving that the materials you, the manufacturers, produce 
are the best for building purposes, not only for construction pure and 
simple, but for artistic effect. Is such work as this not worth your 
co-operation? Is it not_r«/////«^ directly to your advantage? 


\T fHEN two or three shades of brick are obtainable that are of 
^ ^ the same hardness so that they will wear uniformly, a very 
handsome walk can be laid following the same class of designs so 
successful in tile floors. When all these colors are not of the same 
hardness, by selecting the hardest for the centre of the walk, which 
is to be kept plain, and laying the three colors to produce a border 
design, the wear on the sides will not be sufficient to seriously affect 
the walk. This especially applies to a walk from the house to the 
street. There is an infinite number of ways in which such a walk 
may be laid with the of only two shades of brick. Such a walk, 
with a well-designed front wall, would be e.vceeding effective, in con- 
nection with a fine brick residence. 


npHE im]jortance of the clay-worker as a factor in building opera- 
tions is slowly but surely being recognized. Heretofore his 
connections with the art of building have been in the main incidental, 
but within the past twenty years the few simple and somewhat crude 
examples of his lack of skill have been crowded to the rear, and their 
place supi)lied by a larger variety of more beautiful and useful evidences 
of his progress. Even the common building brick of twenty years 
ago has been replaced by a better-appearing and much more durable 
and serviceable article, and the quality of all building material manu- 
factured from clay is constantly being improved. The science of 
preparing and mixing clays, unknown a comparatively few years ago, 
while yet in its infancy, has borne its full part in the evolution of 
clay-working, and no branch of the clay-working industry is receiving 
more careful consideration than is being given to this branch of the 
business. The civilization of the last half of the nineteenth century 
has demanded that more attention should be paid to the icsthetic, and 
that buildmgs should be erected which, without detracting from their 
strength, durability, or usefulness, should be more pleasing to the eye. 
To this demand the architects of this and previous generations have 
royally responded. Their efforts to satisfy the taste of the cultured 
of this age have taxed the resources and ingenuity of the progressive 
clay-worker, and to them the world owes its tribute for a class of 
buildings more beautiful and pleasing than those of any other country 
or previous era. The artistic combination of colors and shapes, 
which can now be produced with brick and terra-cotta in this country, 
is the evidence of the growth of the clay-worker's art, and will for 
ages be the monument of those who have aided in its development. 
But the student who endeavors to obtain, from the literature of the 
clay-worker, information to guide and direct his research, and to 
assist him in obtaining a technical knowledge of the art, finds his 
efforts completely balked. Acknowledged by all to l)e the oldest of 
the arts, the methods and processes of mixing, forming, and Ijurning 
clay have for centuries been transmitted from father to son, from one 
artisan to another, with scarcely a written word to assist the ambitions 
of the earnest seeker for a better way, or to record the mistakes of 
his predecessor. No college or educational institute in the world 
has ever yet given any prominence to this art, which is still in its 
swaddling clothes, but which has for so long been an important factor 
in the world's history. Very many branches of study, a knowledge 
of which is absolutely necessary to the modern clay-worker, are, it is 
true, taught in all our colleges and universities ; but the text-book 
which shall teach the proper application of the knowledge thus ob- 
tained, to the conversion of Mother Earth into articles of use and 
beauty, has not yet been published. The first works which have been 
written or compiled are in the main unreliable, largely because they 
are out of date. The development of the art has been too rapid for 
its historian to keep pace with it. Another, and jjcrhaps the prime, 
reason for the lack of printed data on so important a subject is that 
within a few years the manipulation and burning of clay were con- 
sidered as an avocation requiring brawn and mu.scle rather than an 
art or profession needing brains and intelligence. . To-day the clay- 
workers, as a class, compare favorably with other manufacturers. 
Among them can be found many men of superior intelligence and 
attainments, whose practical training, added thereto, has enabled them 
to reap the reward they so richly deserve. The necessity for knowl- 
edge is rapidly asserting itself, and the clay-worker of the future will 
have a thorough practical training in chemistry, geology, and physics. 
He will, in addition, be a practical machinist of no mean order. .Speed 
the day when from the public and private libraries of this country can 
be obtained information nece.ssary to the .success of the clay-worker. 
Hasten the time when an ambitious young man or woman can gradu- 
ate from our high schools or colleges, with an education that will en- 
title them to membership in the ranks of clay-workers deserving of 
the name. 






HENRY M. KEASBEY, President. 
W. LB. G. ALLEN, Sec'y and Treas. 





In Hollow Tile and Porous Terra-Cotta* 


Special Facilities for Large Contracts* 


874 Broadway, cor, 1 8th Street, 

„,,New York*., 



...Established 1856 


Manufacturers of 

Fire=Proof Building Materials. 

Floor Arches, 



Roofing, Etc, 

Porous Terra-Cotta 

of aD Sizes, 

Flue Linings, 

Etc, Etc. 


25 per cent. Stronger and Lighter than any other method. 

Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d STREET, 

-New York. 




On C. R. R. of N. J. 

Philadelphia Office, 18 South 7th Street. 

Boston Fire-Proofing Co., Fire-Proof Building Material. 

DAVID MclNTGSH, Proprietor. 


R. M. Hi'NT, Archiieci. C Evbbbtt Clark, Builder. 

Fire=Proofed and Plastered by 

BOSTON FIRE-PROOFING CO., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston. 



Pioneer Fire- Proof Construction Company^ 

1545 So. Clark Street, Chicago. 

The Only System 
Awarded a 
and Diploma 



Our Patented Transverse System of Floor Arcli Construclloi. Made in 9, 10, 12, and 15 Incli deplls. 

At the 

Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

Hollow, Solid and Porous Terra-Cotta 


Office, Factories, and Clay Banks, at Standard Landing, 
on Raritan River, near Perth Amboy, N. J. 

/?. C. PENFIELD, Pres. A. E. LANDER, Mgr. Sales Dept. J. A. GREEN, Sec. and Treas. 

^6 ^9 -^9 




Manufacturers of.. 

Fire-Proofing, Brick, Tile, 

And other Clay Products. 

•?w ^b ^w 

New York Office, lU FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

p. O. Address, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta 
Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 


Also, Manufacturers of Plain and (under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural 

Building Blocks* 

Hollow, Porous, Front, and Paving Brick. 


General Offices: Carnegie Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Western Office: Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago. 

Eastern Office: Metropolitan Building, New York City 




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Patented Suspension System, for Floors, Roofs, Ceilings and all forms of Ornamental Cove Work. 




Main Office, Trenton, N. J. 

N. Y. Office, 874 Broadway. 

Boston Office, 166 Devonshire St. 


Cooper, Hewitt & Co., 

17 Burling Slip, New York. 

F. W. Silkman, 



Cbemtcale, /Iftinerale, 
Claips, an6 Colo re. 

For Potters, Terra=Cotta, and Enameled Brick Manufacturers. 

Correspondence Invited. 

231 Ipcarl Street, IRcw l^ork. 



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Enameled Brick 

Formerly Qriffen Enameled Brick Co. 

Manufacturers of a Superior Quality of 



. . . Quality Equal if not Superior to the best Imported Brick. . . . 

Works : 

P. O. Address, 

Oaks, Pa. 

Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 

Main Office: 

287 Fourth Avenue, 

New York City. 


References : 

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Marquette BuildinH. 
Atwood Buililinii. 
Lincoln Jiuililing. 
Truile liuiUling. 

Garfield Park Power House, 
(ireat Northern Theater. 
Snieeth listate (Front), 
Stewart Building. 

nVFF.ALO, N. v. 
Guaranty Huilding. 


Majestic Building. 
Detroit Post Office. 

Toledo «£• Ann Arhor Depot. 
Court House Poyver House. 
Luce Estate Building ■ Front). 

Hosier Brewery. 


4th Precinct Police Station. 

Park Building. 


Allegheny Water Works. 

Brokaw Memorial. 

Long Distance Telephone Express 579. 

Tinaiig EQameM Bflct Co., 


Aulium State's Prison. 

Liggett Jk Meyer Tobacco Factory. 

Chicago ,ir Alton R. R. Depot. 

Deaf and Dumb Institute. 

Rochester State Hospital. 

Washburn Memorial Home. 
Regan Bros. Bakery. 

Hoard Creamery. 

Enameled Brick, 

in different colors, are being 
adopted for fine fronts, avoid- 
ing all unsightly WHITJi 

Estimates furnished on application 

General Offices: 


James L. rvankine, Eastern Agent, 1 1 4g- so- 5 J Marquette Building, 
Room 626. 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 204 Dearborn street. 




^vhe pB^ss^o 


' {^tD, GRAY,BROW ^J 

Sa^rc ^ Ifisber do. 

'^ ■; ''■1 ;. .*J^, rb2-"' 

^£^' ^r&r 







We are the largest manufacturers of BRICK in the 

United States^ 

ARD ■ I/./- 




-^O? BroaA^'^^ New York. 

Our brick are all made after the Clay Tempered or Mud Brick Process and are recognized by our 
best architects, engineers, and contractors to be superior to any brick in the market. Our process 
of manufacture produces a brick very dense and hard, absorbing very little or no moisture, and a 
brick guaranteed to keep its color. They have been used in the most prominent buildings in New- 
York City. 

Boston Agent, CHARLES BACON, Phillips Building, 3 Hamilton Place. 

JULIUS A. STUR5BERQ, President. 

J. V. V. BOORAEH, Vice-President. 

J. FRANCIS BOORAEM, Secy and Treas. 

American Enameled Brick and Tile Co*, 

14 East 23d Street, NEW YORK. 

manufactutcvs Of Enamcleb JSrick. 

HGcnts : 

Works : 
South River, N. J. 


• ^^^t^-^^^Sfm 


950 Drexel Building, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

751 18th Street, New York. 
5 A, South River, N. J. 


Wn. C. LEWIS, 

504 Law Building, 

Baltimore, rid. 


Builders' Exchange, 

Washington, D. C. 


Binghamton State Hos|)ital, Binghamton, N. Y. Miles 

Leonard, builder. 
St. Catherine's Hospital. Brooklyn, N. Y. Arch., Wm. 

Schickel & Co., New York. W. & T. Lamb, builders. 
Bellevue Hospital, New York. Arch., Withers & Dick- 
son. John F. Johnson, builder. 
Brooklyn Distilling Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mechanics National Bank, Brooklyn, N. Y. Arth., 

Johnson & Co. W. & T. Lamb, builders. 
Trenton Water Works, Trenton, N. J. Arch., Wni. A. 

Poland. John Barlow, builder. 
Mutual Life Building, Philadelphia, Pa. Arch., Philipp 

Roos. E. L. Pennock, builder. 
Wadsworth Building, New York City. Arch., Youngs, 

Bergersen & Cornell. Robinson & Wallace, builders. 
The Bowling Green Building, New York City. Arch., 

W. & G. Audsley. Standard Structural Co., builders. 

Schenectady Water Works, Schenectady, N. Y. John 

McKnerge. builder. 
Stamford, Conn., Railroad Depot CN. Y., N. H. & H. 

R. R.),Wm. A. Thomas, builder. 
Hotel Manhattan, 42d St., New York City. Arch., Henry 

Hardenburg. Marc Eidlitz & Son, builders. 
Brooklyn Trolley Power House, Chas. Hart, builder. 
Altmaii's Dry Goods Establishment, i8th St., New York 

City. Arch., Kimball & Thompson. Chas. Sooysmith 

& Co., Marc Eidlitz & Son, builders. 
Waldorf Hotel Extension, New York City. Arch., 

Henry J. Hardenburg. Chas. Downey, builder. 
Private Stable, r2o East 75th .St., New York City. John 

J.Tucker, builder. (These were made to match Farn- 

ley imported Brick, in white and in colors. Made in 

our new one-fire process and were pronounced by the 

owner a great success.) 

Private Stable, Utica, N. Y. R. T. Proctor, owner. 
Arch., J. Constable. John F. Hughes, builder. 

Addition to same Stable. Arch., R. M. Hunt, Jr., and 
Maurice Fournachon. John F. Hughes, builder. 

Old Men's Home, Brooklyn (patent tile). Arch., John- 
son & Co, Thomas Dobbin, builder. 

Large Delicatessen Establishment and Restaurant, Har- 
lem, N. Y. Arch., J. P. Walthers. Scheidecker & 
Gonder, builders. 

Trolley Power House, Woodside, L. 1. John D. Wood- 
ruff, builder. 

Private Stable, Portchcstcr, N. Y. Arch., Nathan C. 
Mellen. Wm. Ryan, builder. 

Fire F^ngine House, Newark, N. J. James Moran, 

In addition to these there are other large contracts and 
an innumerable amount of smaller ones. 


188 Devonshire St., 

Boston, Mass. 


14 East 23d Street, 

New York City. 

XVI n 


^be /Iftosaic Uilc Co 

Zanesville, Ohio. 


Ceramic Mosaic Tile 
"Parian Vitreous Tile 

(Zbc StvotiGCSt Zilc in tbc riDavketO 

For Floors and 


Samples, and 
Designs on 

R. C. PENFIELD, Pres. and Mgr. 
O. M. STAFFORD, Treas. 

WM. LB. G. ALLEN, Vice-Pres. 
J. F. HARRIS, Jr., Sec. 


Catskill Shale 
Brick^ and 
Paving Company. 


Manufacturers of., 


^o' Streets and Driveways. 

New York OWice: 



^Bradford, Pa. 



Standard and Ornamental Shapes. 

MADE from pure shale, and without coloring matter of any kind. 
They are free from lime, magnesia, and saltpetre, which pro- 
duce discoloration after being laid in the wall. 

These brick are burned in combination up-and-down draft 
kilns, with natural gas, thus making no fire marks or discol- 
I ored surfaces from the heat and flame, so that a brick is 

produced with ends and faces equally good. 

While our brick are very dense and cajsable of resisting un- 
usually great compressive strains, they can be easily cut, carved, and 

This same density causes our brick to have the least ]X).ssibIe 
percentage of absorption, rendering walls much drier than with 
more porous kinds of brick. 



New York Agent, Orrin D. Person, 160 Fifth Ave. 
Cleveland Agent.s, The Cleveland Builders Supply Co. 
New England Agent, Charles E. Willard, 171 Devonshire St., Boston. 

(} JAN. 
^^ t897 
^. No. I 





y#Axxx-» A ' 





Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada 52.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $3-5o pei" year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

AT the possible risk of wearying some of our readers, we feel 
constrained to recur to a subject of which we have fre- 
quently spoken in these pages, viz. : the consideration of bond in 
brickwork and the necessity of a uniform size for bricks. It is a 
melancholy and somewhat humiliating fact that under existing con- 
ditions the quality of brickwork is — all things considered — prob- 
ably worse in America than in any other civilized country, while 
the quality of bricks is often better than elsewhere. All know our 
usual methods of building brick walls. The interior partition and 
bearing walls are invariably built with no less than four, oftener 
six or seven, courses, all stretchers followed by one course of headers, 
the resulting bond being necessarily very imperfect. As the mortar 
is frequently of poor qual'ty, the wall so built has very little trans- 
verse strength. In case of fire, the falling beams frequently bring 
considerable lateral pressure to bear upon the walls, and our brick 
walls are frequently overthrown in fires, when walls, properly built 
and bonded, would stand and check the fire. There can be no doubt 
that the greater destruction caused by fires in this country, even in 
our masonry buildings, is largely to be ascribed to this cause. No 
one factor is more important in fighting fires, as every fire captain 
would testify, than to have walls which can be depended upon to 
stand, and which will serve as ramparts against the fire. On this 
account lateral strength is usually more important than longitudinal 
strength in a wall. The bond in which transverse and longitudinal 
strength are equal is one cause of headers to two of stretchers ; but 
even such a bond as this is almost never found in the interior walls 
of buildings in this country. 

With regard to the exterior walls the case is even worse. Until 
quite recently, the ideal of aii exterior brick wall was one of brick, 

carefully culled to give the greatest uniformity of color and laid all 
stretchers, the front skin of face brick tied to the backing only by 
cutting off occasional bricks at the back and tailing bricks in behind 
the cut brick into the backing, or by using hoop iron bond. In 
either case the tie is so slight that the facing adds practically noth- 
ing to the strength of the wall. Such a wall is as bad artistically as 
it is con.structionally. The even and hardly visible jointing and the 
uniformity of color produce a surface absolutely devoid of character 
or interest, and without the charm of color, which comes naturally 
and inevitably where bricks are used without culling, and are laid 
with joints sufficiently wide to tell in the color scheme. 

Of late, since our architects have been learning the beauty of 
color variet) in brick, and the value of the jointing as an element in 
the color and texture of the wall, these walls of monotonous same- 
ness have become less common. Not only have bricks of russet, 
buff, and other colors been introduced, but even the red bricks are 
very often laid without culling, as they ought always to be. The 
greater effectiveness and interest given to the appearance of a brick 
wall surface by the true English and Flemish bonds has also come 
to be appreciated, and these are more and more used in place of 
the insipid stretcher work which was invariable twenty years ago. 
Owing, however, to the fact that common bricks in this country are 
rarely made, as they ought to be, so that two headers with the in- 
termediate joint will be just equal to a stretcher, it is difficult and 
expensive to make use of these bonds. The width of the brick in 
relation to its length is usually too short, and the result is that the 
strongest of these two bonds, the true English bond, can rarely be 
made use of, without cutting the brick to avoid the vertical joints 
coming over each other to the detriment of strength as well as ap- 
pearance. F'or this reason the Flemish bond is more often em- 
ployed; but even in this bond the headers can be brought over 
each other only with considerable pains. 

An added difficulty arises from the fact that bricks from dif- 
ferent kilns are of very different sizes; so that where a better grade 
of brick is desired for the facing, as is usually the case, it is diffi- 
cult to find a brick for the backing that will bond with it and some- 
times only by using a better quality of brick than is really required. 
These difficulties result too frequently in the vicious .practise of 
building a face wall with a sham Flemish bond, the bricks being 
cut in half to form sham headers, true headers being used only 
every three or four courses where the courses of the facing and of 
the backing happen to come to the same level, or sometimes headers 
are inserted when the two are not quite on a level, and the outer 
skin, being so largely independent of the backing, settles a little 
differently and the few headers are cracked in two by uneven 
settling. All this encourages the bricklayer in slipshod, careless, 
and unworkmanlike methods. He has little or no opportunity to 
show what he is really capable of, or to become really interested in 
the finer points of his craft, such as the laying of the more compli- 
cated bonds or brick pattern work. Indeed, he hardly even masters 
the laying of good English and Flemish bond, so that these are 
more expensive to lay than they ought to be from sheer unfamili- 
arity of the workman as well from the unnecessary difficulties re- 
sulting from the uneven sizes and bad shapes of the brick. All this 
group of difficulties harks back to the one fruitful source of the 
trouble : the fact that brick manufacturers have not been able to 


agree upon, and rigidly adhere to, a proper standard size of brick 
which should apply to face-brick and common brick alike. No 
doubt some manufacturers purposely make their brick undersized, 
in order to sell a larger number, but such men are a small minority, 
we are glad to believe. 

It is within the power of the manufacturers to combine and 
enforce a proper standard size. The difficulty of making allowance 
for differences of shrinkage in different clays is not insurmountable. 
Such a policy rigidly carried out would greatly encourage the use of 
brick and would bring about its em])loyment in many cases where 
stone is now employed on the one hand, and where wood is employed 
at the other end of the scale. We are sure the architects would 
encourage such a movement by specifying standard size brick if they 
could readily be obtained. We wish the manufacturers could see 
that their own interest lies this way, that they could greatly 
increase the use of brick by such a policy. The makers of pressed 
brick would find it to their interest to bring pressure to bear on the 
makers of common brick to adopt the standard size. We are sure 
that in this way the use of pressed brick would be increased. The 
better work that would result from the proper bonding between face 
and backing would make brick walls more durable than they now 
are. We are sure a rich harvest is in store for those who inaugurate 
the reform, and who bring it to the attention of architects. 


Mr. H. W. Bukmming, architect, has opened an office in the 
Pabst Building, Milwaukee. 

Mr. Gould has retired from the firm of (iould, Angell & Swift, 
architects, Providence, R. L Messrs. Angell & Swift will continue 
the business at the same office. 

Recent events at the Chicago Architectural Club: December 28, 
annual Christmas-tree celebration; January 4, paper by R. E. 
Richardson, explaining the electrical terms and conditions as met 
with by architects; January 11, reception; Me.ssrs. W. H. Egge- 
brecht, H. D. Jenkins, and E. S. Seney acting as hosts. 

At the annual meeting of the St. Louis Architectural Club, 
held January 2, the following officers were elected : President, W. B. 
Ittner; first vice, Ernest Helfensteller; second vice, J. C. Stephens; 
secretary, G. F. A. Breuggeman ; treasurer, C. H. Dietering. These 
with Oscar Enders and J. L. Gray will constitute the executive board. 

The first regular meeting of the Pittsburg Architectural Club 
was held in their new quarters, Carnegie Library Building, Wednes- 
day evening, December 16. The following officers were elected: 
President, Frank A. Large; vice-president, Jno. T. Comes; secretary, 
Chas. L Ingham; treasurer. Miss Elise A. Mercur. Executive com- 
mittee: Chas. W. Tufts, Robert G. Dickson, Miss McMa.sters, H. 
Childs Hodgins. The constitution and by-laws submitted at a former 
meeting were adopted as drafted. 

Thk Twelfth Annual Exhibition of the Architectural League of 
New York will open February 20, in the building of the American 
Fine Arts Society, 215 West 57th Street, and continue to March 13 
inclusive. Hours 10 A. m. to 6 I'. .M., 8 P. M. to [o p. .m. Sundays, 
I p. M. to 6 p. M. and S p. m. to 10 p. m. 

Exhibit entry blanks returnable .Monday, February i . 

Last day for reception of exhibits, Wednesday, February 10, 
6 p. M. 

The New Jersey Society of Architects held its regular monthly 
meeting at the parlors of L. Achtel Stetter, Newark, N. J., on Janu- 
ary 7. As.semblyman Mc.Arthur, of Jersey City, addressed the meeting 
regarding his proposed new State building law applying to cities of 
the first and second classes. After discussion the matter was referred 
back to the committee having it in charge. 

We have received the catalogue of the Architectural Exhibition 
held by the T Square Club at the Pennsylvania Academy of the 
Fine Arts, Philadelphia, in connection with the sixty-sixth annual ex- 

hibition of painting and sculpture. It is a publication creditable 
alike to the profession which makes it possible, and to the club 
which has brought together so much good material. The value of 
publications of this .sort is very readily appreciated. Indeed, it is 
possible that as much general, tangible good is accomplished by the 
publication of the catalogue as by the holding of the exhibition, 
which it in part illustrates ; for while the exhibition passes, and is 
apt to share the fate of most all architectural exhibitions in that the 
general public is not in evidence, the catalogue is a thing to be 
treasured and preserved in the architects' offices, and cannot fail to 
be an educational factor. This book adds to the laurels of the T 
Square Club, an organization which now easily ranks as one of the 
most active professional bodies in the country. This catalogue has 
one innovation in the shape of a very excellent color reproduction of 
the drawing of the doorway of Santa Paula, Seville, by A. C. Munoz. 
This is, as far as we know, the first instance of color being used in 
connection with an architectural catalogue, and it is very successful. 


THE adjoining illustration shows the doorway to a residence in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., the whole of which is executed in terra- 
cotta and brick. Montrose W. Morris is the architect, and the work 
was made by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 
In the advertisement of the company for this month, on page xxviii. 

is shown the alternate of Mr. Aldrich's design which was premiated 
in the competition held by the company. 

In the advertisement of R. Guastavino, page xiv, the fire-proof 
tile dome over the rotunda of the library for the University of Virginia 
is shown. The library is one of the group of new university buildings 
by McKim, Mead & White, and the illustration shows to good advan- 
tage Mr. Guastavino's system of fire-proof tiling. 

A splendid illustration of Macmonnies' Bacchante, which was 
presented by Mr. Charles F. McKim to the Boston Public Library, 
is shown in the advertisement of Mr. F. B. Gilbreth on page xxxiv. 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 


Spanish Brick and Tile Work. IV. 


SINCE the publication of the last paper upon this subject, the 
writer has been able to verify his expressed surmise in regard 
to the character of the work in the doorway of Santa Paula, at 
Seville. The faience was modeled by one of the most promising 
pupils of the Delia Robl)ias, who established himself in Spain after 


a long course of study in Italy. While this does not add to the 
artistic merit of the work, the fact is of interest. 

There remains only one manifestation of Spanish ceramic art to 
be included within the scope of this paper, namely, the enameled tiling. 
It is hard to speak dispassionately of Spanish tiles. From a practi- 
cal standpoint they leave a great deal to be desired, as the worknian- 
ship is almost invariably crude and the enamel is applied to a very 
inferior grade of terra-cotta ; but in an artistic sense it is doubtful if 
the world has ever seen ceramic work which was, on the whole, so 
eminently successful ; and with the exception of what has been ac- 
complished by the Persians and by a few of the Northern races in 
India, there are no other encaustic or enameled tiles known to us at 
present which can approach the Spanish work for brilliancy of 
design combined with a strictly decorative treatment of mass and a 
harmony of colors. All periods of modern art have been inspired very 
directly by wonderful creations. The very term " Majolica " 
comes from the name of an island lying off the coast of Spain, in 
which the fabrication of vitreous enamels at an early period of 
modern history began to assume a high importance, and from 
whence the secret of the manufacture was spread over Europe. All 
of the Semitic races have been inclined to tile work, and even as far 
back as the days of the Assyrian monarchies encaustic tiling was a 
recognized and very successful medium of adornment, while the 
enamels and potteries of Damascus, of lower Egypt, of Hagdad, and 
of Ispahan, have been prized by artists and collectors for many gener- 
ations. It is then not strange that the Moors, who inherited the 
artistic tendencies of their Asiatic forbears, should, when removed 
to the security of the Spanish Moslem empire, with ample means at 
command and a degree of security from external political complica- 
tions such as the Arab races never enjoyed elsewhere, be able to 
carry their decorative tendencies to the highest perfection. Moorish 
art was a matter almost purely of detail, and, owing to the peculiar, 
seclusive manner of life which this strange race preserved for so 
many centuries, there are very few manifestations of external archi- 

tecture or decorative art. There are a few instances, such as the 
exquisite structure in the enclosure of the Alhambra, known as the 
Wine Gate, in which a species of external ceramic treatment was 
tried by the Moors ; but, as a rule, the exteriors of the buildings 
erected by them were somber and uninteresting, and the lavish 
imaginative qualities of their arts and sciences were reserved for the 
privacy of the interior. 

The Moorish tiles were formed from a stiff but not very hard 
clay, which was squeezed into molds so that the individual pieces 
were slightly beveled on the edges towards the back, permitting of 
very fine joints, if such were desired, though more commonly the tiles 
were so bedded in a matrix of mortar as to leave broad and somewhat 
irregular joints, the bevel of the tile allowing the mortar to key thor- 
oughly around each piece. The colors were applied in the shape of 
enamels, rarely any glazes or transparent colors being used. In the 
early Moorish work, tiling, whether for dados or floors, was treated 
purely as a mosaic, a pattern being evolved by the combination of a 
few forms repeated in a geometrical arrangement. Thus, in Fig. I, 
the pattern is made by only two tiles of different colors. Figs. 2 and 
3 are likewise made with a single shape in different colors, and even 
so complicated a pattern as the one shown by Fig. 3 requires only 
three forms of colored and three of white tiles to build up the entire 
design. In the later Moorish period the strictly mosaic treatment 
was abandoned, and we find tiles on which the patterns were stenciled 
over a white ground so as to reduce the manual labor of setting in 
place, while after the Christian conquest the tiles were frequently in 
slight relief, the pattern stamped in the moist clay and the impressions 
filled with the liquid enamel to produce the different effects of pattern 
and color. Attempts have frequently been made in recent years to 
copy the effects of the Moorish tiling, but while the raised and 
stenciled tiles can easily be adapted to our present conditions, it 
would require at least a generation of education to so train our 
mechanics as to be able to set the intricate mosaics which the early 
Moors used so constantly for their walls and floors; and aside from 
any question of expense, which would be a considerable factor, it 
would hardly be practicable to undertake to reproduce the Moorish 
tiles in our work. 

The colors of the Moorish tiles are mostly green, blue, black, 




white, and yellow, the green, white, and black combination largely 
predominating. There seems to be very little variety in tones used, 
as the colors are practically the same in nearly all the Moorish work 


rr^;»;'-^h ii^ 


'fit:.'. '■-'A 



now remaining, the variety of treatment and diversity of effect having 
been produced entirely by changes in the pattern or in disposition of 
colors. There are two groups of buildings which are preeminent 
among the existing examples of Moorish construction wherein tiles 
were used for decorative treatment. The Alcazar at Seville is one of 
the royal residences which was erected by Moorish workmen for the 


early Christian conquerors ; and although it is not, strictly speaking, a 
Moorish product by ownership, it is such by the character of the work, 
debarring a few of the more modern changes. This building has 
been very carefully restored, is kept in exquisite repair, and serves as 
perhaps, on the whole, the best example in which the Moorish styles 
can be studied, though the treatment in a decorative sense is not as 
pure as in some of the other instances. The interior consists of a 
vast succession of apartments grouped around interior courts, the 
whole ornamented with lavish Moorish details, and with a wealth of 
tiling in the shape of wainscotting and paving, all of which is, in an 
artist's sense, none the less entertaining because of the rococo addi- 
tions of later date or the charming tropical gardens which close the 
vistas of the broad halls. 

The Alhambra of Granada is the structure which is most inti- 
mately associated with Moorish work. It is, properly speaking, a 
collection of buildings erected upon the spur of a hill jutting out 
into the valley above the city, and includes a number of structures of 
different periods, which until quite recently were sadly dilapidated 
and almost totally neglected. Of late years, however, the Spanish 
government has restored a very considerable portion of the Moorish 
work in a most intelligent manner, and as far as concerns the details 
of design, the interior gives a very fair idea of what the Moors 
attempted to produce. Any one who has seen this work in place is 
sure to retain a very vivid impression of how it looks and what it is, 
but any attempt to describe it without the aid of color is almost 
hopeless ; for while the Moors placed a great deal of insistence upon 
the design, and their keen geometric taste enabled them to evolve 
most surprising results with very simple motives, yet color was so 
essentially a part of the whole that mere black and white reproduc- 
tions absolutely fail to convey exact impressions. Furthermore, it is 
to be doubted whether the Alhambra as it exists to-day in its most 
carefully restored portions can be a correct representation of Moorish 
art. The rooms are grouped around courts, and there is plenty of 
sunshine and a certain amount of green foliage at the end of each 
vista, so that surprises await one at every turn ; and the succession of 
halls and corridors, with their enameled surfaces, is very fascinating; 
but the absence of life, the lack of fittings, make even this fairy-like 
palace seem very dreary. We all know how hopeless a new house 
seems before it is carpeted or furnished, and the same applies to this 
Moorish work ; it needs surroundings, it needs life, and all the thou- 
sand and one little things which add personal interest, in order to be 
anywhere near appreciated. The view which is reproduced of the 

interior of the Tower of the Captive is from a very brilliant water- 
color by G. Simoni, in"Z'/t' Baukiiiist Spaiiiens" and with the acces- 
sories so cleverly introduced, it gives, better than any photograph, 
an idea of what the Alhambra might be, in an inhabitable state. 

Encaustic tile ceased to be used as a mosaic with the incoming 
of the Renaissance. The Spanish architects, however, produced 
some marvelously interesting work in this direction, and not only 
used tiles by themselves, but frequently carried ceramic painting to a 
very considerable extent. The illustration of the altar-piece and 
wall decoration is from one of the chapels of the cathedral at 
Seville. The whole of the decoration is in tile, and is one of the 
most ambitious examples of this particular phase of art which is in 

The extent of possible discussion of such a subject as this is 
almost without bounds, and I can accordingly only hint at the 
variety of treatment, the complexity of design, and the contrasts of 
color which result from the use of enameled tiles by the Moors and 
their successors in Spain. There is one manifestation, however, 
which I wish to notice. Lisbon is essentially Spanish in its art ante- 
cedents, and the ceramic manifestations of the Moors survive in 
Portugal to a greater extent than anywhere else on the peninsular. 
The street fronts of the houses are faced almost universally with 
enameled tiles. The idea is an excellent one ; and properly devel- 
oped, nothing more brilliant and interesting could be imagined than 
a long street, to say nothing of a whole city, clothed in all the beau- 
tiful hues which are to-day so easily produced by the ceramic artists. 
Plain white tiles are seldom used, though sometimes a single tone is 
employed. Blue is the color most employed, a blue pattern on a 


white ground, the tone being a cross between Delft and a French 
blue. The Portuguese have by no means perfected this mode of 
finish, or decoration, whichever it may be termed, although they 
have used it now for several centuries, and it is certainly a very 
interesting manifestation of possibilities. 


Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



FROM the poetic to the severely practical may seem a long 
distance ; in the present instance, however, it is but a step, 
such as the one we have now taken from the end of the last to the 
beginning of the present chapter. Thus far we have traced in 
sketchy outline the origin and application of burned clay from the 
building of Habel to the Christian era : thence through the Middle 
Ages, the Renaissance period, and onward to its modern revival in 


England, and subsequent introduction in America. We now take up 
the things of yesterday, to-day, and to-morrow, in this year of grace 
1897, and we would fain hope, in a way that may prove helpful to 
those in whose hands lie its destiny in the coming century. 

A time there was, and that not very long ago, when an architect 
having a desire to use terra-cotta was obliged to adopt some style 
admitting of comparatively small blocks. These he was advised to 
use in a more or less isolated manner, with brick filling as the con- 
necting link. When not wholly detached, sundry expedients were 
frec|uently resorted to as a makeshift remedy for miscalculation in 
shrinkage, or, perhaps, a deviation from the figured dimensions in 
setting-out piers, openings, and breaks, etc., at the building. It was 
conceded, even by the manufacturers themselves, that in some 
instances the tail wagged the dog; and we fear that the practise, 
reprehensible though it be, has not yet been wholly abolished. This 
was merely yielding to difiiculties, instead of adopting ade(|uate 
means to overcome and finally end them. Available examples fur- 
nished by past ages were freely drawn upon, but failing to find a 
beau ideal from among them, the architect was e.xpected to invent 
one suitable for immediate use. This he sometimes undertook to do, 
with remarkable promptitude but varying success. The mountain, 
he was informed, would not come to Mahomet, which for the nonce 
left the prophet but one alternative — pack his draugiiting parapher- 
nalia, so to speak, and betake himself to the mountain. As a conse- 
quence, both design and construction were made sub.servient to the 
fancied as well as the real exigencies of the material. To some 
extent this is necessary, — for every material has its limitations, — but 
when it comes to fixing a standard of excellence by judicious compro- 
mise, we believe in leveling up rather than leveling down. 

In the case of burned clay, however, everybody seemed in- 
clined to capitulate, and allow this most excellent servant to become 
master of the situation. That undesirable state of things was not 
destined to through an age of scientific research and mechanical 
invention. A race of men who have annihilated time and space by 
harnessing the unseen forces of nature, whether on land or sea, 
could not submit to the caprice of so .simple an element. The action 
of fire upon a piece of selected and suitably prepared clay can be 
regulated, and controlled with as much certainty as it can upon any 

other mineral. We state this advisedly, as a literal fact, and within 
certain limits, which we will hereafter endeavor to define : no compe- 
tent architect need feel himself hedged in by irksome restraints, 
such as those to which he was at one time obliged to submit. 

It is no longer a question of arbitrary style, having now re- 
solved itself largely into one of treatment. Even in that there 
remains a world of latitude, in the hands of men who have profited 
by the observation of recently executed work, and feel an inclination 
to keep abreast with the times. Of course, if an architect has taken 
for his ideal the Temple of Karnack, or has set his heart upon a 
replica of the Parthenon, or has decided upon a reproduction of the 
Erechtheum, with, perha|)s, monolithic columns and a trabeation 
admitting of joints only over centers of capitals, then there is but 
one, or at most two, things for him to do. He must go in search of 
a (juarry capable of supplying the stones, and of a bank account 
from which to pay for them. But if, on the other hand, he can 
concentrate his ideas within the limits of classical Roman, Roman- 
esque, Byzantine, Saracenic, Gothic from the thirteenth to the 
twentieth century, or any phase of Italian, French, or Spanish 
Renaissance, there is some hope for him. In any of these he can 
use terra-cotta throughout much as he would stone ; or he can use it 
in combination with brick from basement to dome, minaret, spire, or 
campanile. All will depend upon his conception of these styles, and 
his way of handling any or all of them. One thing he must do : 
study the very wonderful capabilities of the material, without losing 
sight of its limitations. Great progress has been made by our best 
architects in these matters of late years. A large proportion of 
recent work bears the evidence of advanced thought and con- 
scientious effort, usually in the right direction. Yet, judging from 
what we sometimes see done or attempted, there is still much to 
learn as to what may or may not be expected in the use of this 
material under given conditions. We hope, in succeeding pages, 
to contribute something towards a better understanding of the facts 
and principles underlying this aspect of the subject. 

We are not writing for the behoof of men who, having failed 
in everything, take refuge behind a shingle of large size, on which 
has been painted the word ARCHITECT ; by which magic name 
they seek to distinguish themselves from the great army of unem- 
ployed. They are past praying for. Our remarks are addressed 
primarily to men who have earned or are now earning their right to 
that title, and who have worn or intend to wear it honorably. We 

therefore take for granted their wide accjuaintance with the merits 
of material in general. This much is essential to success under any 
circumstances. But when the material to be used is largely terra- 
cotta, a more exact knowledge of its physical characteristics is indis- 
pensable. To know as much as may be about the whys and 
wherefores of its manufacture will likewise greatly help them in 
using it to architectural as well as to commercial advantage. To that 



end, we will turn from the general to the particular application of 
these observations, and instance a number of difficult yet every-day 
problems confined to work that has been or can be executed suc- 
cessfully. Attention will also be directed to some of the things 
which (as yet) cannot be made satisfactorily in terra-cotta, and that 
being so, is to our mind a sufficient reason why they should not be 
attempted. Like most things, this branch of our subject has a nega- 
tive as well as a positive side, and to be of any real value the treat- 
ment must be unreservedly frank as well as intensely practical. 

" I, from no building, gay or solemn. 
Can miss the shapely Grecian column." 

We will therefore begin with the column, which, in its diverse 
manifestations, affords as good an illustration as any we can think of 
as to what can and what can not be accomplished in terra-cotta. 
One of the most trouble- 
some things to make is a 
full column that will with- 
stand critical inspection on 
all sides. The difficulties 
begin to increase when the 
diameter exceeds i ft. ; be- 
yond that, the point is soon 
reached when they become 
insurmountable. If it be 
a three-quarter column, 
with an engagement on 
every alternate block for 
building into wall, most of 
these difficulties disappear, 
and the diameter may be 
increased to as much as 2 
ft. and still remain practi- 
cable. In the former case 
we are speaking of plain 
shafts, but when severely 
fluted, the trouble is obvi- 
ously increased. This is 
because of the extreme ac- 
curacy with which the ar- 
rises of the fillets have to 
fit, and the trueness of line 
required to make them 
presentable to the eye on 
close inspection. Macau- 
lay's inspired schoolboy 
may not have known of the 
nicety demanded in work- 
ing these drums in stone or 
marble, but every stone and 

marble cutter does. And when they have done their utmost, a good 
deal of faking still remains to be done after the column has been set 
in its position. This paring is not permissible in terra-cotta; for 
once the fired surface has been broken, a patch takes the place of 
an irregularity, and the remedy is, if anything, worse than the dis- 

In the case of a 12 in. column with a height of, say, eight diame- 
ters, it would be jointed into five pieces, each weighing about 95 lbs. 
When the necessarily soft clay is pressed into a plaster mold, a pro- 
portion of the moisture is absorbed, and when ready for turning out 
to dry, it has acquired a considerable degree of stiffness. A safe- 
edge of % in. has been allowed on each end, standing back about 
% in. from the bottom of the flutes, to be trimmed off after burning. 
On this it is set to dry, first on one end, and then on the other, as shown 
on Fig. I. Five eighths of the shrinkage takes place in the drying, 
and three eighths in the burning. In both cases the piece rests on a 
thin layer of coarse sand, each grain acting as a roller, which enables 
the circumference to travel more easily towards its center during 


the progress of contraction. But notwithstanding these and many 
other precautions, the weight of the piece, if it does not cause it to 
spread, is liable to impede the uniform shrinkage of the end on 
which it rests. Of course the greater the weight, the greater must 
be the impediment. If the column is jointed in three instead of in 
five (as architects will sometimes insist upon doing), the bottom third 
being parallel and the other two entasized, this burring on the ends 
is sure to happen. In that case the weight has been increased to 
150 lbs. in a shaft of 12 ins. diameter, involving a corresponding 
uncertainty in fitting at the joints, as well as in the alignment of the 
pieces themselves. 

But let us double the size of our column, viz., 2 ft. in which 
case it would be made (if made at all) in seven pieces of 2 ft. 8 ins. 
each. These would weigh 675 lbs., and, for the reasons just stated, 
may be considered altogether impracticable. If, however, " fools 

rush in," etc., as they 
sometimes will, and order 
a 2 ft. column complete 
drums without verti c a 1 
joints, they may expect to 
pay for their enlightenment 
in regrets as endless as 
they will be useless. .Some 
inexperienced manufacturer 
may take the order, and 
under pressure endeavor to 
go through with it, but in 
the end the architect will 
find that to order is one 
thing, but to execute is 
quite another matter. 

In a three-quarter col- 
umn, the conditions being 
reversed, the block can be 
turned out as at Fig. 2. 
The sanded board on 
which it lies being tilted to 
alternate ends at an angle 
of 30 degs., the shrinkage 
will be uniform, the block 
will be sound, and if reason- 
able care is exercised in its 
remaining vicissitudes, the 
ends will fit each other 
when set. A shaft of this 
kind can be made up to 2 
ft. diameter, jointed in five 
pieces averaging 3 ft. 3 ins. 
long and weighing 700 lbs. 
But to make quite certain 
of the result, we would advise jointing it in seven pieces of 2 ft. 4 
ins., thus reducing the weight to 490 lbs., and thereby securing a 
much greater uniformity in drying and burning. Four columns of 
this size and character are used on the Maryland Life Building, 
Baltimore, of which Mr. J. E. Sperry was the architect. In justice 
to him, however, we will say that he is not responsible for the joint- 
ing. Each shaft is jointed into twelve pieces, which are about 
five too many ; and we cite this as an example to avoid, rather than 
one worthy of being followed. We are, of course, assuming a case 
in which it has been deemed imperative to make a column of this 
size in single blocks, without vertical joints, but do not wish to be 
understood as favoring that method. 

Somewhat similar columns have since been made for the same 
architect, and are used on the Brewers' Exchange, Baltimore. They, 
however, are jointed vertically into alternating segments, one course 
being in two, and the next in three pieces, with the interior built of 
.solid brickwork bonded into and forming part of the wall. The 
result is highly encouraging, and has given much satisfaction to the 




architect. The same plan was adopted in constructing four attached 

columns used on the Castle Square Theater, lioston (Fig. 4). Messrs. 

Winslow & Wetherell were the archi- 

I* 4 '3' ->j tects in this case, and they, too, think 

the effect very successful. 

In Fig. 5 we illustrate the construc- 
tion of a Doric column ; the first of its 
kind that we have seen attempted in 
terra-cotta. Two of them are used on 
the fourteenth story of the Central Syn- 
dicate Building, Broadway and Pearl 
Street, New York City. It has been 
remarked that the Greeks did not use 
columns of this kind on the fourteenth 
story. Had they lived in New York, 
however, they would ere this have been 
confronted with a condition, not a theory, 
and in that case, there is no telling what 
they might have done. The dotted lines 
on plan show how the courses break bond 
and tie each other without the necessity 
of extraneous anchors. .In addition to 
the iron stanchion in center, the core is 
filled in with brick and cement, as in the 
instances just mentioned. The result 
compares favora!)ly with similar columns 
in granite used on the first story of 
the same building. Taken altogether, 
we think this successful example will 
settle any doubts that may have e.xisted 
as to the feasibility of constructing a 
Doric column in terra-cotta. 

A full column, when it exceeds, sa)' 
I ft. 4 in. in diameter, should be jointed 
up in segments of four or six pieces, ac- 
cording to size, the vertical joints being 
in the center of the flute. The height 
of the segment should not be more than 
one and a half times its width, and may 
be from 4 to 8 ins. in thickness, the 
back being left perfectly flat, so that it 
may be dried on a level board, as at Fig. 
3. Columns of 2 ft. 10 ins. diameter 
have been made in three segments on 
plan to satisfy the scruples of architect 
and owner, who had at first insisted on 
KiG. 5. having them in complete drums. When 

this method is adopted and the piece 
turned out of mold, the vertical joints, being radial, form an angle 
with the board on which it rests. This overhang will cause the 
sides to sag unless temporary supports (to be cut off before burn- 
ing) are placed at intervals in the angle, as seen in Fig. 3, which is 
a quadrant. In the case just referred to the segments were 2 ft. 
6 ins. wide, 2 ft. 8 ins. in height, by about 8 ins. thick in the 
center, and the columns so constructed may now be seen on the 
Chapin Building, Buffalo. We have seen a letter from the architect, 
Mr. F. E. Kent, in which he speaks in the most eulogistic terms of 
these columns after they had been set. 

In Fig. 6 we illustrate a column of about the same general pro- 
portions. It, however, is made in six segments, and with base and 
capital has a total of 118 pieces. It will be noticed that the flutes 
on the lower part are not filled with the usual convex billet, but are 
slightly recessed, the surface being struck from the same center as 
the column, for which see enlarged flute at D. The termination at 
top is also somewhat uncommon, but not without warrant, though 
this treatment has been criticized in the hearing of the writer as un- 
authorized. In reply he ventured to quote as a precedent the Cha- 
pelle San Bernardino, at Verona, in which are columns practically 

identical in both these respects. The joints are intentionally em- 
phasized in the drawing, and the three accompanying plans will show 
the construction. The core being of brick, laid in cement and all 
the interstices grouted, we get a shaft capable of sustaining an im- 
mense weight. But should .still greater stiffness be required, a cast- 
iron core or a polygon of riveted steel sections may be introduced, 
giving an almost unlimited strength. Twenty-six of these columns 
were used by Mr. C. C. Haight on the Hoffman Library, St. 
Stephen's College, a view of which we give (Fig. 7) from a recent 
photograph. ( To be continued.^ 

SAMl AS AT :- 


IN the course of a recent visit to New York City, I had occasion 
to view the Park Avenue front of the Murray Hill Hotel, itself 
an erection of yesterday ; yet judged by the dilapidated condition 
of the red sandstone, it might have been built by Diedrich Knicker- 
bocker. This is about the center of the brownstone high stoop dis- 
trict, at one time the Mecca of successful tradesmen, and still the 
homes of the elect, when " at home." The balustrades, basement 
walling, water tables, window trimmings, and even the flat ashlar 
veneers appear to throw off a coat of scale, from one to three eighths 
of an inch in thickness, every year or two. I was informed that this 
occurs with great regularity, until the advent of the boarding-house 
keeper, after which de- 
cay becomes more ^ 
rapid, and demolition 
the inevitable adieu. 
I traversed several of 
the crosstown streets, 
and the difference be- 
tween them from 1 8th 
to 59th was merely 
one of degree, but all 
bearing a close approx- 
imation to their age, 
which is premature, 
being from five to fifty 
years. It is no uncom- 
mon thing to see one 
of these fronts pulled 
down and replaced 
with Philadelphia, or 
latterly, with Pom- 
peian brick and terra- 
cotta. A brownstone 
church on 7th Avenue 
near 1 4th .Street, which 
was built in 1856, has 
just been demolished 
and rebuilt in cream- 
white brick and terra- 
cotta to match. 

A similar state of 
transformation is go- 
ing on in the down- 
town sections. Stone 
and marble fronts that 
were the pride of a 
past generation are 
giving place to granite 
lower stories with su- 
perstructures of terra- 
cotta and brick, behind 
which is a sinuous an- 
atomy of riveted steel. 
Thus does evolution in 
all things emphasize 
the survival of the fit- 
test — Correspondent. 

- PLAN *T A . A — 

FIG. 6. 


Fire-proofing Department. 



THE fire-proofing of our large commercial buildings is of sucli 
vital importance that, although as a science it is of quite 
modern development, its methods have of late years been the subject 
of many tests and special investigations made for the purpose of 
determining to what extent such precautions as are customarily taken 
serve their intended purpose. There have been several fires in 
buildings which are known commercially and scientifically as fire- 
proof structures, and though the actual damage resulting from such 
fires has, in most instances, been relatively quite slight, they have 
suggested very pertinent inquiry as to whether our materials are 
applied in the best and mo'st scientific manner, and whether our fire- 
proofing systems are really fire-proof. Terra-cotta in one form or 
another has been very generally adopted for the protection of steel 
work and the construction of floors, and its properties and the details 
of its employment have received considerable study. With a view to 
determining the current opinion in regard to the use and the possi- 
bilities of terra-cotta. The Bkickbuiluer has interviewed several of 
the leading architects in New York and Boston to ascertain whether 
in their judgment terra-cotta meets the requirements of the conditions 
of properly fire-proofing a building, and whether such a material, as a 
whole, can be depended upon. 

Among those interviewed was Mr. George B. Post, of New York, 
who said that he considered sawdust or porous terra-cotta a most 
excellent material for resisting the combined action of fire and water, 
conditions which always arise in any burning building. In portions 
of the new twenty-five-story St. Paul Building on lower Broadway, 
and in the World Building, the Havemeyer, and in fact all of the 
large buildings which Mr. Post has erected, he has used the porous 
terra-cotta for fire-proof construction. Where the fioor has to sustain 
a heavy direct load the end construction is the lightest and the 
strongest, but where lateral stiffness in the floors is desired, he believes 
the side construction to be the best adapted for the purpose. The 
ordinary builders, if left to themselves without the closest supervision, 
do not sufificiently fire-proof the floor openings in a building, and they 
are apt to ignore the fire-proofing of the girders. He believes, how- 
ever, that the necessity for protecting the flanges of the beams is 
often exaggerated, and he cited the experience of the fire which a 
few years since burned out the upper stories of the building which he 
had erected for the Western Union Telegraph Company on Broadway. 
This fire originated in the low story which contained the batteries, and 
the heat was so intense that the granite window trimmings were 
destroyed and a couple of unprotected columns in the story were 
actually melted at their tops. The floor construction was of brick 
arches turned between the beams, and the lower flanges of the beams 
were protected by only five eighths of an inch of plaster. In the story 
above where the fire started there was one large room spanned by 
trusses. A gallery was hung from the floor beams, and after the fire 
it hung in festoons. So far as Mr. Post could ascertain, the floor 
beams and trusses, though protected so slightly in the lower flanges, 
suffered no appreciable damage. He infers from this that if the 
beams are thoroughly bedded in and covered by terra-cotta and mortar 
following any of the present forms which are in the market, it is not 
possible for a fire to dangerously affect the steel work. In his judg- 
ment, any of the recent and thoroughly well-constructed buildings 
which have been put up in New York can be called practically fire- 
proof, though in case of a great exterior conflagration he believes that 
in many buildings the skeleton construction would be sufficiently 
affected by unequal expansion to render the removal of the building 

He believes that, on the whole, the forms of terra-cotta blockings 
and fire-proof shapes are satisfactory. He would not advise, however, 

any form which permitted of large or continuous voids in the thick- 
ness of the floor, unless such voids were blocked off at intervals by 
solid partitions. Other things being equal, he prefers a solid light 
filling between the beams. 

It has been Mr. Post's practise to set the exterior columns of 
the steel skeleton well inside the wall of the building, separating them 
from the exterior construction by a waterproofing of some form and 
surrounding them thoroughly with cement grout and porous terra- 
cotta at least 4 ins. outside of the outer flanges of the steel. This is 
the construction which he used in the St. Paul Building, the outside 
walls being supported by the floor beams, which project beyond the 
columns and form cantilevers. He does not feel, in the light of his 
experience, that there is actual necessity for any terra-cotta under the 
flanges of the beam, though he usually specifies a thickness of i % in. 
In the case of girders he specifies 2 ins. in thickness of terra-cotta 
around the flanges, which he believes is ample. For fire-proofing 
columns he uses nothing but terra-cotta. He does not believe that a 
dangerous heat would go through any of the present market construc- 
tions of terra-cotta fire-proofing if used in an intelligent and proper 

Mr. Francis H. Kimball, of Kimball & Thompson, New York, 
stated that, in his judgment, porous terracotta can thoroughly fire- 
proof all the construction of a building and is the best medium for 
the purpose on the market. He has used this material in the Man- 
hattan Life Building, the Standard Oil Building, and a number of 
other large structures in New York. The flat arch construction, 
however, as ordinarily employed, is not absolutely satisfactory. It 
forms a good ceiling and answers the purpose of fire-proofing admirably, 
but the filling over the terra-cotta archings, composed of a low grade 
of concrete, is apt to settle and cause cracks in the finished tile floor 
construction. In his practise he has never used the end construction. 
He considers that the floor arches themselves are not called upon to 
really carry any load except their own weight, as in nearly every case 
continuous wooden sleepers are placed from beam to beam, which 
actually carry all of the superficial load. He uses skew-back blocks 
which lap under the beams i in., which he considers ample protec- 
tion for the beam, and prefers such construction to the use of slippers. 
When asked as to whether the present systems of fire-proofing with 
terra-cotta blocks have been tested in actual use by fire and water so 
that we can be absolutely sure of their ultimate resistance, he said 
that there had been really no fires of any extent in the most recently 
constructed fire-proof buildings; consequently it is impossible to say 
that any of these structures have been submitted to extreme tests, but 
judging by such opportunities for observation as have arisen, it is 
possible to make a building absolutely fire-proof by the use of hollow 
terra-cotta. He instanced a test by fire of a building owned by the 
Potter estate, corner of 8th Street and Broadway, in which a steel 
column in the basement on the corner, which was covered with terra- 
cotta blocks and a thin layer of finished plaster, was exposed to a 
very intense heat from a fire in the surrounding stock of dry goods, 
and was subsequently, before being cooled to any degree, exposed to 
the action of water as well. Beyond the plaster being peeled off no 
damage occurred to the construction and the steel was not affected 
at all. 

In the Manhattan Building, Mr. Kimball employed hard terra- 
cotta for the floor construction, but he would not be inclined to use 
the hard blocks again, as he preferred the porous. For fire-proofing 
columns his practise is to use terra-cotta with a thickness of at least 
4 ins. 

When asked as to the advisability of using stone outside the 
steel columns, he stated that he did not believe it could be relied upon 
to resist the flames. A statement often heard is that New York is 
building up so rapidly with large fire-proof buildings that it is not 
likely a conflagration could get started with sufficient impulse to 
extend very far. But right in front of the Manhattan Building, on 
the opposite side of Broadway, there is a large area covered with 
buildings with the ordinary wooden floor construction, which might, 



under certain circumstances, get afire and produce a conflagration of 
sufficient intensity, if it should encounter a stone-faced building in its 
path, to entirely strip off the exterior stone facing in a few minutes, 
and leave the steel columns exposed to the action of the heat, with 
the inevitable result of the columns yielding and the whole building 
collapsing. He considered that for fire-proofing purposes 4 ins. of 
brick or terra-cotta would be better protection than a foot of stone, 
and that in a fire-proof floor the terra-cotta blocks ought to be bedded 
solidly around the beams. He suggested that instead of the concrete 
or cinders filling over the terra-cotta blocks, which is very customarily 
employed, it would be better either to have blocks made lapping under 
the beam, and the whole depth of the beam, or to fill in over the arch 
blocks with light terra-cotta. He had occasion some time since to 
make investigations in regard to the weight of the various fire-proof 
constructions, and he found that the ordinary cinders concrete would 
actually weigh about 90 lbs. per cubic foot, whereas terra-cotta blocks 
which would be amply sufficient for filling purposes need not weigh 
over 45 lbs. per cubic foot, a saving of 50 per cent., which in a building 
many stories high means a vast saving in the structural steel as well 
as in the foundation work. Mr. Kimball has used construction of 
this description and believes that it gives a floor which will not 
shrink nor allow the marble or tile work to crack. In the construc- 
tion of the roof over Altman's store, he built up over the terra-cotta 
archings with porous terra-cotta blocks to obtain the necessary pitch 
to throw the water off. It is a very simple matter to make long filling 
blocks quite light, with end pieces so constructed as to lap over the 
top flange of the girder, setting these light blocks over the construc- 
tive arch blocks. This would give a light, absolutely fire-proof, non- 
shrinkable floor construction, which would be very stiff against lateral 

For fire-proofing about the webs and flanges of the girders Mr. 
Kimball advises 4 ins. of terra-cotta, and he has found it necessary 
to have special shapes made for this purpose. This was done in the 
Manhattan Building. In regard to exterior walls he has given con- 
siderable study to devising some system of construction which would 
be light, strong, and practically impervious to water. It is well 
known that a brick wall will soak water even in an ordinary storm, 
and a driving rain will beat through even 4 ft. of brickwork. He 
studied out a system employing constructive terra-cotta blocks, which 
he considers very adaptable for party walls above the roofs of 
adjoining buildings or any exterior wall where the surface can readily 
be got at. The visible exterior surface consists of i in. of Portland 
cement, the wall itself being built of hollow porous terra-cotta blocks 
laid in any thickness from 8 to 24 ins. The cement keeps out the 
moisture, and the blocks are light, strong, and warm, besides being 
absolutely fire-proof. He had a section of this construction set up 
for experiment and specified it for the Manhattan Building, but cir- 
cumstances led to its being abandoned, though he considers it an 
excellent scheme. He would use such construction for party walls, 
gable ends, etc., and taken in connection with the steel frame it is 
possible to have it laid up so as to be thoroughly bonded and possess 
very nearly the rigidity of brick, while the weight is only about one 

In conclusion, Mr. Kimball calls attention to the possible danger 
which might arise from a great conflagration even in so well built a 
city as New York, and stated that the system of fire-proofing by use 
of terra-cotta is perfectly satisfactory in theory, and can be developed 
in such a manner as to give the best results ; but as often employed 
the details are very carelessly attended to, and the construction is usually 
not watched with sufficient care in ordinary building operations. 

Mr. Bruce Price, of New York, called attention to the fact that 
there are many different forms of blocks for floor construction, some 
of them being very imperfect mechanically, and others as near perfect 
as could be expected of a material which has to be handled by all 
sorts of mechanics. He considers the end construction following the 
Maurer system one of the best which the market now affords, being 
fully 20 per cent, lighter than some of the other shapes and at least 
25 per cent, stronger. As an instance of the strength of this type of 

floor, in the American Surety Building, erected from his plans, after 
the floor blocks were set in place blocks of granite weighing as high 
as 5 and 8 tons were dumped on the archings and worked over 
before being set, without the slightest damage to the construction. 
The weak part of the construction is the amount of protection to the 
flanges of the beams, which at the best is none too good, though this 
is a question of mechanical e.xcellence rather than of suitability of 
material. He considers that in setting terra-cotta blocks only the best 
of Portland cement should be used. He believes terra-cotta to be an 
excellent material for partitions on account of its strength as well as 
its sound-proof qualities, while for resisting the spread of a fire the 
hollow blocks would undoubtedly last longer than anything else. In 
regard to fire-proofing on columns, when his clients and the condi- 
tions will permit, he employs terra-cotta, as he has found it perfectly 
satisfactory, and it answers every purpose of fire protection and 
solidity. Mr. Price prefers the hard-burned to the porous terra-cotta 
as he feels he can get the best results on ceilings and the resulting 
work is considerably stronger. 

Mr. C. T. Wills, who was the builder of the American Surety 
Building as well as many other large structures in New York, said in 
reply to a question, that in his judgment it was a disadvantage to use 
porous terra-cotta for floor blocks on account of its tendency to 
absorb water. He considered the hard-burned terra-cotta amply 
sufficient protection against fire, as the heat would not go through 
either hard or porous to any extent. It is possible by using terra- 
cotta to build a structure which shall be absolutely fire-proof, and 
he felt that nothing else would give equal satisfaction, while as a 
matter of practical building construction, terra-cotta is by all odds the 
best material in the market. 

Mr. E. A. Rogers, who was superintendent for Mr. Price on the 
Amercan Surety Building, stated that hollow terra-cotta blocks formed 
a construction for partition work which could l>e depended upon not 
to crack, warp out of plumb, or fail in being sufficiently stiff against 
lateral pressure. The blocks afford an excellent opportunity for 
passage of wires, pipes, etc., and will not heat through in case of a 
local fire in a single room. With the hard terra-cotta floor blocks 
which were used in the Surety Building there was no trouble what- 
ever from moisture. For furring against outside walls nothing is 
more satisfactory than hollow terra-cotta blocks, and for fire-proofing 
against columns the best practise is to use from 2 to 4 ins. of terra- 
cotta. He had found the hard terra-cotta blocks hard to cut and 
easily broken, and would under some circumstances prefer the porous 
terra-cotta, though he did not consider them so strong as the hard. 
For protecting the lower flange of the beams, he considered that a 
slipper I in. thick was less apt to give trouble than the forms in which 
the springing block was molded to fit under the flange of the beam. 

A Boston architect who has been identified with some of the 
largest buildings throughout the country, but who prefers not to have 
his name appear, was quite emphatic in the expression of his opinion 
in regard to the absolute merits of terra-cotta as a fire-proofing 
medium, which, in his judgment, amply meets all requirements and 
can be fully depended upon to resist the action of both fire and 
water. This architect, in his practise, makes it a custom to use for 
floor arches terra-cotta blocks which are the full depth of the beams. 
If a 10 in. beam is used a 10 in. block is specified, and if a 15 in. 
beam is required a block is made of corresponding depth lapping 
I in. under the flange of the beam, thus leaving i in. above the 
blocks below the tops of the beams, which space is filled in solid 
with cement concrete. If a wooden flooring is to be used, a 2 in. 
underfloor is then dogged directly to the iron beams, above which 
is laid the finished floor. In this way the steel work is thoroughly 
protected on the sides and the bottom flange, and he believes that 
no fire would ever work through 3 ins. of solid wood to get at the 
upper flange of the beam. 

Other interviews will be reported in the February number. — Ed. 



Mortar and Concrete. 







(^Continuation of tests wade by Prof. Cecil B. Sniith.^ 



THIS series of experiments was carried out with a view of 
obtaining more information on the shearing strength of 
mortar. The method adopted was as follows: — 

Three bricks placed as shown in sketch were cemented together, 
and tested at the end of one month. It 
was found that by placing pieces of soft 
wood at A, A, A, an action as nearly as 
possible a shear was obtained, and gave 
very satisfactory results, the pressure being 
practically concentrated along the two mor- 
tar joints. No side pressure was applied, 
because the desire was to obtain minimum 
results where friction was not assisting. 

The combined effect of adhesion and 
friction can easily be computed if the ad- 
hesion and superimposed load are known. 

The results are divided into lime-mor- 
tar, natural cement mortar, and Portland 
cement mortar, also into % in. and yi in. 
joints, also into flat common unkeyed bricks 
and pressed Laprairie brick keyed on one 
side, (i) The lime mortar was mixed i 

lime to 3 of standard quartz sand, by weight ; (2) natural cement 
mortar was mixed, i of No. 2 natural cement to i % standard sand ; 
(3) Portland cement mortar was mixed, i of No. 5 Portland cement 
to 3 standard sand. (.See exhibits of bricks with mortar attached.) 
The test pieces were chiefly allowed to stand in the laboratory at a 
temperature of 55 to 65 degs. Fahr., but one set of natural cement 
mortar and two of Portland cement mortar were duplicated by im- 
mersing in water for 29 days, after setting in air 24 hours before 

These results point out many interesting facts : {a) the first fact 
noticeable is that the results are independent of the tliickness of 
joint ; this is true of lime and cement mortars. (1^) The next one is 
not evidenced to any extent in the table, but was quite apparent in 
the testing, viz., that the adhesion of the mortar to the brick was 
greatest when the mortar was put on very soft, and least when the 
mortar was dry. This will largely uphold the use of soft mortars by 
masons, albeit their reason is a purely selfish one, the mortar being 
easy to handle. The tensile tests of cements made very soft are 
lower than when the mixture has the minimum amount of water for 
standard consistency. But for adhesive tests the case is evidently 
the reverse. It may be here mentioned that in these tests all bricks 
were thoroughly soaked with water before the joints were laid, (c) 
Coming now to the tests on lime mortar, the shears were through 
the mortar, except in the fourth experiment, and therefore they are 
quite independent of the key of the pressed brick on the surface of 
adhesion. This would point out the fact that keyed brick are super- 
fluous in lime mortar joints, and the shearing strength per square inch 
averages about 10^ lbs. per square inch. The tensile strength of the 
same mixture at the same age was 30 lbs. per square inch, and the com- 
pressive strength 102 lbs. per square inch, {d) The natural cement 
mortar showed distinctly that its adhesive strength was not as great 

as its shearing strength, which is the reverse of the lime mortar tests. 
It also showed that the keyed brick aided in some unknown way, for 
the results on them are three times as great as with the common flat 
brick. Of course this may have been, and probably was, partly due 
to the different surface of adhesion. In five tests out of twenty-one 
made on the natural cement mortar, the mortar sheared through, and 
the average of these five was 97 lbs. per square inch, which gives the 
shearing strength proper, while the average adhesive strength of the 
thirteen tests in air which came loose from the bricks was 26 lbs. per 
square inch in common brick, 48 lbs. per square inch on Laprairie 
pressed brick, and 38 lbs. per square inch on Laprairie pressed brick 
for three tests submerged in water for the whole period. 

This would show that the adhesive strength is nearly twice as 
great on pressed brick as common brick, and that submersion in 
water had a rather harmful effect than otherwise on the adhesive 
strength, and was certainly of no benefit. 

The tensile strength of the same mortar at the same age was 132 
lbs. per square inch ; the compressive strength was not obtained, but 
would have been about 1,000 lbs. per square inch. The hints to be 
taken from these tests are that pressed brick keyed on both sides 
will give much higher results than flat common bricks, and would 
probably place the shearing strength of such joints at 100 lbs. per 
square inch, and make it largely independent of the consistency of the 
mortar. Also that the shearing strength is very much higher in pro- 
portion to the tensile strength than was the lime mortar shearing 
strength to its tensile strength, but about the same proportion to its 
compressive strength, /. c, 10 to i. 

It becoming evident that the thickness of joint had no appreciable 
effect, the Portland cement mortar tests were made all ^ in. thick. 





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The results are surprisingly low. The adhesion on the common brick 
is about the same for air drying or submersion in water, and is slightly 
less than one half that of natural cement mortar tests of i}4 to 
I. This is a significant fact, for while a neat tensile test of No. 2 
natural cement 4 weeks old is 268 lbs., the No. 5 Portland is 459 lbs. 
for the same age, and a 3 to I No. 5 Portland is 82 lbs. for same 
age. (See table of general laboratory results.) Thus while any test 
of this cement would show that a 3 to i mixture of the latter would 
be nearly equal to a i j^ to i test on the former, yet in their adhesive 
properties to common brick the heavily dosed sand mixture was only 
half as strong as the natural cement mortar with a smaller dose of 
sand. We might easily have expected this; but the main point is: 
is it taken account of, in considering the comparative values of these 
mixtures, that the adhesive strength of a Portland cement mortar 
heavily dosed with sand is low as compared with a weaker but richer 
mixture of natural cement mortar f The shearing of Portland mortar 
shows that the adhesion to pressed brick is greater than to common 
brick, but not in such proportion as in natural cements, being i yi or 
2 to I in place of 3 to i in the latter. But here again comes out the 
advantage given to Portland cements by testing them under water; 
the submerged specimens are stronger than open air ones, while in 
natural cements the reverse is the case. 

Table VI. summarizes the results obtained. 



All engineers realize that the strength of mortar is much less 
tested in cubes than in thin layers, but just what proportion they 
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ments have been made with a view of obtaining this information. 
(See table VII.). 

At the same time that these tests were made, mortar was also 
made into test pieces, and tested at the same age. We are thus 
enabled to form an idea of the relative strengths of mortar in thin 
joints and in cubes, and also to form an intelligent opinion of the 
comparative strengths of lime mortar, natural cement mortar, and 
Portland cement mortar. The mortars of the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
tests are identical with the mortars of the shearing tests, and show the 
same clear superiority of the natural cement i >< to i over the Portland 
cement 3 to 1 when used in this manner. Table VIII., summarizes 
the results obtained. 

Roughly speaking, tlie lime mortar at I week 5 to i is 6 times 
as strong; the lime mortar at I week 3 to I is 14 times as strong; 
the natural cement mortar at i week i >^ to i is 4 times as strong ; 
the Portland cement mortar at i week 3 to 1 is twice as strong, 
as the same mortar tested in cubes, at the same age. 

Referring to the amount of compression in Table Vll., it will be 
seen that the amount of compression per foot is much less according 
as this ratio is less; /. t'., the less yielding the mortar, the nearer 
does the strength in cubes approach to the strength in joints. This 
is to be expected, because the more yielding substances will be at a 
much greater disadvantage when unsupported at the sides than if 
enclosed in a thin ma.sonry joint. 

In the second, third, fourth, and sixth tests at 17,500 lbs., the 
load was released, and the permanent set observed was as given in the 
fifth column of the preceding table. 

It seems probable from this, therefore, that the lime mortars 
must have yielded to an injurious extent before there were any 
external signs. But whether this was the case or not, it is impossible 























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to say, because the compression was quite uniform up to and in 
many cases much past the points of evident failure. 


Strength of Mortar per square inch. 

In joints. 





Loads released 
at 17,S00 lbs., 
set observed 

per lineal foot. 



I week old, mortar, i lime, 5 sand. 

3 weeks old, mortar, i lime, 5 sand. 

3 weeks old, mortar, i lime, 5 sand. 

I week old, mortar, i lime, 3 sand. 

I week old, mortar, 1 Natural Ce- 
ment, iH sand. 

1 week old, mortar, i Portland Ce- 
ment, 3 sand. 

It seems fair to suppose that i week and 3 weeks are about the 
minimum and average times which would elapse before the maximum 
load might be put on a brick wall, and when it is remembered that 

these joints were less than % in. thick, the amount of compression in 
a high brick wall under a load of 80 or 90 lbs. per square inch is seen 
to be very great, and under a load of 300 to 400 lbs. per square inch, 
a brick wall 50 ft. high in lime mortar would not only fail, but com- 
press from 2 to 6 ins. in doing so — the compression practically all 
taking place in the mortar, as in the unyielding Portland cement 
mortar the compression is seen to be very small. 

The second part of this paper will contain tests made on piers 
built with pressed brick, in which the mortar has had longer time to 
harden, and interesting results are looked for. 

The brick in this case was, as mentioned in Table VII., common 
building brick. The photograjjh given illustrates the method of 
testing and the interesting manner of failure of fifth test, in which the 
lines of least resistance are clearly defined. 
{To be continued^ 

AN architectural contemporary announces that a fair porportion 
of iron in a mortar makes no difference in regard to the 
durability of the latter. Within certain limits that is perfectly true ; 
but the investigator might have added that durability is not every- 
thing. Bricks are frequently blamed for being " streaky," and it 
would be found in most cases that this appearance is due to the iron 
in the mortar. The sand used commonly contains minute grains of 
iron in a condition to be readily oxidized, unless closely imprisoned 
within the mortar. On weathering, these may not impair the dura- 
bility of the cementing material as a whole, but they induce disfigure- 
ment on the surface of the brick. — Exchange. 



The Foundation of Cements. The foundation of all 
cements, except those of a bituminous nature, which are used for 
binding together materials in masonry and concrete, is lime, the oxide 
of the metal calcium, which, although never found in the free state, 
is, in its various combinations, so widely diffused in nature. 

Occurrence. It occurs as carbonate in marble, in limestone, 
in chalk, in marl, and in shells, as sulphate in gypsum, as silicate in 
many minerals and rocks, and as phosphate in a few. 

Forms of Importance. Carbonate of lime in its purer forms 
and, when mixed with clay, in argillaceous or hydraulic limestones and 
some concretions, is of the greatest importance to the engineer and 
builder. From those forms in which there is but a small admixture 
of other substances lime is made. From those which contain clay 
or from a mixture of the pure carbonate with clay, hydraulic lime 
and cement are made. 

CAUSTIC OR quicklime. 

The product of the expulsion of carbonic acid from the purer 
forms of carbonate of lime at a red heat is caustic or quicklime. 
It is the more or less pure oxide of the metal calcium, of wliich it 
contains about 95 per cent, when of the best quality. 

The process of making lime in this way is called lime burning. 
It is conducted in kilns of various forms in which a suitable temper- 
ature can be maintained. 

Lime Kilns. The kilns in use in lime burning are of both the 
intermittent and continuous types, and these again may each be 
divided into two classes, one in which the fuel is mixed with the 
limestone, the other where the combustion is carried on in a separate 
chamber or furnace, apart from the stone. 

Whatever the method of burning, the product is much the same, 
the advantage of one form over another being purely one of economy 
of fuel and completeness and regularity of burning. In the United 
States almost all the lime burning is done in kilns of the continuous 
type, with the fuel, either coal or wood, mixed with the stone. Wood 
is supposed to produce a better lime, as the ash is smaller in amount 
and not so silicious. Where fuel oil, or gas is available, one of these 
sources of heat is the most satisfactory for lime burning. 

Lime Burning. Lime burning consists of raising limestone to 
that temperature at which it will lose its carbonic acid. It is usually 
carried on at a bright-red heat or about 1,700 degs. Fahr., although 
carbonate of lime begins to decompose at a lower temperature. Too 
high a temperature is undesirable, as this may produce a chemical 
combination between the lime and the impurities which all lime- 
stones contain to a greater or less degree. If these impurities are 
silicious, silicates of lime are formed which fuse and prevent the 
lime from slaking properly. The formation of such silicates may 
also take place with the ash of coal. This is known as clinker and 
is carefully thrown out in drawing the lime from the kiln. .Smaller 
jiarticles, however, cannot be separated and injure the C[uality of the 

It is necessary that a current of air should pass through the 
kiln, when lime is burned, to carry off the carbonic acid, as carbonate 
of lime, when heated in a vessel from which the gas cannot escape, 
is not decomposed and no lime is formed. A current of steam is 
even more desirable than air, but this is never used in practise, as it 
is hardly economical. The limestone is, however, often sprinkled 
with water which has, to a small degree, the same effect. 


Limestone and marble are the usual sources of lime, but it can 
also be made from chalk, some marls, and oyster shells. Chalk is 
not found in this country, marl is u.sed only for Portland cement, and 



oyster-shell lime principally for fertilizers and purifying gas. Stone 
lime is preferable for building purposes to any of the other forms. 


The changes which a limestone undergoes in burning are loss 
of weight by the removal of carbonic acid, water, and organic matter 
if present; change of volume, of density, of color, and of hardness. 

Massive limestones, or marbles such as are used in making lime, 
have a specific gravity and density of from 2.65 to 2.75. Lime in 
the form of the stone from which it is made, that is, in lumps, is 
porous owing to the loss of carbonic acid and water. It has, there- 
fore, a density of only 1.5 to 1.85, although the specific gravity of 
the lime is usually about 2.8 to 3.1, and that of the pure oxide 3.16. 

The color of many limestones is due to organic matter which 
burns away and leaves the caustic lime white. If it does not burn 
away it is due to mineral impurities which are undesirable. 

The hardness of lime is of course inferior to that of the stone 
from which it is made owing to the porous condition in which it is 
left, and there is a slight increase in volume due to the expansion of 
the gas in the stone. 

From pure carbonate of lime exactly 56 per cent, of oxide or 
caustic lime should be obtained, but owing to the loss of water and 
organic matter, as well as carbonic acid and to waste, this figure is 
never reached except when there are admixtures of clay or silica. 
Then the loss of carbonic acid is not as great as from pure carbonate 
of lime. When the limestone contains much carbonate of magnesia 
the product of burnt lime may be considerably reduced, as this car- 
bonate contains more carbonic acid than carbonate of lime. Such a 
limestone is known as dolomite and is of inferior value for making 


The ordinary marbles and limestones available for burning are 
never entirely pure. They contain a greater or less admixture of 
carbonates of magnesia and iron, of clay, and other silicates, of 
silica, of alkalies, of organic matter, and of sulphates, phosphates, and 

The following analyses are typical of the variations found in 
their composition. 



No. I White Marble, Maryland, 97.2 
No. 2 Blue Limestone, Maryland, 96.0 
No. 3 Silicious Marble, Maryland, 81.8 
No. 4 Dolomite Tompkins Cove, 

N. Y 53.8 

No. 5 Hydraulic Limestone, Mary- 
land 57.9 




















Effect of Impurities. We find limestones which are 
nearly pure, having 97.2 per cent, of carbonate of lime, in the form 
of white marble, and 96.0 per cent, in a blue limestone. In contrast 
are stones which contain silica or clay as well as silica, as shown by 
the presence of iron and aluminum, and those which are mixed with 
carbonate of magnesia. All the forms have their peculiar properties. 
The purest should be, of course, selected for lime burning. The 
impurities in a limestone have an important influence on the charac- 
ter of the caustic lime made from it. A quicklime prepared from a 
limestone comparatively free from impurities and consequently nearly 
pure calcium oxide is called a rich or fat lime. With the increase of 
admixture of other substances the lime becomes poor, that is to say, 
it does not slake easily, and when this exceeds 10 per cent, the burnt 
stone begins to slake with more difficulty or fails to do so at all, and 
can be no longer regarded as a mere lime, but is hydraulic or mag- 
nesian lime depending upon whether the admixture is clay or car- 
bonate of magnesia. .Xlready with from 5 to 8 per cent, of clay in 
the limestone, the lime has hydraulic properties, and these increase 
until it is very highly hydraulic with 25 per cent. 

When the admixture is magnesian and the rock is composed of 
carbonate of lime and magnesia, without clay, the resulting lime does 
not attain hydraulic properties, but merely becomes poor and fails 
to slake readily. With even 10 per cent, of magnesia, lime becomes 
poor, and with a larger amount still more unsatisfactory. Lime from 
dolomite, or magnesian limestone, which is very common in the 
United States, contains about 21 per cent, of magnesia, and is of 
inferior value for building purposes. Too much of this lime is used 
in the country, and it should be avoided as far as possible under all 

Lime containing a large amount of magnesia, if free from im- 

Requirements for American Portland 

for coast Fortificatione, U. S. 



i - 

a ^ 









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flot water teBl^. 

At mouth of Cape Fear River, N. C. 




500 lbs. 

600 lbs. 

175 lbs. 

250 lbs. 

Briquettes 24 hours in air, 24 hours in water 2ij° F. 

At Sandy Hook, N. J. 

250 lbs. 

450 lbs. 

125 lbs. 

200 lbs. 

Tybee Island, Ga. 



125 lbs. 

200 lbs. 

Pats »4 hours in air, 3 hours in water 212° F. 

Sullivan Island, S. C. 


200 lbs. 

375 lbs. 

500 lbs. 

125 lbs. 

175 lbs. 

Sheridan's Point, Va. 


175 lbs. 

375 lbs. 

After 24 hours, immersion in water 212° F. 

Galveston, Texas. 


75 lbs. 

300 lbs. 

400 lbs. 

Gull Island, N. Y. 


75 lbs. 

400 lbs. 

Key West, Fla. 




125 lbs. 

400 lbs. 

500 lbs. 

150 lbs. 

200 lbs. 

Briquettes 24 hours in air, and 24 hours in water 2 12° F. 

Dutch Island, R. I. 



250 lbs. 

400 lbs. 

600 lbs. 

125 lbs. 

200 lbs. 

San Diego, Cal. 

200 lbs. 

450 lbs. 

700 lbs. 

Portland, Me. 


150 lbs. 

380 lbs. 

Portsmouth, N. H. 


175 lbs. 

400 lbs. 



purities, may be used, however, for furnace linings as it resists heat 
well and is very basic, not fusing as readily as pure lime in presence 
of silica. 


The composition of commercial quicklime is varied, depending 
on the kind of rock from which it is made. The following are 
analyses of some typical limes, found in our markets : — 


Lime. Magnesia. Iron oxide Silica and Loss on 








New York 

from limestone . 







Baltimore Co. 

from marble . 







Washington, D. C. 

from dolomite 








from limestone . 







from dolomite . 







West V^irofinl;^ 

VV ^v3 L V lli^llila 

from limestone . 






West Virginia 

from limestone . 






It appears that limes which are 95 to 96 per cent, pure are 
the best that are attainable commercially and that they are frequently 
less pure. When fresh from the kiln lime would, of course, show no 
loss on ignition, but on storage it absorbs water with great avidity 
from the air until, as in that numbered seven, it has reached 17 per 
cent., when it is nearly half air slaked. Fresh lime, or that which 
has been carefully protected from the air, is of much greater value 
for building purposes, although too often this is unattainable. 


UNDER a clause in the bill making appropriations for the 
construction of gun implacements and fortifications, which 
passed Congress June 6, 1896, the cement used is required to be of 
domestic manufacture. The specifications of the various officers of 
the corps of engineers in charge of this work, as far as they relate 
to Portland cement, have been brought to our attention and are 
given in abstract in the table on opposite page. 

As there has been considerable discussion recently in the 
journals of the engineering and allied professions in regard to uni- 
formity in specifications for Portland cement, the very considerable 
variations in the above requirements is noticeable, especially as the 
work is all of one kind and to be done entirely by one organized body 
of men, who are supposed to represent the very highest standard in 
their profession. They are, nevertheless, not agreed as to what the 
requirements of a first-class American Portland cement should be or 
at least how its quality should be determined. 

One requires a neat test of 75 lbs. in one day in air, another one 
of 250 lbs. under the same circumstances. The variations in the 
requirements for a neat test at the age of seven days are relatively 
less, lying between 300 and 500 lbs., but even these are large. At 
twenty-eight days the demand is for a very varying increase of strength 
over that at seven days, from 100 to 250 lbs. Two of the engineers 
require a test with two parts of sand, four a test with three parts, and 
six no sand test. As this is, perhaps, the most reliable test of Port- 
land cement, it is remarkable that it should be omitted by half of 
those in charge of such improvements. Four officers require the 
boiling test, in three cases substituting it for a sand test. 

It seems unfortunate, even if the large body of engineers of this 
country cannot agree upon specifications for hydraulic cement, that 
the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army cannot set abetter 
example than appears in their recent specifications. It should be 
added, however, that the manufacturers of American Portland cement 
should, with the use of ordinary care, be able to meet the most severe 
of these requirements, and that some of them are too lenient. 

The Masons' Department. 




WHILE it is a comparatively simple matter to lay down the 
general principles which should govern the relations 
and dealings between the owner, architect, and contractor, the most 
valuable rules and suggestions, after all, come only with experience. 
In the case of extras, for example, the results of laxity of method 
and delay of settlement are so trying that one severe experience is 
usually sufficient to prevent a reoccurrence of such difficulties. It 
is hardly necessary to call attention to the fact that, as the settlement 
for extra work or work omitted is necessarily made at the close of a 
building operation, it is greatly to the advantage of the architect and 
contractor to be in a position to close the transaction without 
friction or disagreement with the owner, whose most lasting impres- 
sions of a given piece of work are generally those associated with the 
final dealings. When differences arise during the progress of con- 
struction, the architect or contractor, if they are right, usually have 
the opportunity to prove their case from subsequent developments ; or 
if there is an honest disagreement, the architect or contractor, as the 
case may be, can show that, although his judgment may have been 
at fault, his intentions were of the best, and under such conditions 
the offense is usually forgiven or forgotten ; but let there be a serious 
breach at the close of a building operation, and it is almost im- 
possible to convince an owner that he is being fairly treated, and it 
is quite improbable that he would, under these conditions, give the 
architect or builder an unqualified indorsement to enable either of 
them to get future work. 

Early in this consideration of the relations between architect 
and contractor, attention was called to the fact that the ability to 
carry out a large building project successfully depended more on the 
individuals than on any hard and fast rules which can be formulated, 
and that a thorough knowledge of the rights of the contractor as well 
as those of owner should be understood and recognized by the archi- 
tect. Much of the trouble between the architect and his client arises 
from the fact that the latter usually assumes, unless he is told to the 
contrary, that it is the duty of the architect to always take sides with 
the owner in any controversy as against the contractor. This idea, 
which is more common than one would suppose, and is even held by 
some of the narrow-minded members of the profession itself, 
doubtless arises from the fact that as the architect is paid by the 
client, he considers that he has retained a professional adviser, under 
practically the same conditions as he would retain a lawyer to defend 
a case in court. This, however, is not the position in which a con- 
scientious member of the profession should allow himself to be 
placed, and before undertaking a commission from a client who has 
not had experience, this relationship is a matter which should be 
fully explained and understood. Probably, if the truth was told, the 
architect who claims that he holds the autocratic position of counsel 
for the owner would be forced to admit that such an attitude was 
necessary for his own protection, for the same reason that a certain 
architect was fond of asserting that no client employed by him ever 
had to pay for an extra, the simple fact being that this architect never 
approved such an item on a bill, although the plans and specifications 
coming from his office were at least no better than those from many 
others who made no pretense to such infallibility. This architect, 
judging from the highest standard of professional practise was no 
more just than one who went to the other extreme, and accepted com- 
missions from the contractor, which of course in the end are paid by 
the owner. It has already been stated here that the responsibility for 
the abuses which lead to the most serious controversies in connection 
with building operations are about equally divided between the differ- 
ent parties concerned ; but naturally the architect, while trying to 



assume an impartial position in the matter, but at the same time 
anxious to raise the standard of professional practise, may give a 
stronger emphasis to the shortcomings of his associates than to others 
equally responsible. But it must be admitted that the greatest responsi- 
bility in the effort to reform tlie abuses, to which attention has been 
called in these papers, must, from the nature of things, rest upon the 
architect, and if he can acquire a reputation for possessing a thorough 
knowledge of the various requirements of his profession, and at the 
same time that of dealing honorably and justly with his client on the 
one hand and the contractor on the other, he will soon find himself in 
a position where he need employ only those in whom he has strict con- 
fidence, and will seldom, if ever, be forced by his client into accepting 
any one to perform work who will not of his own volition carry out the 
proposed work according to the terms of the agreement. A promi- 
nent lawyer once defined a contract as an agreement between two 
honest men. The bitter competition which has been found of late 
years among all professions and trades has naturally tended lo lower 
the standard of business integrity; but in spite of this, and probably 
to the end of time, no matter what may be the position of the employer, 
in a vast majority of cases he prefers to hire to perform his work only 
those whom he is sure will live up to the terms of an agreement ; and 
although success may come more rapidly in some instances to those 
who are willing to take undue advantage of their fellow men, it will 
not, in the long run, be as satisfactory, as substantial, or as great, as 
to those whose word is as good as their bond. 
( To he continued^ 


Should lime he used in mortar to prevent freezing.' 

//. .S". iJ/., Kansas City. 

No. On the contrary, lime delays setting, and is of no advan- 

Is the subject of a better grade of mortar, or a more liberal use of 
cement in masonry construction, being given due attention by architects and 
builders .' or is the strength of bonding of secondary importance .'' 

K. H. Meyers, St. Louis. 

The arguments which are of force in this case are the same as 
those for the use of high-grade materials of all descriptions which 
are to be used in any structural work. The entire structure cannot 
be stronger than its weakest part, so that poor cement and mortar 
make any superiority of quality of other materials of no value. 


Old brick are being used instead of sand to make lime mortar, in 
the rebuilding of the new Union Station in Columbus, O. The 
refuse brick from the old walls are ground in a crusher. It is 
said that a quality of mortar for color work superior to that obtained 
with sand is produced. — Eng. News. 

Cost of Hand and Machine-Mixed Concrete. Machine- 
mixed concrete can be done at from one fourth to one third of the 
cost of hand mixing; at the same time the machine mixing is more 
thorough and economical. With a given amount of aggregate, from 
10 to 20 per cent, less cement can be used without impairing the 
.strength of the finished work. 

The absolutely uniform results obtained by the best grade of ma- 
chine mixers lessens the danger of cracks due to uneven setting, as 
the expansion and contraction of the mass will vary directly as the 
proportion of the cement varies throughout the mass. 

Therefore there is not only a direct saving in the quantity of 
cement used, but also in the quality of the work as well as in the 
finish and lasting properties. 

A new cement will contract and expand more than an old and 
stored cement. — Cement. 

Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 


Manufacturers' Department. 

CHICAGO. — No one expects extensive building operations this 
year, and yet architects and builders look for a fairly good 
business, notwithstanding the serious disturbances caused by election 
events, and more recently, the failure of some large banking institu- 

The list of projects announced looks well, although there is little 
of special importance. 

Of the building that is to be done, architects are evidently de- 
sirous of having it done on a right basis. 

Hopes often expressed in these columns in the past are being 
realized to the extent, at least, of a preliminary organization of archi- 
tects, which has been lately effected. An Architects' Business Associ- 
ation has been formed, which aiins to protect building interests 
against dishonest contractors, and the profession itself against un- 
worthy members. It is earnestly to be hoped that an effective effort 
will be made to obtain legislation, giving the profession a legal 

A local daily recently created quite a sensation by announcing 
in bold headlines, " It's a Leaning Tower," " Masonic Temple out of 
Plumb," etc. Having employed a surveyor to do some investigating, 



W. & r.. A. Audsley, Architects. 

Made by Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

alarm was allayed by another headline in much smaller type, " It is 
Perfectly Secure, and no Importance is Attached to this Singular 

The Masonic Temple is a twenty-story building, about 170 ft. 
square, and the north wall, at a point 265 ft. above the ground, is 9 
ins. out of the vertical. It is to be hoped that other buildings are in 
no more immediate danger than the Temple, but the unequal settle- 
ment of this important structure will serve as a text for discussion on 
" rigid joints," " the danger of cast-iron connections," etc. 

In the list of buildings projected, Warren H. Milner, county 
architect, is planning various additions to the public hospitals, jail, 
and infirmary. 

Perkins & Krause have two factory buildings, one 75 by 100 
ft., seven stories, and the other, 50 by 100 ft., five stories high. 

Cowles & Ohrenstein have in hand a store building 76 by 86 
ft., four stories, and a warehouse. 

An apartment building, designed by Mr. Fritz Foltz, is men- 



tioned in which each suite has its bedrooms in the story above its 
parlor, kitchen, etc. 

Some three hundred million common bricks were manufactured 
in and about Chicago during 1896. This is only one third of the 
capacity of our kilns, and but two thirds the production of the pre- 
vious year. This fact in itself is significant as showing the condition 
of the building business during the year. 

ST. LOUIS. — The new year has brought little of special interest 
in the building line. In fact, there is more or less disappoint- 
ment among the architects and builders, as it was felt that by this 
time there would be considerable more work under way. 

Capital seems very nervous, and as soon as one excuse has become 
worn another is found. There have been very few business failures 
in our city within the last year, and no banks, but the failures 

Architect W. A. Swasey is building another near by of white 
brick and terra-cotta, while further up the street he has just finished 
a large stone residence for Mr. B. Nugent, at a cost of $65,000. 

In Bell Place, Architects Barnett, Haynes & Barnett have just 
finished two residences costing about ;st40,ooo each, one in stone and 
the other in buff brick with white terra-cotta trimmings; while F. C. 
Bonsack is taking figures on a stone residence for Mr. G. W. Brown, 
to be built in Portland Place. 

Architect Taylor has just completed a five-story building on 
Broadway, on the site of the old Aloe Building, which was the scene 
of a fatal fire about a year ago, in which several firemen perished. 
The front is of red terra-cotta with large plate windows on each story, 
making an ideal business building and a decided improvement over 
the old rookery that was destroyed. 

The building of the St. Louis Dairy Company, occupying nearly 
half a block between 20th and 21st Streets, by Architect Swasey, is 


Louis H. Sullivan, Architect. 
Tlie faceland common bricks used in this Ijuilding were furnished by the Hydraulic Press Brick Company, of St. Louis. 

throughout the country have been a disturbing element in money 
circles. and have caused the delay of some important building schemes, 
but as the year advances a steady improvement is noticeable. 

There has been no time within the last several years when 
building could be done so cheaply as now. This presents an oppor- 
tunity which is being taken advantage of by many, in building good 
residences in the more aristocratic neighborhoods, such as Westmore- 
land, Portland, and Bell Places, while the business depression has 
tended to diminish the number of cheap flats and building of houses 
for speculation. 

Among the handsome f-esidences just being completed is the 
Dozier residence in Westmoreland Place, by Architect F. L. Wees. 
The building is three story and basernent, of brick and terra-cotta, in 
the French Renaissance, and will cost.$75,opo,... .■.■,..; 

a very interesting piece of red brick and half-timbered work. The 
basement is occupied by the stables, wagons, etc., while the upper 
floors are used for the offices and laboratory. 

There are a number of old landmarks in which the advancement 
of modern progress has made it necessary to make alterations. Among 
these the old Davis Building, for nearly a quarter of a century the 
home of the large wholesale house of .Samuel C. Davis, is being 
transformed into a department store, by Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, 
at a cost of $50,000. 

A movement is on foot to provide some permanent place for 
large gatherings, conventions, etc., and Architect Ramsey has pre- 
pared plans for a large amphitheater to occupy the north end of the 
Exposition Building, with a seating capacity of about 8,000, and in 
case of conventions, by using the arena, as many as 14,000. 



PITTSBURG. — The outlook in the architectural and building 
line for the coming season is very good. There is a move- 
ment well under way to erect a new Cham her of Commerce building 
at a of about jj$ i ,000,000. The Ninth U. V. Presbyterian So- 

MINNE.'XPOLIS. — A number of interesting things have 
developed, and we feel confident for next season, but mat- 
ters are quiet now. 

Among other interesting reports is that of a new Chamber of 

Henry Ives Cobb, Architect. 
The buff brick used in this work was furnished by the Columbus] Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio. The architectural tcrra-cotta by the .American Terra-Cotta & Ceramic 

Company, Chicago. 

ciety of Allegheny are to erect a new church, to be of brick and 
stone, and cost about )?2o,ooo. Architect J. E. Allison is preparing 
plans for a new church of brick for the Methodist society of Vander- 
grift. Architect J. M. 
Alston has the new In- 
sane Asylum for Al- 
legheny City, which will 
be of brick. Architect 
Charles Bickel has the 
new German Turn 
Verein Building on 
South Side. • Architect 
T. E. Cornelius is plan- 
ning a small hotel for 
Coraopolis. Architect 
W. S. Sims has a fire- 
proof laundry building 
on Fifth .Avenue, Oak- 
land ; also a residence 
in the East End, each 
of which will cost about 


Mr. A. C. Boyd, of 
Boyd & Long, archi- 
tects, died last month. 
Architects Shaw & Met- 

calf have dissolved partnership, Mr. Shaw continuing the business, 
and Mr. Metcalf returning to England. 

Architects George Orth & Brother were successful in the com- 
pletion for the new building for the Western Bank of Pennsylvania. 


Commerce, to cost $300,000, which is to be voted upon by the 
Chamber. They have secured an option on the corner adjoining the 
present building. This is an important and much-needed improve- 
ment, a number of the 
larger corporations be- 
ing unable to find quar- 
ters in the present 
inferior building. 

A very interesting 
and unusual experiment 
has been made by the 
New England Furniture 
and Carpet Company 
during the past year, 
which culminated New 
Year's night. They 
wished to observe the 
tenth anniversary of 
their beginnings in Min- 
neapolis in a fitting 
manner, and conceived 
the idea of building a 
neat, roomy modern 
house in one of our best 
suburbs, 'and giving it 
away, free of cost, to 
the lucky holder of the ticket selected in an open and fair manner 
from those issued during the year to their patrons, every I25 pur- 
chase entitling holder to a ticket. The house was designed by one 
of our leading architects, and is a gem in every way. As usual, the 



winner was one of the smaller purchasers, holding but the one ticket, 
which was quite sufficient, of course. The lucky person was a lady 
who had purchased $27 worth of goods ; a decidedly good investment, 
all things considered. The head of this company is a former Bos- 
tonian, Mr. W. L. Harris. 

There has been considerable trouble 
and expense connected with the new elec- 
tric plant and elevators at the Court 
House. An expert has carefully examined 
it and made an exhaustive report of his 
findings, but the elevator company does 
not take kindly to it naturally, and there is 
to be a joint investigation. Meanwhile, 
the service is unsatisfactory and the stair- 
ways are found safe and useful. 

W. B. Dunnell has prepared plans 
for the new State Insane Hospital, to be 
built at Aroka, at total cost of some 
$900,000, one third of which will be re- 
quired for a beginning. 

The local G. A. R. posts have pre- 
pared a petition to our Park Commission 
requesting permission to erect a $35,000 

building in Loring Park, to serve as headquarters and a museum for 
relics, etc. 

The Regents of State University have asked the legislature for 
$100,000 to erect needed buildings during the coming two years: A 
chemical building this year, and for 1898 a fire-proof botanical build- 
ing, a horticultural building, veterinary building and light and heat- 
ing plant at State Farm. 

desired. About every machine required in the manipulation of clay 
is illustrated and described ; not only this, but the finished product 
itself as well as its application is shown in a most interesting series 
of illustrations. Such a work as this can be considered nothing less 



To one who contemplates entering the clay-manufacturing busi- 
ness the new catalogue issued by the American Clay-Working Machin- 
ery Company, Bucyrus, O., will be found of invaluable assistance. 
There is a wealth of facts to be found from cover to cover, which 
seem to furnish all information upon the subject which could be 



Made by the Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. An illustration of (his building 

will be found in the company's advertisement, page v. 


Coburn, Barnum, Benes & Hubbel, Architects. 

Made by the NorthwesternlTerra-CottalCompany. 

than an up-to-date journal of the industry it represents. Copies of 
this catalogue will be sent free on application to the company. 

Samuel H. French & Co., Philadelphia, paint manufacturers 
and dealers in builders' supplies, have issued a most useful pad 
calendar, each leaf having a space for memoranda for every day in 
the week. A calendar of this sort once used becomes almost indis- 
pensable in office equipment. 

Mr. F. B. Gilbreth of 85 Water Street, Boston, has again 
issued his attractive calendar showing the time of tides. This, we 
presume, will not particularly interest our inland subscribers unless 
they are troubled with wet cellars. 

The " American .Seal Paint " Calendar, issued bv Wm. Con- 
nors, Troy, N. Y., in addition to the regular calendar features tells 
how " Uncle Sam " got his name, and shows his )itO(his operandi of 
adding stars to the field of blue. The color scheme introduced is 
very attractive. 

Mr. F. W. Silkman, dealer in minerals, clays, colors, and 
chemicals, 231 Pearl Street, New York, has sent us a very handsome 
calendar, the top part of which has an engraving encircled by an 
embossed border, which adds much to the attractiveness of the whole. 
Each calendar has a different subject for illustration, which is taken 
from some well-known painting. 

A neat little iron frame which has lieen treated by the Bower- 
Barff Oxidized or Rustless Iron Process holds the calendar issued by 
the L. Schreiber & Sons' Company, Cincinnati, to whom we are 
grateful for having remembered us. 

R. Guastavino has sent us a calendar which is interesting par- 
ticularly because of the half-tone illustrations it contains, which show 
in a manner that almost explains his system, several of the promi- 
nent buildings wherein his fire-proofing tiles are employed. 

Number four of the series of " Minor Italian Palaces," which 
is being issued by the Cutler Manufacturing Company, Rochester, 
N. Y., contains seven plates from sketches made by Mr. Claude F. 
Bragdon, which, though grouped under the head of " Minor Italian 
Palaces," are nevertheless very interesting. 

The progress in material prosperity which this country has cxpe 
rienced during the past decade, no less than the increased possibili- 
ties of artistic manufacture, are well exemplified by the recently 
published Sketch Book of the Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick 
Company. This brochure contains over a hundred designs for fire- 
place mantels illustrated in greater part by photographic reproduc- 
tions of actual work. The Sketch Book contains only fireplace 



designs. They are well chosen, clearly and artistically presented, 
and offer a choice both in form and color suitable for a great variety 
of purposes. We may not habitually ascribe daintiness to such a 
material as pressed brick, but the brick forms are combined so 
cleverly that, especially in some of the smaller mantels, very dainty 
effects are produced ; and though we might more naturally associate 

a brick mantel with a hall, a din- 
ing room, or a den, there are a 
number of photographs of charm- 
ing mantels for parlors or boudoirs 
which leave little to be desired. 


The Kittanning Brick and 
Fire Clay Company, Pittsburg, 
I'a., whose yearly output of front 
brick in all shades will exceed 
seven million, have contracted with 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 
14 East 23d St., N. Y., to handle 
their Eastern business. 

Waldo Brothers, the well- 
known building material dealers of 
Boston, have leased on a long term 
the Tudor Wharf property at 
Charlestown. This splendid piece 
of water-front property will be 
fully equipped for the better hand- 
ling of the concern's extensive 




Made by the Penh Amboy Terra-Cotla 

The Pennsylvania Enam- 
eled Brick Company has re- 
cently supplied forty thousand 
Company. enameled bricks for the Third 

Avenue Bridge, at Harlem, N. Y., 
Isaac A. Hopper, builder; also twelve thousand of same for the 
Police Station and City Court Building at Yonkers, N. Y., Edward 
A. Forsyth, architect. 

The Perth Amuoy Terra-Cotta Co.mpany have just closed, 
through their agents, Waldo Brothers, the contract for the Proctor 
Building, Bedford Street, Boston, Winslow & Wetherell, architects. 
This is the most elaborate use of terra-cotta of any building scheme 
in Boston, the entire front being of terra-cotta from the sidewalk up. 

G. R. Twitchell & Co., Boston, are supplying 100,000 red face 
brick for the new West End Schoolhouse, Boston, John Lyman 
Faxon, architect ; Mead, .Mason & Co., builders. Also 50,000 red face 
brick for the new schoolhouse, Dorchester district, Boston, E. W. 
Clarke, architect; W. S. Sampson & Son, Builders. 

The architectural terra-cotta for the new building for Mt. Hol- 
yoke College at .South Hadley, Mass., will be supplied by the Perth 
Amboy Terra-Cotta Company through their New England agents, 
Waldo Brothers. The plans are by Gardner, Pyne & Gardner, H. 
P. Cummings & Co., contractors. 

Lv the reorganization of the Pennsylvania Enameled Brick 
Company, Seymour Van Santvoord becomes president ; Henry Bur- 
den, 2d, vice-president: Wm. F. Burden, secretary and treasurer; 
Arthur E. Barnes, general manager ; and F. P. Huston, New York 
representative. In addition to the manufacture of enameled brick, 
the company is now making a fine grade of white front brick. 

The Perth-Amboy Terra-Cotta Company will furnish the 
architectural terra-cotta on the following contracts : St, James Office 

Building, Broadway and 26th Street, New York City, Bruce Price, 
architect, the details of which will be very elaborate ; Bell Tele- 
phone Building, nth and Filbert Streets, Philadelphia, Chas. McCaul, 
architect ; Western Electric Building, southeast corner Bethune and 
West Streets, New York City, Cyrus L. W. Eidlitz, architect. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company will supply the 
enameled brick for the " Fair " Building, northwest corner State and 
Adams -Streets, Chicago, Jenney & Mundie, architects; George A. 
Fuller Company, contractors ; Sherrj" Hotel, southwest corner Fifth 
Avenue and 44th Street, New York City, McKim, Mead & White, 
architects; Richard Deeves & .Son, contractors. This order calls for 
about 270,000 White English size enameled brick. 

The Commekcial Wood and Cement Ccimpanv, through 
their New York office, 156 Fifth Avenue, have closed contract with 
J. L. Ginn, Philadelphia, for 21,000 barrels of Commercial Rosendale 
cement for gun emplacement at the United States Fort Caswell, at 
the mouth of the Cape Fear River, N. C. 

They have also closed contract with the Hartford Paving Com- 
pany, Hartford, Conn., for 10,000 
barrels of Commercial Rosendale for 
the United States gun emplacement 
at Portsmouth, N. H. 

The White Brick & Terra- 
CoTTA Co.mpany, of 92-94 Liberty 
Street, New York, have just completed 
the terra-cotta for a candy factory, 84 
to 90 Vandam Street, De Lemos & 
Cordes, architects; the Store Build- 
ing, 78 Fifth Avenue, A. Wagner, 
architect; and Flushing Bank Build- 
ing, at Flushing, L. I., S. E. Gage 
and W. J. Wallace, architects ; and 
have closed contracts for residence 
at Bergen Point, N. J., A. F. Leicht, 
architect ; chapel at Geneseo, New 
York, Heins & LaFarge, architects; 
and terrace for Tiffany residence at 
Westburj', L. I., W. J. Wallace, ar- 

Mr. J. Francis Booraem, well 
known through his connection with 
the American Enameled Brick Com- 
pany, has been admitted to the firm of 
Meeker & Carter, the new firm name 
becoming Meeker, Carter, Booraem & 
Co. The firm of Meeker & Carter is 
well known as being one of the largest 
operators in building materials in New 
York City, among the many manufac- 
turers for which they are agents being ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ p^^^^ ^^^^^ Terra-Cotta 
the Staten Island Terra-Cotta Lumber Company. 

Company, Woodbridge. N. J. ; the 

Standard Fire-proofing Company, Perth Amboy, N. J.; Selden Brick 
Company, Erie, Pa. ; Kittanning Brick & Fire Clay Company, Pitts- 
burg, Pa.; Pennsylvania Brick Company, Oaks, Pa.; Wiliiamsport, 
Brick Company, Wiliiamsport, Pa. ; Alumina Shale Brick Company, 
Bradford, Pa.; Garthe Roofing Tiles, Baltimore, Md. ; American 
Enameled Brick & Tile Company, South River, N. J.; Farnley Glazed 
Bricks, Farnley, Leeds, England. 

We are very glad to print the following letter, which will explain 
itself. Such testimony from a well-known architect will do much 
toward placing the American manufacture of enameled brick in a 
right light before our architects and builders. 

executed in TERRA-COTTA 






Office of the Chief Engineer. 
Chicago, Dec. 14, 1896. 

Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Chicago, III.: — 

Gentlemen : Having thrown open to the public the underground suburban station at 
Van Buren Street, which is said in all respects to be a phenomenal success, I feel I must 
extend my thanks to some of the material men and contractors that so ably assisted me in 
its construction. 

Your enameled brick (English size), which I used in this work, I have found are all you 
could possibly recommend them to be ; 
and you deserve much credit from all, es- 
pecially the architectural profession. 

Not only are your brick very evenly 
enameled, and scarcely any difference in 
shade, but they are exceedingly hard, and 
I found could be perfectly ground for 
high-grade arch work, where I had to use 
some of them. 

Taking pleasure in knowing that this 
lay-out at Van Buren Street Station, of 
your material, will be a great card for 
your 6rm, I remain, 

Yours respectfully, 

Francis T. Bacon, 
Supervising A rchitect^ Illinois Central 
Railroad Com/>a7iy. 



FEW building improve- 
ments in recent years have more quickly won deserved rec- 
ognition from architects and builders than the Mason Safety Tread, 
which was introduced in Boston only about a year ago, and is now 
almost as well known as the Old South Church or the sacred codfish. 
The Mason Tread is a unique device, extremely simple and exceed- 
ingly effective. It is easily applied and adapted to a great variety 
of places, especially in our Northern climate, where stairs, entrances, 
and sidewalk lights are made slippery during so large a portion of 
the year by rain or snow. 

The Mason Tread consists of a base of chilled steel with ele- 
vated ridges forming dove-tail grooves into which strips of lead are 

firmly pressed, the softer metal giving a sure foothold and the steel 
ensuring great durability. 

The tread material is used in hundreds of places on our streets 
in the repair of worn Hyatt light borders, and the company is prepared 
to manufacture for new buildings sidewalk lights protected with their 
material. For internal use, Shepard, Norwell & Co. were among the 
first of our great retail merchants to appreciate the worth of the 
Mason Tread, and their grand staircase shows it to great advantage. 

Houghton & Dutton will have 
the stairways of their mammoth 
new building fully equipped 
with the traads, and in many 
other stores. In the Adams 
House and other principal 
hotels they are used upon stair- 
ways, entrances, and thresholds. 
They are used upon stairways 
in the City Hall, Quincy and 
Faneuil Hall Markets, Boston, 
upon the stone steps of all the 
police stations, and the company 
is at work upon a contract to 
place them upon the stairs in 
subway stations, where they will 
receive the severest test of all. 
At the company's office, 40 Water Street, Boston, a sample stair- 
way may be seen, showing the application of the treads to wood, iron, 
and marble. Mr. W. S. Lamson, of cash-carrier fame, is president of 
the American Mason Safety Tread Company, and Mr. Henry C. King, 
of Lawrence, treasurer. The factory is at Lawrence. 


A FIRST-CLASS Salesman in front brick and terra-cotta to sell 
goods in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Must have 
an acquaintance with the trade and a knowledge of figuring terra- 
cotta. Address C. S. S., Care of The Brickbuilder. 


and most artistic results can be produced by us- 
ing our Fireplace Mantels made of Ornamen- 
tal Brick* No other kind can begin to do as 
well. Our customers are always pleased* The 
mantels are not necessarily expensive^ either* 

Each one of our designs is prepared ^ 
by a noted architect. They are there- • 
fore architecturally correct as well as 

Don^t place an order for mantels 
until you have seen the designs in 
our Sketch Book» Ours are the 
newest; the best, the most unique* 

We have them at all prices from $J2 upward, 
and the lower cost designs are just as attractive 
as the rest—they are only smaller—that is alL 

Any brickmason can set the mantels up — our Sketch Book 
tells all about 52 designs — Send for it and learn of the possi- 
bilities to be attained. 


15 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 





Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New Vork Agents, Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonsliire Street, Boston .... 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 2S7 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette lildg. 


Corre.spondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. ..... 

American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Hldg., Chicago, III. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn 

Boston Office, 40 Water St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New England Agent, Charles l!acon,3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. PhiladelphiaOffice, 24 South 7th St. 
New Vork Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England .Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co.. 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston .Agents, Waldo Bros., loz Milk St. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson it Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W. L. McPherson, Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 11 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agen 
Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Catskill Shale I5rick & Paving Co., ill Fifth Avenue, New York 
Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. ...... 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 

Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ........ 

Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn. ..... 

Boston Office, 72 Water St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ..... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Ittner, .Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

La Salle Pressed Brick Company, La Salle, 111. ...... 

National Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. ........ 

New Vork and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 

Boston Office, 171 Devonshire St. 
Parry Bros. & Co., 10 Broad St., Boston ....... 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 W,iter Street. 

Philadelphia C)ffice, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston . 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. .... 
Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., .Agents, 207 Jlroadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Shawmut Brick Co., Cartwright, Pa. ....... 

General Sales Agent, C. E. Willard, 171 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Kankine, 156 I'ifth Ave., New York. 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 
Williamsport 15rick Co., Williamsport, Pa. ...... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d .St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. ....... 

P"iske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Mt. .Savage Enameled Brick Co., Mt. Savage, Md. ...... 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, United Charities Bldg., New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Somerset & Johnsonburg Mfg. Company, office, 166 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Agent, O. D. Pierson, Mohawk Building, Fifth Ave. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 
Eastern .Agent, James L. Kankine, 156 Fifth Ave.. New York. 


Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston 


Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 
Building, Philadelphia .......... 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Koston. 
Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City .... 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston ....... 

Brand, James, 81 Fulton St., New York City 

Chicago, 34 Clark St. 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Brigham, Henry R., 35 Stone Street, New York City ..... 

New England Agents, Barry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 
Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Ebert Morris, 302 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. ..... 

New York Office, 253 Broadway. 
French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lawrence Cement Company, No. I Broadway, New Vork City . 
Manhattan Cement Company, 15 to 25 Whitehall St., New York City 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York .... 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, W. G. Nash, 220 State .St., Boston. 

James C. GoS, 31-49 Point -St., Providence, R. I. 

J. S. Noble, 57-69 Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 





































Thiele, E., 78 Williams St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 


Sturtevant Mill Co., Cor. Park and Clayton Sts., Dorchester Dist., Boston 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofing, and Roofing: Tiles. 

Ketcham, O. VV., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia ..... 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange Baltimore, Md., and 808 F St., 
N. W., Washington, I). C 

Mayland, H. F., 2S7 Fourth Ave.. New York City 

Meeker & Carter, 14 E. 23d St., New Vork City ...... 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston ..... 

Staveley, J. Mair, 40 Water .St., Boston ........ 

.Stearns, Charles S., 190 I'earl St., Hartford, Conn. ...... 

Thomas, E. H., 24 So. 7th St., Phila., Pa., 874 Broadway, New York 

Twitchell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire St., Boston 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston 


F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New \'ork ........ 


American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio ..... 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ....... 

Chisholm. Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Raymond, C. W. & Co., Dayton, Ohio ........ 

.Simpson Brick Press Co., 415 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, III. . 

.Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

.Sturtevant Mill Company, Cor. Park and Clayton Sts., Dorchester Dist., Boston 


Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ...... 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 

New York Office, 126 Liberty St. 


Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York .... 

Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 
Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ..... 
Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., 104 South 12th St., Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Laxell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
P'iske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire .St., Boston ..... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York ...... 

Boston Office, 444 Albany .Street. 
Meeker & Carter, 14 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 

Metropolitan Fire-proofing Company, Trenton, N. J. . 

New York Office, 874 Broadway. Boston Offi ce, 166 Devonshire St. 
Mau>rer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d -St., New York City .... 
New Vork & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 

Boston Office, 171 Devonshire St. 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1545 So. Clark St., Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Metropolitan Building. 

Western Office, 5 I*arker Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 11 i Fifth Ave., New Vork .... 

GRANITE CSVeymoutli Seam-Face Granite, Ashler & Quoins). 

Gilbreth, Frank B., 85 Water St., Boston 


Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 


Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y. 




Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Marsh Metallic Corner Bead, Edward B. Marsh, Tremont Building, Boston 
Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ...... 









XXX vi 












Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y. . 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. ......... 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 
French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. ...... 

Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ....... 


Catskill Shale Brick and Paving Co., in Fifth Ave., New York City 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited, Marquette 
Building, Chicago .......•••• 

New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 


Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. ......•••• 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 


The .American Masou Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston . . . . 


Folsom I'atent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 


J. C. N. Guibert, 39 Cortland St., New York City 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio 


J. B. Prescott & Son, Webster, Mass 

New York Office, 6a Reade St. 










Conkling, Armstrong 
^ ^ Terra-Cotta Co 




. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality . . 


Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 160 Fifth Ave., New York. 




Office^ 164 Devonshire Street^ Boston* 



Boston Fire=Brick Works. 





Specialties in Building Bricks in all Colors 
known to Clay Working* ^ d^ ^ ^ d^ 

New York Office : Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. 

Philadelphia Office : 24 South 7th Street. 

Factories : 394 Federal Street, and K Street, cor. 1st Street, South Boston. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 


New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue, 



John Hancock Building, Builders Exchange, 

Builders Exchange, 

0. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. WM. C LEWIS, Agent. 




Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 

Perth Amboy, N* ]♦ 


Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

J 60 Fifth Avenue* 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street 

White Brick 


Terra-Cotta Co., 

92 and 94 Liberty St., NEW YORK CITY. 

Boston Agent, Charles E. Willard, 171 Devonshire St. 

JL White Brick, 

•i Fancy Colored Brick, 

♦ Smooth or Rock Faced. 


For Exterior or Inside Work. 




Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 


For Flat, Elliptical, and Segmen- 
tal Arches of every Description. 

Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roofing. 





Boston Agent, CHARLES E. WILLARD, 171 Devonshire St. 

Works, LORILLARD (Keyport P. O.), N. J. 



The Northwestern 

Terra- Cotta Co. 

In all Colors and 
according to Special 


Architectural. . 

Glazed and Enam- 
eled Work in all 

•T!*"* •?*■-»; »!^*''-r. 

Works and Main Office, Corner of 
Clybourn and Wrightwood Aves.... 

City Office, Room 1118, The Rookery, Chicago. 


'jTlRvIll 1 1 







No. 2 










Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3 50 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER isforsalebyall Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRicKiiun.DER is published the 20th of each month. 

IN our editorial column last month we took occasion to urge 
again the necessity of making common brick as well as pressed 
brick of the standard size, in order to do away with the unnecessary 
difficulties which the present unevenness of shape and improper pro- 
portions of most of the common brick put in the way of a general 
use of good bond in brickwork, and we pointed out that the reform 
we advocated would be certain to lead to a largely increased use of 
brick. There is a large field from which brickwork is now practi- 
cally excluded, and in which it ought to be commonly einployed, 
namely, our suburban architecture, and the practises we have been 
condemning are certainly among the causes which contribute to 
prevent the conquest of this important field by brick. 

At the last monthly meeting of the Boston Society of Architects, 
Mr. Clipston .Sturgis read :. most interesting and suggestive paper 
in which he compared our suburban architecture, which is almost 
exclusively of wood, with recent suburban architecture in England, 
in which i-rick is generally employed. In the course of his paper he 
referred to the imperfect bonding of our brickwork, which must be 
improved if the use of brick is to become general, especially if 8 in. 
walls or hollow walls are used, which would be insecure 
thoroughly bonded. He emphasized especially the grave menace to 
the safety of all our great cities which exists in the easily inflammable 
wooden suburbs, by which they are on all sides surrounded. In 
these often large districts, more or less closely crowded with wooden 
buildings of the most inflammable character, a conflagration might 
start which the more solid masonry buildings in the heart of the city 
would be totally unable to resist. It is true that buildings in which 
the exterior walls only are of b.ick, and which have wooden floors 
and interior partitions, may easily be totally destroyed by fire, but it 

is a comparatively easy matter to prevent a fire in such a building 
from spreading to others in the neighborhood. It is true also that 
a conflagration of even limited extent will sweep away such buildings 
in its path almost as easily as if they were entirely of wood; but if 
rt// the buildings in a neighborhood had external walls of brick or 
other non-combustible material, no such conflagration would be likely 
to get under way. This is one reason why conflagrations are of so 
much less frequent occurrence in Europe than they are with us. It 
was shown that the expense of brick buildings need not be very 
much greater than those of wood. Moreover, if the use of brick was 
thus largely increased, brick would become still cheaper. The 
greatly increased demand would make it possible to sell bricks at a 
profit at prices much less than those which now prevail. Interior 
furring against brick walls can be done away with by using hollow- 
brick fire-proof furring blocks, which are now made of such a size 
that they can be bonded in with the brick. A very good wall is one 
built 8 ins. thick of brick, with a i in. air space and a 4 in. interior 
wall of fire-proof hollow bricks, bonded into the exterior wall. Such 
a wall has practically all the strength of a 12 in. wall, and is as dry 
as if furred on the inside with wood, especially if the air space is 
ventilated at the bottom into the celler, and at the top into the roof 
space, as can easily be done. Unfortunately, at present the building 
laws of Boston and some other cities make the use of hollow walls 
unnecessarily expensive by refusing to count the inner lining as part 
of the effective thickness of the wall, when yet, if properly bonded, 
such a lining adds materially to the strength of the wall. The ad- 
ditional cost of the brick is fully offset by the greater permanence of 
the structure, by the saving in painting and repairs, and by saving in 
the insurance. It is a great mistake to suppose, as is sometimes 
done, that it is to the advantage of underwriters to have buildings 
that will burn up. All the efforts of insurance people have tended 
the other way. In a district in which structures having exterior 
walls and roofs of non-combustible material are the rule, and not the 
exception, underwriters can and will give more favorable rates on 
such buildings than where they are surrounded by highly inflamma- 
ble structures. External ornaments of wood must, of course, le 
avoided if the advantage of the brick wall in point of safety against 
fire is to be preserved. Such wooden ornaments are nearly always 
ugly and are always unnecessary, especially now that manufacturers 
of molded bricks place such a variety of designs at the disposal of 
the builder. 

But beyond the important questions of durability and safety lies 
the question of beauty. The best design in wood cannot equal the 
effectiveness of a good brick design. The wood always has an un- 
satisfying appearance of flimsiness and want of permanence. But 
our average wooden suburban house is uglier than it need be, and 
most of our .suburbs are hopelessly depressing in their commonplace 
and often complacent vulgarity. There is certainly no substantial 
foundation for the feeling that there is anything unsuitable in the 
use of brick in the country, the feeling which regards it as some- 
thing belonging to the city. That feeling, when it exists, arises solely 
from our having been so long accustomed, in our new country, to 
houses of wood, which have naturally persisted longer in the country 
than in the cities. There is a satisfaction in the look of permanence 
of a good country house of brick, and the warm, solt colors of a 
well-built brick wall nowhere are so beautiful as in a house embow- 



ered in trees. We do not need to go to Europe to discover tiiis. 
The country districts of Maryland, and Virginia, and portions of 
Pennsylvania still have fine old county seats of brick whose grouped 
chimneys and substantial-looking walls are most pleasant objects in 
the landscape. 

The time, we believe, is not far distant when more substantial 
methods of building in our suburbs will be insisted upon, and brick- 
makers may find this important field preoccupied by other methods 
if they do not bestir themselves. We believe these are matters to 
which architects have not given as much attention as they should, 
and they might exert a great and salutary infiuence for the improve- 
ment of our suburban architecture. 


Bene-s & KuTSCHE, architects, Chicago, have removed from 
63d Street to more spacious offices on the si.\teenth floor of the Man- 
hattan Building. 

Harvkv L. Page and Stanford Hai.l, architects, have 
formed a copartnership under the firm name of Harvey L. Page & 
Co., with offices at Chicago and Washington, 1). C. 

Mr. (ioDDARU has retired from the firm of Mills & Goddard, 
architects, Columbus, O., and connected himself with Peters, Burns 
& Pretzinger, of Dayton, O., as superintendent. Mr. Wilbur T. Mills 
will continue the business of the old firm. 

The new iron steamship being built by F. W. Wheeler & Co., 
Detroit, Mich., for the Bessemer Steamship Company, of New 
York, has been named by the owners the 14'. L. B. yeiincy, 
as a mark of appreciation of the well-known Chicago architect's 
connection with the invention and introduction of lofty steel-skeleton 
construction of buildings. 

The exhibition of the Chicago Architectural Club has been 
postponed from March 2 to March 23. On the evening of Feb- 
ruary 15, Mr. George R. Dean, architect, read a paper on "The 
Evolutionary Position of American Architecture." 

There were thirty-seven competitors this year for the Robert 
Clark Medal, the subject being " A Public Bath." 

In awarding the silver medal the judges, Messrs. Louis J. Millet, 
Charles A. Coolidge, and J. K. Cady, were confronted with two 
designs of such nearly equal merit that they chose to make a new 
precedent and award two medals, one of which was their own con- 
tribution. The prizes were awarded as follows: Gold Medal, 
David G. Meyers, Boston, Mass.; Silver Medals, John F. Jackson, 
Buffalo, N. Y., and (Jscar M. Hokanson, Philadelphia, Penn. : 
Bronze Medal, Arthur Shrigley, Lansdowne, Penn. ; Honorable 
Mention, John F. and Thomas Livingston, Chicago, 111. 

The regular monthly meeting of the St. Louis Architectural 
Club was held on the evening of February (■>. President Ittner 
announced the committees and outlined the work for the year. Mr. 
Farish gave an interesting talk on " Cabinet Finisli." A talk on 
" Hobos of the St. Louis Architectural Club in Rome," with lantern 
slides, was given by Mr. Fred Cox. " 

At the regular monthly meeting of the Washington Chapter of 
the American Institute of Architects, held Jan. 8, 1897, the following 
officers were elected to serve during 1.S97: — 

President, Joseph C. Hornblower; Vice-President, James G. Hill; 
Secretary, Edward W. Donn, Jr. ; Treasurer, William J. Marsh; Com- 
mittee of Admissions, Glenn Brown, W. AL Poindexter, J. R. Mar- 
shall. Mr. Fames, of Fames & Young, of St. Louis, was the guest 
of the evening. At the meeting held Friday, February 5, Mr. 
William Martin Aiken described the exhibition of the drawings of 
the American School of Rome, held in Philadelphia. 

The regular meeting of the New Jersey Society of Architects 
was held February 4, at the Board of Trade Rooms, Newark, N. J. 

In an informal discussion regarding professional etiquette several 
instances of unprofessional practise were cited, and the practise of 
making promises to prospective clients which could not possibly be 
fulfilled were condemned. Several instances were cited in which the 
uniform contract between architects and owners, which was adopted 
some time ago by the society, were productive of much good in pre- 
venting misunderstanding with clients. 

BOOK K i:\ii.\v. 

HOW to Build a Home "' is the title of a small book by F. C. 
Moore, who, from his experience and long observation as 
president of a large fire insurance company, is so abundantly able to 
give good advice on such a subject that his suggestions are well 
worth study. The book is sensibly written, with an appreciation of 
practical requirements and a refreshing absence of mere theory, con- 
taining the sort of advice one would expect from a friend who had 
built a house and knew what not to do and how to avoid it. Most 
people who build a house for the first time, if they employ an archi- 
tect at all, are quite likely to be a bit afraid of him and his alleged 
extravagances, and not knowing really what they want, are loth to 
admit the vagueness of their expectations. It is to such that Mr. 
Moore's book will prove a boon, as it will enable them to understand 
the architect's plans, and avoid at least some of the faults which 
are sometimes overlooked by the most competent experts. 

' " How to Build a Home. Ik-tng suggesiioas as to safely from fire, safety to health, 
comfort, convenience, durability, and economy." fiy Francis C. Moore, President of the 
Continental Fire Insunince Company, New York. Cloth, $1.00; paper, jo cents. 


THE accompanying illustration shows the entrance to the Ham- 
ilton Club Building, Paterson, N. J., in which terra-cotta has 
been used with encouraging success from the level of the first story 
sill course. Mr. Charles Edwards is the architect, and the work was 
furnished by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

in the advertisement of R. Guastavino, page xiv, is shown a 

(juastavino System ceiling in one of the wards of the -New Buffalo 
General Hospital, George Cary, architect. 

In the advertisement of Charles T. Harris, Lessee, page xxVi, 
two views of the station for the Toledo & Ohio Central Railway 
Company, at Columbus, Ohio, are .shown, Yost & Packard, archi- 

F. B. Gilbreth, in his advertisement for this month, page xxxiv, 
illustrates the doorway of Casa de las Conchas, Salamanca. 

THE B R I C K B U I L D E R . 



Italian Towers, IV. 


THE previous articles have shown examples of the most char- 
acteristic towers of Italy, from the earliest fortification 
tower type to the elaborated colonnaded type, represented by towers 
such as those of Chiaravalle and S. Gottardo, at Milan. There re- 
mains, scattered over Italy, two other varieties, each much more 
easily classified under an architectural style than those already men- 
tioned, and yet both 
much more lacking 
in what can be truly 
called style. They 
are the Gothic and 
the Renaissance 
towers. Omitting 
Giotto's tower, at 
Florence, which is 
individual and like 
no other tower in 
existence, the 
Gothic towers of 
Italy, that is, the 
towers that attempt 
Gothic elaboration, 
are not especially 
attractive. The 
style never thrived 
on Italian soil. 
There was too con- 
spicuous an envi- 
ronment of classic precedent, and climatic conditions did not tend 
to produce or to find acceptable the high peaked roofs and large 
openings of what is essentially an architecture of the Northland, 
suited to rains, and snows, and gray skies. With the close com- 
mercial ties that Italy had with Germany, and also from the fact that 
German mercenaries and free-lances constantly formed an important 
factor in the martial forces of Italian cities, it was most natural that 
the art of both Germany and France should have some reflex influ- 
ence upon Italian architecture ; but although there are distinctly 
Gothic churches in Italy, such as the Cathedral of Orvieto, and of 
Siena, the style had undergone a very manifest change, and instead 
of being sturdy, vig- 
orous, expressing 
constructive condi- 
tions, and rich with 
masses of light and 
shades, its forms had 
become flattened, its 
constructive expres- 
s i o n disappeared, 
and the Gothic style 
of Italy was a deli- 
cate veneer of lace- 
like forms, veiling the 
Ijroad, simple walls 
of a Roman con- 
struction. It is man- 
ifest, then, that only 

the phantom of a (xothic art appears in Italy, always excepting the 
Gothic art of V^enice, which is in truth an Oriental art, and that it is 
in the details that the Gothic style is plainly manifested. This de- 
tail is delicate and interesting. In most cases the masses of tlie 
buildings and towers are comparatively uninteresting. 

The spire of the North becomes merely a steep, pointed roof in 
the South, and the four corner pinnacles are set on in such a fashion 
that it seems possible to remove them without affecting the integrity 



of the building, as they have little relation either in scale or in con- 
struction with the masses below. Of the Renaissance towers, little 
better can be said. In Venice Palladio and Sansovino erected 
plain, square, 
brick campa- 
nile, and termi- 
nated them with ; 
classic bell 
decks, sur 
mounted b y 
steep pyramidal 
or conical roofs. 
The design is 
simple and se- 
vere ; the con- 
trast of white 
marble between 
the red brick 
tower and the 
dark roof is ex- 
c el 1 e n t, and 
these towers are 
distinctive, dis- 
tinguished, and . 
the best of their 
class, in fact 
they are classic 
monuments ele- 
vated upon me- 
dieval shafts. 

But when 
the pil aste r 
treatment of the 

Renaissance style begins to make its appearance upon the succes- 
sive stories of bell towers, the confusion of horizontal and perpendic- 
ular lines produces a very unsatisfactory result, and as the style 
begins to decay, inasmuch as novelty is sought for at the expense of 
good taste and proportions, the Renaissance towers become scarcely 
worthy of notice, occasionally amusing and interesting, and capable 
of being commended by that last of compliments, i. c, that they 
would make good etchings, but scarcely be considered good archi- 

For it is very nearly axiomatic that any pronounced architectural 

form is at its best 
when treated with 
lines in the direction 
of its mass, and this 
is exactly what the 
Renaissance st y 1 e 
with its superposed 
orders did not do 
when applied to 
towers. As a nat- 
ural result, the worst 
of these towers are 
those which are elal)- 
orated the most, and 
the best are those like 
.San Giorgio, in Ven- 
ice, where architec- 
tural forms are confined to the termination of the towers, and to 
the natural efforescence of the shaft. These papers have by no 
means exjiausted the list of Italian towers. They are merely intended 
to draw attention to tyijical forms, and it will be seen that the simpler 
their forms, the more nearly constructional, the more eifective the 
towers l)ecome. 

They are an absolutely distinct class by themselves, in no way 
partaking of the rich development of buttress, gable, pinnacle, and 



spire characteristic of Northern work, and should not be compared 
with that work ; but in their own way — rising in simple, clear-cut 
grace above the long horizontal roofs of Italian cities — they possess 


a charm of sincerity and of quiet dignity that we should be loth to 

Crema. S. Maria della Croce, built between 1490 and 1515, by 
Giovanni Battista Battaglia, of Lodi, shows a mixture of Gothic tradi- 
tion and influence of Bramante in the church of S. Maria della 
Grazie, in Milan. The tower suffers from two distinctly superposed 
orders, the lower cornice being as important as the upper, but the 
octagonal termination is well proportioned. 

LoRETO. The church was built early in the fourteenth century. 

of the fourteenth century, with a very delicate Gothic dwarf tower, with 
very miniature 
corner pinna- 
cles, delic ate 
terra-cotta and 
brickwork, and 
beautiful win- 
dow on the bell 

Cathedral. The 
camp anile, a 
simple, delicate, 
square tower of 
s e V en stages, 
was rebuilt in 
the fourteenth 
century by 
Agostino and 
A n g e 1 o da 
Siena. It is 
striated in white 
and black mar- 
ble, and is a va- 
riation of the 
brick Lombard 
type with 
Gothic pinnacles, 
beautiful tower. 

Turin. La Superga, built in 1717-1730, by Juvara. L'pon 
each wing is a rococo tower with bulbous spire, but in this case the 
pinnacles are so arranged that they serve to carry the line of form 
from the lower mass up into the spire successfully. This tower is 


The spire is octagonal, of stone. It is a very 



and has been again and again enlarged. The dome is by Sangallo and 
Bramante; the facade and probably the tower by Calcagni, 15S7; the 
upper part, with its bulbous termination, is by V^anvitelli. The tower 
is somewhat octagonal in plan, the upper portion badly proportioned 
to the lower. It has unnecessary pediments as ornamental features, 
and a most peculiarly uncouth spire, excellent in its color proportion, 
but awkward in form. 

MoNZA. S. Maria in Strada. Gothic church, dating from middle 

excellently proportioned above the roof, but seems to need greater 
and higher substructure. It is, however, one of the best rococo 
towers in existence. 

Venice. S. Giorgio Maggiore, by Palladio, in 1565. with a very 
graceful, beautiful square brick tower with stone belfry, circular 
stone lantern above, and conical spire. 

S. Maria della Salute, by Longhena, 1632, has two delicate cam- 
panile, of which the arched pediments and domed terminations 
harmonize with the great dome of the church, but are not successful 
in themselves. 




Translated from the '' Aria/es de la Construccton y de la Indifstria'^ 

IN the province of Extremadura, Spain, timber is so scarce that 
in construction it becomes necessary to dispense with its use 
whenever possible, even in temporary supports such as centers for 
arches or vaults ; as a result of this, almost all the brick vaults in 
that province have been built without the assistance of a center. 

Several methods are in use, which differ but slightly from each 
other, and according to the kind of vault to be built. It may be 
said that all the different methods are based either upon the use of 
quick-setting mortar, or on taking advantage of the friction between 
the bricks and the mortar, to temporarily hold them in place until 
the mortar sets or until the vault is closed. 

The vaults which depend on the quick setting of the mortar 
may be divided in two groups ; in those of the first group the bricks 
are placed with one face tangent to the intrados curve, as in the 
Guastavino construction ; in those of the second group, the bricks 
are placed with one side tangent to the intrados curve. 

In the first group there are three methods of construction which 
are generally used for segmental barrel vaults, though semicircular 

When the vaults are of great length they are usually divided into 
several sections by transverse arches and the sections vaulted 
separately but simultaneously, beginning at both sides of the trans- 
verse arches. 


In this method, a groove having been cut or built in the side 
walls, the springing courses 1,2, 3, 4, 5, on either side composed of 
bricks and half bricks is first constructed, and the following longi- 
tudinal courses are constructed by inserting the bricks m-m between 
every two projecting bricks of the springing course, and then by in- 
serting the bricks n-n between the bricks m, and thus successively, 
working from both sides upwards until the vault is closed at the 


In this method, as in the first, grooves are cut in the end wall 
and in the side walls. The first course consists of bricks and half 
bricks built into the grooves of the end wall a-c, and as in the second 
method, the following courses are constructed by inserting the 
bricks between every 
pair of projecting °'M ■vv,,,.., ^.■jv..;K.;,.a,,.4.,,...,^,^. . , . ,;,^, ,.,, .., . ,>^ 

^ ?^.^ 

7^/a/T - Joojkin^ up. 

7^/c/fr , /oo/!)/r^ lypi 

y-'/a/r /oo^//t£ ZJ^. 

ones, as well as groined and cloistered vaults, may be similarly con- 


In Fig. I let ab and cd be the side walls from which the vault 
springs, and a-c one of the head or end walls. A small groove de- 
termining the curvature of the vault is cut in the wall a-c and in the 
side walls ab-cd horizontal grooves are cut to receive the springers. 
It is preferable to form these latter grooves while the side walls are 
being built. 

This done, the bricks and half bricks I, 2, 3, 4, . . . 1', 2', 3', 4', 
are inserted in the groove on the wall a-c, in the above order, 
beginning at the two corners simultaneously and using quick-setting 
mortar. This first ring finished, the springers g and f and the brick 
h are laid ; then, beginning always at the springing line, the diagonal 
courses i, i', i", i'", and k, k', k" are built, resting each brick partly 
on the one previously laid and partly on two bricks of the previous 
diagonal course, the workman holding each brick until the mortar 
has set enough to support it. 

Skillful workmen build these vaults by the eye, but for careful 
work it is better to guide the construction by means of strings 
stretched between the head walls, and determining the curvature of 
the intrados. 

Should there be no head wall, the first ring I, 2, 3, 4, . . . i', 2', 
3', 4', would have to be built over a center, but the diagonal courses 
would be built as in the previous case. 

bricks of the previous course, thus forming a series of transverse 

These three varieties of vaults are useful when not intended to 
support a great weight, and are often used in building staircases. 
Their strength is increased by making them of two thicknesses of 
brfck, in which case care should be taken that the joints of the upper 
arch' do not correspond with those of the lower one. Also a good 
layer of mortar should be laid between the two arches. 

The mortar used in the second arch need not be quick setting, 
as the lower one takes the place of a center. 

When, as is most generally the case, chalk is used to make a 
quick-setting mortar, care must be taken not to close the vault until 
the mortar of the portion built has thoroughly set, for the reason 
that chalk increases considerably in volume while setting; and should 
the vault be closed at once, a thrust would be created at the spring- 
ing of the arch which would either crack the supporting walls or the 
arch itself, and even destroy the latter. 

Cloistered and groined vaults are also built by the three methods 
described, the first and third methods being better adapted for 
groined vaults. At the groins or at any curves of intersection the 
bricks are cut to fit. In careful work it is better to determine accu- 
rately the curves of intersection and guide the construction by means 
of light wooden frames or strings. 

Fig. 4 is a groined vault built by either the first or third method. 

The method often used for ordinary brick vaults, in which the 
rows of brick are perpendicular to the groins, cannot be employed 



when working without centers, as the joints would be helycoidal 
planes, and it would be impossible to give them by the eye their 
proper inclination at the different parts of the vault. 

In all these vaults their stability depends on the thorough 

adherence of the mortar and the bricks, which soon form a solid mass 
and reduce the thrust to a small quantity. 


The difference between an ordinary arch and one of vertical 
leaves is that in the first the faces of the bricks are in planes radiating 
from the axis of the arch or vault, while in the second the bricks are 
laid with their faces in parallel planes perpendicular to the axis, thus 
forming a series of vertical leaves of the thickness of one brick. 

The left half of P'ig. 5 shows an ordinary arch, and the right 
half shows one of vertical leaves. 

These vaults are built by cutting out on the end walls a channel 
or groove about ^ in. deep, and determining the curvature of the 
vault, the width of the channel being e([ual to the thickness of the 
vault, which may be half, one, one and a half, or two bricks. The 
first leaf is built by covering with quick-setting mortar one face of 
each brick, and the edges, forming the joints, and sticking them in 
place in the channel, beginning at the springing lines. The first 
leaf finished, the second and successive ones are constructed simi- 
larly, sticking the bricks against the previously built leaf and break- 
ing joints. 

When there is no end or head wall, an arch of three or four 
leaves is similarly constructed at each end with the aid of a light 
frame, after which the vault is built against these arches, as ex- 

Vaults of this kind also depend, for their stability, on the thor- 
ough adherence of the mortar to the bricks, and on the tjuick setting 
of the mortar. 


These vaults are a modification of those just described, and in 
which the successive leaves are in parallel but inclined planes. In 
these, the use of quick-setting mortar is not required, as they depend 
on the friction between the bricks and the mortar for stability during 

* The word ** leaf* is perhaps the best to use to express the idea of a series of thin arches 
made by the bricks, as in tlie construction to wiiich the word applies ; besides, it is the trans- 
lation of the Spanish word *' Itoja " used in the original. 


Vaults of this kind are generally composed of two distinct por- 
tions, the lower or springing portion, in Fig. 6, that between the lines 
ao-qo, forming the angle and the upper or crown portion that be- 
tween the lines qo-q"o, 
forming the angle 3. 

The lower portion is 
constructed like an ordi- 
nary arch, but without 
using centers, the joints 
pq, at which this mode 
of construction stops, be- 
ing determined by the 
angle of friction of the 
brick with the mortar, 
represented by a; for, 
while the inclination of 
the joints is smaller than 
this angle, there will exist 
frictional stability. Beyond this angle, however, frictional stability 
no longer exists, and to finish the vault centers would be required, 
unless the system of construction is changed. 

The required system for the upper portion of the vault consists 
in laying the bricks with their faces parallel to a plane having a 
given inclination (not greater than the angle of friction) and forming 
a series of inclined parallel leaves of the thickness of one brick. 

One of these rings is shown in Fig. 7 in section and in side view 
by p' d' c', in Fig. 8, in plan by p d p, and in Fig. 6, in front view, by 
p q c-q' p d. 

To construct the upper portion of the vault, an inclined channel, 
p q c-q' p d. Fig. 6, is cut out of the head wall. The bricks m-m are 
laid with their faces at an angle not greater than the angle of friction, 
one end of the brick being tangent to the curve of the intrados. 
Then the bricks i-i', 2-2' (Fig. 7) are similarly laid until the first 
complete leaf 3-3' is formed. 

The following leaves are similarly built, until the vault is closed 
at the opposite head wall, or, as is more often the case, the vault is 
closed at its center, the construction having proceeded from both 
head walls simultaneously. The closing leaves are constructed in 
different ways, as shown in Fig. 9, at A and B. 

In this construction an outward thrust is produced against the 
head walls by the leaves which rest against them. This thrust is 
easily determined, considering how the forces act. The weight of 
the first or corner bricks m-m concentrated in its center of gravity 
resolves itself into two components, one parallel to the plane of the 
leaves, the other normal to it. The first is counteracted by the fric- 
tion of the bricks with the mortar: the second or normal component 
presses against the head wall. I'recisely the same occurs with all 
the bricks: and therefore the weight of any of the leaves forming the 
^ vault, re.solved into 

its two components 
acting through the 
center of gravity of 
the leaf, will pro- 
duce, first, a thrust 
parallel to the 
plane of the leaf 
and acting against 
the s p ri ngi ng 
course m-m from 
where it is transmitted to the side walls, increasing the thrust due 
to the lower or springing portion of the vault : second, a thrust nor- 
mal to the inclination of the leaves, which is transmitted to the next 
one, and so on for all the other leaves. 

Thus, in Fig. 7, all the normal components to the left of the 
line m'-t', which is perpendicular to the inclination of the leaves, will 
act on the springing course m-m', while only to the right of the 
line m'-t' will act on the head wall. 

Representing the weight of the portion m' n' t' (Fig. 7) by \V, 



and the angle of the inclination of the leaves by oc, the thrust 
T=W COS. a will act through the center of gravity of the portion 
m' n' t'. The stability of the head walls is determined by taking 
moments about a convenient point, as h in Fig. 9, by which is ob- 
tained the equation T1=W' X ^ in which T is the thrust of the portion 
of the vault to the right of the line m'-t' and acting through G, its 
center of gravity. 

W is the weight of the head wall. 

X is the width of the head wall. 

1 is the distance of the point h from the line of action of T. 

If there is no head wall against which the first oblique leaves 
may be built, an arch is constructed by the ordinary method, using a 


center, or by the method of " vertical leaves." The arch must be 
strong enough to resist the thrust, and its width is obtained from the 
e(|uation Ts=W, "^ (see Fig. 9), in which T is the thrust of the por- 
tion of the vault to the left of the line m" t" ; s is the distance of the 

point k to the line of action of T ; w' the weight of the head arch, 
acting through its center of gravity ; and z is the width of the 
head arch. 

( Will be concluded in Marcli number) 


NATHANIEL ROBERTS, M. Am. Soc. C. E., who is plan- 
ning the steel construction for the new thirty-story office 
building on Park Row, New York City, of which R. H. Robertson is 
the architect, estimates the total weights of the building as follows : — 

Weight of building 56,200 tons. 

Weight of steel 9,000 „ 

Total 65,200 „ 

The foundations will be laid at a depth commensurate with the 
height of the structure, the first stone course being 34 ft. 4 ins. below 
the sidewalk, while piles extend 20 ft. deeper still. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



THE two Tuscan columns (Fig. 8) used on a window forming 
the central feature of the .Sixth Avenue elevation of the Siegel- 
Cooper Building, New York City, being i ft. lo ins. diameter, it was 
thought advisable to build them up in sections, a proposal to which 
the architects readily assented. The shaft is 
jointed horizontally into seven sections, and 
vertically into three segments, making a total 
of twenty-one pieces, in the setting of which 
the joints were broken every course. The base 
and capital are each in one piece ; and though 
much larger than those used in the shaft, pre- 
sent no difficulty in making, because the slight 
variation in shrinkage (just enough to cause an 
eyesore at a flush joint) becomes inappreciable 
when the joint occurs at a projecting fillet. 
The general effect proved very acceptable, and 
amply justifies the means taken to obtain it. 
There are several other columns of a similar 
character used on this building, mostly on the 
tower, but the maximum diameter being i ft. 
5 ins., some were made in five and others in six 
complete drums. They were handled in the 
manner described for Fig. i, and when set in 
position appear to satisfy 
every requirement. 

Thus far our re- 
marks have applied ex- 
clusively to columns of 
the Doric, Ionic, Corin- 
thian, and Tuscan orders. 
The examples cited may 
be considered merely as 
types of many hundreds 
that have been made with 
a fair degree of success, 
and of methods by which 
still greater success may 
be attained. They will, 
we hope, be sufficient to 
show that the difficulties 

by which the terra-cotta maker is beset, though 

onerous, are by no means insurmountable. The 

making of these columns requires mechanical 

skill of a high order, together with a special 

knowledge of clay, that comes best and surest 

to men who have had actual experience in 

handling, or opportunities of observing and 

studying its behavior under various conditions. 

Knowledge of this kind cannot be " read of in 

books, nor dreamt of in dreams." It must be 

acquired by very close and prolonged contact 

with the work, and some of it may be all the 

more effectual if absorbed, as Joey Ladle, the 

cellarman, was wont to receive his tipple, not 

by way of the throttle, but simply "taken in 

through the pores." Many and various are 

the expedients resorted to of a purely technical 

kind, in the several stages of manufacture, but all having the same 

object in view, viz : to counteract the ever-present tendency to warp, 

or sag, in the drying; and to promote uniform shrinkage in the 

blocks, as they pass through the final but inexorable ordeal of fire. 
In columns of Saracenic, Byzantine, and late Romanesque char- 













FIG. 14. 



acter, few, if any, real ol)stacles will be encountered in their manu- 
facture. The necessity for true alignment does not occur in them to 
the same extent ; and the detail that may legitimately be introduced 
in the way of bands, spirals, zigzag flutings, lozenge, and diaper in- 
dentations of endless variety, 
serve to conceal such imperfec- 
tions as may occur in the burn- 
ing. The columns usually met 
with in Spanish Renaissance 
may likewise be included in 
this category. The Oriental 
richness of detail introduced, 
first by the Arabians, and then 
by the Moors, becoming assimi- 
lated with Italian outlines, pro- 
duced a phase of Renaissance 
that is well within the limit of 
terracotta construction, and 
admirably fitted for plastic en- 
richment. The methods 
adopted in the case of previous 
examples will serve for them 
also, subject to such modifica- 
tions as may fit in with particu- 
lar circumstances. 

The parting of the ways 
between the French Renais- 
sance of native growth and that 
previously introduced from Italy 
by Vignola and Serlio, found 
expression in the work of Del- 
orme and other architects to- 
wards the close of the sixteenth 
century. The earlier portion of 
the Louvre, the Chateau d"Anet, 
and the Tuileries showed a 

divergence in many things, the most notable innovation among 
them, from the present point of view, being the rusticated pier and 
pilaster bands ; and in admirable keeping with these followed col- 
umns (Figs. 9 and lo) into which were introduced bands of a more 
ornamental character, alternating with the fluted drums. These 
bands having but little projection, and adhering closely to the en- 
tasis of the column, did not in any way mar its outline. The idea of 

strength and vigor 

I , was thus obtained, 

without any sac- 
rifice of grace, 
and when it was 
thought desirable 
to still further sub- 
due the severity of 
the flutes, this was 
done by a husk, a 
ball-flower, or a 
diminishing drop 
ornament. These 
features could not 
have been intro- 
duced with any 
view to the use of 
terra-cotta, for the 
examples quoted 
were all executed 
in stone; but had 
such really been 
the intention, no 
device, however 
FIG. 9. deliberate, could 

FIG. 8. 

have more completely subserved the end in view. There is hardly 
anything within the wide range of its application to architectural 
purposes so ideal in point of fitness, and yet so well within the scope 
of economical execution. At any diameter up to two feet the drums 

and bands would be made in 
single blocks, being compact in 
form, and of convenient size 
for handling, with no trouble- 
some projections to care for, 
nor salient angles to crack by 
premature or unequal drying. 
If much above that size they 
would be made in quadrants, 
the drums being jointed on the 
axis, while the bands would 
break joint on the intermediate 
angles, as in Fig. 1 1 . A pair 
of these columns, designed by 
Messrs. Nolan, Nolan & .Stern, 
of Rochester, were used by 
them on the Chamber of Com- 
merce Building, recently erected 
in that city. In this case they 
are built around a steel core 
forming part of the structural 
support of a twelve-story build- 
ing, of which we may have 
something to say when dealing 
with cornice construction. Col- 
umns of this character are, of 
course, susceptible to any suit- 
able style, or degree of orna- 
ment, and may be varied in 
detail by modeling two alter- 
nating bands. These may again 
be multiplied by varying the 
central feature of the design on each of the four sides, and then by 
merely turning them on their axis in the setting, it would be possible 
to get eight different combinations when viewed from any one stand- 
point. Something of this kind is done in the columns of two very 
beautiful windows on the New Street front of the Manhattan Life 
Building, New York (Fig. 12). The chief thing to regret in that 
case is that they are situated on the sixth story, and are therefore 
doomed to blush unseen, wasting much of their sweetness on the 
preoccupied denizens of the Stock Exchange. The faces, however, 

FIG. 10. 



are clearly defined and artistically finished, and would stand critical 
inspection if used for interior work. This is a very modern building 
in construction and appointments, and in these respects represents 
modern ideas, but it will be seen that the architects did not allow 
the terra-cotta contractors to forget that ; — 

" In the elder days of art. 

The builder wrought with wondrous care, 
In the unseen and hidden part, 
For the gods see everywhere." 

The late Richard M. Hunt, just fresh from the Beaux Arts, 
gave to columns of this class a fitting introduction some forty years 
ago in one of his first works in New York City. They were made 
the chief distinguishing feature in the design of a residence on the 
north side of 38th Street, a little west of Fifth Avenue. At a later 

FIG. 12. 

date some " archieteck " undertook to imitate this house ; which he 
did in a particularly tame and colorless caricature, built on the 
abutting lot to the west. The lapse of time has not, in this case, 
been favorable to the survival of the fittest, for while the work of 
the architect has been torn down and rebuilt (perhaps in disgust), 
that of the copyist remains, a forlorn relic of fading gentility. 

The original banded column used on the Louvre (Fig. 9), has 
since been modified on the one hand and emphasized on the other, 
in conformity with varying needs, and in keeping with widely differ- 
ent environments ; but it has stoutly maintained its place as a dis- 
tinct type in competition with, and often by preference over, other 
styles. If this has been so in the case of stone, where most of the 
laborious work and all of the carving must necessarily be done by 
hand, as distinguished from machine labor, there are obviously great 
advantages in the substitution of a material that can be molded 
into shape and finished by the modeler while in a plastic state. It 
is seldom that less than one pair of columns are required, but even 
with this number, the preliminary expense of models and molds, 
added to that of all other labor and material, will be less than half 
the cost of stone. Witli a greater number the relative difference in 

, **<: 

cost becomes more than proportionately large, because the set of 
molds necessary for one will, if need be, produce from thirty to forty 

In Fig. 13 we have one of eight very elaborate and yet appro- 
priately enriched columns, used on the handsome new City Hall, 
Elmira, now approaching completion. Four of them support a pedi- 
ment on the Church Street elevation, and the other four carry a 
similar pediment on Lake Street. The 
background of the shaft at its greatest di- 
ameter is 2 ft. 6 ins., diminishing to 2 ft. 2 
ins. at the neck, from which the bands have 
a uniform projection of i in. The orna- 
ment is of necessity in very low relief, but 
so crisp in definition that its main outlines 
are legible at some distance. The drums are 
in quadrants, breaking joint with each other, 
and with the bands, which are also jointed 
in four pieces, leaving in each case an 
opening in the center, to be built solid in 
brick and cement. The making of these 
columns was capable of being simplified to 
such an extent that out of 16 molds of a 
convenient size was got 32 presses from 
each, or a total of 512 pieces, duly entasized, 
and requiring little, if any, fitting when 
taken froni the kiln. The large capitals 
are each made in eight pieces, with joints 
that are practically invisible, and the Re- 
naissance feeling infused into the Corinthian 
order is in complete harmony with all the 
ornament on the building. We do not hesi- 
tate to challenge comparison between these 
capitals and any of the contemporaneous 
examples in stone, which have been spoken 
of as exhibiting the highest attainable ex- 
cellence in nineteenth century stone carving. 

Two other columns (Fig. 13}, smaller 
in size but of similar design, are used in 
the vestibule of the Church Street entrance, 
which is wholly in terra-cotta. This apart- 
ment, though not large, is exceedingly ornate. 
To each side of the columns stand paneled 
pedestals, carrying richly modeled pilasters 
and capitals, supporting an enriched archi- 
trave, festooned frieze, and cornice. Two 
niches have been thoughtfully provided in 
this vestibule by the City Fathers, in which, 
perhaps, to immortalize, at some later date, 
the more deserving of their number. 

Columns of other sizes and designs 
might, of course, be added by way of illus- 
tration ; but as they would be merely vari- 
ations of those already given, their methods 

of construction would be determined by considerations such as have 
been stated. We have pointed out the chief difficulties that arise in 
the process of manufacture, and the extent to which, as well as the 
means whereby, these may be minimized, or wholly overcome. 
Where architects are willing to keep their demands within reasonable 
limits, and manufacturers ready to adopt such progressive methods 
as a riper experience may suggest, both can look forward to corres- 
pondingly successful results. 

{'I'o be continued.) 





No good building was ever yet erected in wliich the architect 
designed the front, and left the flanks or internal courts to take care 
of themselves. So, also, no good building was ever seen in which the 
exterior only was thought of, and the internal decoration and design 
neglected. — Street. 


Fire-proofing Department. 





IN an interview upon the subject with Mr. John M Carr^re, of 
Carrcre & Hastings, New York, he stated that in his practise he 
has never had occasion to use anything except terra-cotta for fire-proof- 
ing purposes. He considers the material the best in the market, but 
the mechanical details of construction and the methods of setting in 
place leave considerable to be desired, and as usually employed around 
a building it is ditificult to get a thoroughly workmanlike job. liurnt 
clay is perfectly reliable and can be depended upon for ample protec- 
tion to the structure, but it is often not used to the best advantage ; 
and where, as is usually the case, the handling and setting of it has 
to be entrusted to absolutely unskilled labor, it is not strange that the 
results should leave a good deal to be desired. Fire-proofing has 
become so much of a science that it could with great advantage be 
left to experts, whose advice and cooperation would be welcomed by 
architects and contractors; and, indeed, if the manufacturers of terra- 
cotta are to retain their hold on the confidence of the public, Mr. 
Carrcre believes it would be highly desirable that they should insist 
upon either setting their material in the building, or at any rate that 
the individual manufacturers should follow the terra-cotta after it is 
delivered at the building, and should personally satisfy themselves 
that it is used in the right manner, notifying the architect whenever 
it is improperly applied or put up in a bungling manner. In this way 
a great deal of the mechanical objection to terra-cotta blocks could 
be obviated. Mr. Carr6re says this is precisely what has been done 
by manufacturers of other lines of building materials, such as the 
patent wall plasters, for instance, the manufacturers of which found 
it absolutely necessary to control the mixing of the plaster, and to 
supervise the application to the walls of the finished product in order 
that the material should not be misrepresented or misapplied, and 
the leading manufacturers of these goods make a business of re- 
porting constantly to the architects any improper use of their 
material. Often when the specification for terra-cotta fire-proofing 
is well written and comprehensive an architect cannot be sure that 
the best use is made of it. A more scientific treatment of terra-cotta 
is needed. 

Mr. Carrcre advocated a more thorough fire-proofing of the 
columns in a building. The casings for such work should be heavier 
than is usually employed for this purpose, and should be interlocking, 
so that in case of partial damage by fire or water the blocks will not 
become loose. He thought possibly two casings would be better still, 
so the outer one, if peeled off by accident, would not expose the 
column. He thought also that the spaces about a column and also 
all chases left in walls for pipes, or about beam ends, should be 
thoroughly filled with terra-cotta, so as to leave no opportunity for 
flues in the wall through which fire might be led. In fact, his feeling 
was that while the system of fire-proofing with terra-cotta blocks is 
excellent, it is often not carried far enough, and terra-cotta is used 
too sparingly about a building to make it what could be called abso- 
lutely fire-proof. This is a pretty serious condition, as it leads to 
over-confidence on the part of the tenants, and when trouble comes, 
as it is very likely to in the long run, the whole system is apt to be 
condemned, whereas it is really the fault of the way in which it is 
used. He also spoke of a very common practise in regard to repairs 
around large buildings, which, though constructed with the utmost 
care by the architect and builder, are placed in the hands of an agent 
who may have little interest in architecture and less knowledge of the 
actual construction. The fire-proofing may then be cut out most 

recklessly, and where blocks or sections of floors are removed for 
changes or repairs the fire-proofing is not put back in a first-class 
manner, a bit of mortar or some so-called fire-proofing paper often 
being made to answer a purpose which could only be properly 
accomplished by a thorough replacement of the terra-cotta blocks. 

Mr. Carr6re was asked if he considered, a stone facing a suffi- 
cient protection for columns which are built into exterior walls. In 
his judgment, the custom of building a steel frame and facing it with 
a relatively thin casing of stone on the outside is not only not fire- 
proof, but is really criminal in that it does not afford sufl^icient pro- 
tection to the steel. There are numerous examples of just such 
species of construction in New York in which in some cases granite, 
which has all the appearance of solid blocks, is so cut away to receive 
columns that only 2 or 3 ins. separates the exterior surface of the wall 
from the metal, which is consequently protected by no external fire- 
proofing whatever. In case of fire this stone would be pretty sure to 
riy to pieces and the columns would be left bare. If circumstances 
render the use of stone imperative it is better that the column be 
made entirely free, set in from the wall and fire-proofed throughout with 
terra-cotta blocks, in addition to the stone facing. Mr. Carrcre 
saw no reason why walls as well as floors and partitions should 
not be built of terra-cotta, and he instanced one prominent build- 
ing in New York in which the system of steel construction is carried 
to its logical conclusion. The steel skeleton is constructed in 
the usual manner and is then filled in between the exterior portions 
with steel bars set at close intervals, the exterior facing of the 
building being of finished terra-cotta, while the backing and all the 
fire proofing is of the ordinary terra-cotta blocks such as are used for 
])artition work. 

A vital issue that is often neglected is the arrangement of the 
rooms themselves in a building quite as much as the details of fire- 
proofing. We ought to build more on the compartment system, and 
the stairs, which are a vulnerable portion of the structure and are 
usually built of iron not enclosed nor fire-proofed at all, should be 
either cased throughout in terra cotta, or, better, regularly constructed 
of terra-cotta or tile without the use of steel at all. 

Mr. Carr6re called attention to a construction which is often 
found in buildings in which the steel work forming the soffits of 
window and door openings is left without any protection whatever. 
A building cannot be called fire-proof while any stone or iron is so 
used that it can be affected by heat or water, and terra-cotta in some 
form should be used to protect the openings of the doors quite as 
much as the floors. He suggests an improvement in the forms of 
floor blocks, which are customarily made to lap under the flanges of 
the beams with a thickness of about I in. of terra-cotta. The blocks 
so formed are probably ample for any required protection to the iron, 
but the pieces which lip under the beam are so often poorly set or 
broken in the setting that he thinks it would be better to have at least 
2 ins. instead of i for the flange under the beam. 

Mr. Winslow, of Winslow & Wetherell, Boston, when inter- 
viewed, stated that he considered terra-cotta itself thoroughly 
fire-proof and that fire-proofing results are only a question of thick- 
ness of material and the manner of application. For that matter, good 
terra-cotta is nothing but brick, and brick is generally conceded 
to be the best and most thorough protection against fire, though the 
weight of brick precludes its suitable employment for thick floors. 
We may be able to trust other constructions, but we know we can 
trust terra-cotta, and in the present state of the science there is 
nothing so satisfactory. He cited the instance of the Pope Building, 
Boston, which was recently destroyed by fire. Had it been con- 
structed of stone or any other material than terra-cotta and brick, 
there would have been nothing left of it, and though, owing to the 
fact that the floor construction was entirely of wood, the building 
was virtually destroyed, the brick and terra-cotta amply demonstrated 
their capacity to resist the action of heat. 

Mr. Winslow said that in the so-called fire-proof building as 
actually built the real protection is usually not carried sufficiently far. 
In any office building, for instance, there is enough wood about the 




floors and the finish, to say nothing of the contents, to make a very 
considerable fire if it once caught, and he would prefer to see a 
building in which all inflammable material of this sort was eliminated, 
so that, at the most, nothing but the contents could be consumed. 
In one of the large buildings recently constructed by his firm, a fire 
started in one of the rooms after it was all finished and ready for 
occupancy, the fire being caused by spontaneous combustion from 
painters' rags. The doors, windows, and portions of the floor were 
almost entirely consumed, but the fire simply burned itself out. 

Winslow & Wetherell used hard terra-cotta in the construction 
of the large Tremont Building just completed. They have used 
elsewhere the porous terra-cotta, and are at present employing it in 
the Hotel Touraine, now in process of erection. They have found 
that the hard terra-cotta is quite brittle and is apt to break and crack 
in setting, and in practise they prefer the porous terra-cotta. 

For partitions they have never felt inclined to use anything but 
terra cotta blocks, nor would they care to make any experiments with 
any other forms which have been offered to them. They consider 
that the terra-cotta blocks make a perfectly straight construction, 
and their experience leads them to believe that it will resist with per- 
fect satisfaction the action of both fire and water. For furring on 
outside walls Mr. Winslow employs porous terra-cotta blocks. He 
has tried hollow brick, but on account of the brick being in itself 
not so strong as the ordinary hard-burned brick, he does not favor 
such employment and would prefer terra-cotta. Around columns, 
his practise has been always to fill in solidly with terra-cotta blocks, 
and where the column is hollow to fill the interior solid with cement 
concrete, applying a thickness of metal lathing and plastering out- 
side of the whole. The fire-proofing of columns he considers a good 
deal of an open question, however, and feels that existing methods 
could be considerably improved upon in this direction. In regard to 
girders, he believes that if the webs are thoroughly encased and 
bedded with terra-cotta blocks, and the bottom flanges covered with 
metal lathing and plastering, no heat in a burning building, even 
though it might penetrate the plaster envelope, would be able to 
affect the steel, as the terra-cotta blocking beside it would take up 
the heat before it could act upon the metal. 

As a matter of stability he considered terra-cotta floor blocks an 
excellent lateral brace. In the construction of the Hotel Touraine 
he began to have the floor blocks built in as the iron work was 
carried up, but has discontinued the setting of the blocks until all 
steel work is in place, as he believes the vibrations from the han- 
dling of derricks, etc., would tend to impair the set of the fire-proof 
work; but when the floor blocks are once in place nothing that will 
ever come in the building, in his judgment, will ever dislodge them or 
even unduly strain them. The most potent objection to the use of 
terra-cotta is the great weight which it necessitates per foot. For a 
low building this does not aggregate very much of a load upon the 
columns and foundations, but even admitting the question of weight, 
he would prefer to use terra-cotta blocks throughout on account of 
the added lateral strain. He cited the thirty-story building which is 
now under construction in New York, on Park Row, from plans of 
Mr. Robertson, representing, in some respects, the latest work in tall 
building construction, which, according to recent reports, is to be fire- 
proofed throughout with porous terra-cotta end construction floor 
blocks. Undoubtedly, all the various systems in the market were 
considered in connection with this building, but the fact that terra- 
cotta has been used instead of anything else is pretty good evi- 
dence that the material is satisfactory to those who have had most 
experience therewith. The setting in place of fire-proofing terra- 
cotta should not, however, be entrusted to careless or ignorant 

Mr. Winslow concluded that when you come right down to 
the broad work of fire-proofing a structure, he did not think any- 
thing was better than terra-cotta in its various forms. In England, 
the employment of terra-cotta has been constantly increasing of late 
years, which is ample evidence of how it is regarded in that part of 
the world. 

Mortar and Concrete. 





{^Continuation of tests made by Prof. Cecil B. Smith.) 



{a) Evaporation and crushing tests. 

This series had for its first intention, information on the com- 
parative and actual amount of evaporation of moisture from different 
mortars made with different cements, but it soon developed into an 
endeavor to obtain some relation between crushing strength and 
evaporation. Any law on the matter, if there is any general law, 
will of course take years to demonstrate ; but enough has been done 
to show that any investigations on this subject will be fruitful of 
results. The method of procedure was as follows: Mixtures were 
kept in damp air 30 days, then immersed 2 days in water of ordinary 
temperature, then taken out and weighed ; they were then kept in 
the warm dry air of the laboratory at a temperature of about 65 
degs. Fahr. exactly 2 days, when they were again weighed and im- 
mediately crushed. The experiments recorded in Table IX. were all 
made on 2 in. cubes, and 2 days was established, because it was 
found that at that time the evaporation was practically complete. 
Other experiments (not recorded) made on 3 in. cubes gave less 
evaporation per cent and also less strength. Attached to this are three 
diagrams; the first two show strength and evaporation in different 
mixtures and with five brands of cement. The third diagram is the 
product of the other two, and is quite worthy of inspection, because 
it would appear from it that it would be possible to estimate fairly 
and accurately, without actually crushing a specimen, what load it 
would bear. 



No. 1 1 — Portland. 



Evap. per 
cent, m 
2 diiys. 

strength per 
square incli. 


Max. wt. of 
2 inch 


Column 4 


by column 6. 








I to I 







2 to 1 


103 I 




3 '4-2 

3 to I 







4 to I 







No. 10 — Portland. 


Evap. per 
cent, m 
2 days. 

strength per 
square inch. 



(e/wt. ; 

Column 4 


by column 6. 








I to I 







2 to I 






291. 1 

3 to I 







4 to 1 







* One day older than others. 



No. 3 — Portland. 


Evop. per 
cent, m 
2 daya. 

strength per 
square inch. 










1 to 1 







2 to I 







3 to I 






4 to I 







No. 15 — Natural. 


Evap. per 
cent. In 
■i ds.vs. 

strength per 
square inch. 










I to I 







2 to I 






J^ 9 

3 to 1 







No. 2 — Natural. 


Evap. per 
cent, in 
2 days. 

strength per. 
square inch. 










1 to 1 







2 to I 













>« 2 


L. r 








/ J 


> i- 

Reference to the table and diagrams will .show that the evapo- 
ration increases and the strength diminishes with the of 

sand in the mix- 
ture. This is, of 
course, almost self- 
evident, but the 
striking difference 
in the amount of 
evaporation for dif- 
erent cements neat 
is unaccountable- 
This difference dis- 
appears as the ad- 
mi.xture of sand 
increases, and we 
are led, therefore, 
to conclude that there is 
something inherent in the 
cement itself, which aids it 
more or less in holding par- 
ticles of water in suspension. 
The natural cements show 
high evaporation neat, so 
also does the No. 3 I'ort- 
land, which has a high spe- 
cific gravity (see general 
tables), and the 
cubes of which 
weighed more than of the No. 
10, which evapo- 
rated least. We 
cannot account for 
it on the ground of 
Portland and nat- 
ural, but one thing 
is evident, that that 
same quality which 




4 . 

enables it to hold water in suspension also aids it in holding particles 

of sand together, but not particles of it.self. The third diagram 

showing the convergence of lines on the i to i mi.xture is very 

striking. The 

product of the 

crushing strength 

pf a I to \ mixture 

and the e'oapora- 

tion per cent, under 

conditions named 

is practically coN- 

.STANT. This is 

for one condition 

only, namely, 32 

days, with access 

of water and 2 days' drying. This means in plain words that we 

may possibly be able to test with a balance instead of a crushing 


It is probable that the microscope would reveal a decided differ- 
ence of structure in various cements. It is, of course, well known 

ill) Evaporiit'wii (Hid lension ftsts. 





that the underburnt natural cements have .softer, rounder, and more 
easily pulverized grains than that produced by the highly burnt 
clinker of the Portland. It is possible, therefore, that the evapora- 










4.4« 3«a 
«x «a 

tion qualities of a neat cement would indicate more closely than 
anything else the degree of burning practised, independent of the 
fineness. It will be noticed by Table II., that the residues on sieves 
afford no clue to the density of the mixture, and no guide to deter- 
mine beforehand the evaporation. Neither does the weight of the 

SiiCAA/i Ci^- 




specimens vary at all regularly either with the crushing strength or 

It would seem that the coarse, angular laboratory sand had its 
interstices just about filled up with a i to i mixture, and the strength 
of the mixture depended directly on the amount of evaporation, in an 
inverse ratio. The Evaporation diagram No. 4 is the same as No 

,^ef/r dM^S*^ 


3, except that this product is referred to a uniform section density 
(/. e.) p ^,ej /tf y ; the diagram is practically the same, showing 
that the variation in weight of test pieces made practically no differ- 
ence in the results, /. e., the per cent, of evaporation determines the 
strength in I to i mixtures, but is no criterion in neat ones. 

In Table III. and Table IV. the per cent, of evaporation in 2 
days is again given, and diagrams are plotted showing the relation 
between the tensile strength and the weight of the dried briquettes 
in the pressure tests, and also other diagrams showing the product 
of tensile strength and evaporation plotted on a base of weights of 

The X marks in the diagrams show the positions of tests made 
with 20 lbs. pressure and 20 per cent, of water, and they are seen to 
stand at prominent and usually maximum points on the diagrams, 
proving that this is the best point to select of all the tests made. 

It will be seen in these diagrams as in those of crushing tests, 



I %t 





























Try ^ 








'. ,ii<(r 





~ — 



























* — 











— - 





i 4 f"V^ 


1 i 








that in I to I mixtures the variation of evaporation and strength 
combined i:; not very great, but not so close as in the former tests. 

The 3 to I tests are very erratic, as might have been ex- 
pected with different per cents.- of water and different amounts of 
pressure. It is evident that each cement has distinctive qualities of 
its own, because with the same weight of briquette the strengths 
vary, and this brings up the important point that in sand tests the 
strength ought to be referred to some basis of weight of briquette, 
because a slight variation in weight seems, from Table IV., to affect 
the strength very much. It would not take much evidence to 
determine the average weight, and all tests could be reduced to this 
by multiplying by W j^gi^/^^ ) which would change the section 
density to a standard. 



Sucrate of lime is soluble in water, and it was chiefly a matter 

of interest to see the effect of sugar on cements in weakening them, 
because it has been asserted by several writers that the reverse is 
the case ; one investigator several years ago showed by tests that 
from )4 to I per cent, of sugar would in 4 to 6 months give a gain 
in strength. 

Sugar, in these tests, 2 per cent, of the amount of cement (by 
weight), was used, and the diagrams attached sufficiently indicate 
the results. In the Portland cement the strength ranges closely at 
50 per cent, of the ordinary strength as far as 6 months, while with 
the natural cements, the sugar effect was overpowering. After i 
week's immersion the briquettes showed signs of cracking, and as 
time went on became completely checked, and expanded so much as 
to give practically no tests. This is further evidenced (see exhibit 
of briquettes) by the upper surface, which was protected by a coat- 
ing of iron deposited from Montreal water, being intact, while the 
checking was greatest on the bottom where the water had free 

The lime mixtures, kept in open air, showed encouraging results 
for 2 months, and seemed to prove that the use of sugar, in lime, as 
practised in India, was beneficial; but the 3, 4, and 6 months' tests 
disprove it. Altogether, it seems evident that this much or more 
sugar would be damaging in its effects on any kind of mortar in any 
situation, and it is extremely doubtful whether any sugar whatever 
would have other than a weakening effect. 

In concluding this paper, the author cannot but help feeling 
that he is, as it were, dipping just on the surface of a vast subject, 
and that the more one finds out, the larger the unknown fields 
beyond appear. 

In any efforts that have been made, the frequent manual aid and 
more frequent sound practical advice of Mr. J. G. Kerry have been 
of much service, and here is the' place to acknowledge it. 

The endeavor has been to find out anything of practical use to 
the engineering profession ; and if any points raised here will fulfil 
this desire, the object of this paper will be, in the main, ac- 

( To he coHti)iucd>j 



IN the " Digest of Physical Tests and Laboratory Appliances," Mr„ 
J. S. Dobie gives particulars of the results of a recent investiga- 
tion of the action of heat on Portland cement. Three different 
brands were examined, all of excellent quality, but two were of the 
slow-setting class, whilst the remaining one set very rapidly. Over 
two hundred briquettes were prepared, some consisting of neat 
cement, whilst in other cases one part of cement was mixed with one, 
two, or three parts of sand. The age of the briquettes ranged from 
two months to four years. In making the tests they were heated in 
a gas furnace to a temperature of from 650 degs. to 1,775 degs. Fahr. 
After removal from the furnace, every briquette was found to 
have lost weight, whilst in the case of the neat specimens, cracks 
were usually to be observed. These latter were less apparent in the 
case of the other briquettes containing sand. After cooling, the 
briquettes were tested for tensile strength with a load applied at 
the rate of 400 lbs. per minute. In all cases a marked decrease in 
the tensile strength was noted, which was apparently closely con- 
nected with the loss in weight of the sample. In those cases in 
which the reduction in weight showed that practically the whole of 
the water of crystallization had been driven off, the specimens had 
practically no breaking strength. The effect of different tempera- 
tures was, however, peculiar, since britjuettes heated rapidly to 1,775 
degs. Fahr. showed a loss of strength out of proportion to their loss 
in weight. When, however, the heating was slowly effected, these 
two losses were closely proportional. After cooling, the briquettes 
of neat cement could be crumbled to pieces in the fingers, whilst 
those containing sand disintegrated spontaneously on standing. — 
Biitish Clayivorker. 



The Masons' Department. 




MOST of the rules governing the honorable practise of the 
profession of architecture are the result of custom and 
usage. They are, therefore, much the same as should regulate all 
similar vocations, and are, consequently, so well known and under- 
stood as to need no particular attention or explanation. There is 
one condition of practise, however, affecting owner, architect, and 
contractor, which is almost always made mandatory, that is to say 
compulsator}-, on the part of the architect, namely, that no archi- 
tect shall accept " commissions." The constitution of the American 
Institute of Architects provides, and most of the other architectural 
organizations have a similar requirement, that " no fellow shall ac- 
cept direct or indirect compensation for services rendered, other than 
the fees received from his client." Although there is no reason to 
suppose that this condition is often violated by those who belong to 
and practise under the regulations imposed by the various societies 
of architects, yet it must be admitted that an architect is often 
tempted by direct or indirect offers of commission, and it is fair to 
assume that such proposals would not be made they were 
sometimes accepted. In many instances violations of this rule have 
been known to exist, but it has been found impossible to prove the 
charge for the same reasons that it is always hard to prove bribery 
of other kinds, for such a transaction cannot be dignified by a term 
any less severe than this. Offers of commissions probably come of 
late more often from material men than from any other source, which 
is probably accounted for by the fact that competition has become 
so sharp that it is found hard to get even goods of merit on the 
market without resorting to some such measure, and also because 
commissions are now so generally offered and almost as often 
accepted with thanks in so many business transactions, that it is 
taken for granted that the architect will look with favor upon 
similar opportunities. The following circular, which has been lately 
framed by the Boston Society of Architects, to send to any one 
offering commissions, explains the case concisely and clearly, and it 
may be accepted also as defining the position of all architects who 
live up to the best principles of professional practise : — 

" The enclosed communication has been received from you 
by a member of this society, offering a commission or special favors 
for the introduction and use of your specialties. Assuming, as is 
doubtless the case, that this is due to imperfect knowledge, on your 
part, of professional practise, allow me to point out that it is impossi- 
ble for any reputable architect to receive commissions from material 
men for the following reason : The relation of the architect to his 
client is fiduciary, and the receiving of commissions which in the 
case of a business man might be perfectly legitimate is, in the case of 
the architect, in the nature of a bribe, as it leads him to favor certain 
materials for other reasons than his client's interests. On this 
account a by-law of this society provides that ' no practising mem- 
ber shall accept direct or indirect compensation for .services rendered 
in the practise of his profession other than the fees received from 
his client.' In the hope that this information may lead to a change 
in your method of solicitation, which in the form referred to can 
only injure your interests with the class of architects whose approval 
you doubtless value, I am 

" Respectfully yours, 

" Secretary Boston Society of Architects." 

It can be seen from this circular letter that not only will the 
person offering a commission to an architect of standing fail to 
accomplish his purpose, but such action is liable to create a preju- 

dice against both the individual and his material which will seriously 
affect the chances of their being favorably considered if at all. In 
this zeal to appear incorruptible many architects are inclined to treat 
offers of a commission much too harshly. In the case of a first 
offence on the part of a person who is presumably honest, it is only 
fair to assume that the offer was made under a misunderstanding of 
the conditions which should exist between the architect and those 
employed by him or under his direction. And in such instances, in- 
stead of making the person who offers a commission the object of 
his wrath, it would be much more profitable for the architect to first 
explain matters, and then find out what led the offender to think 
such a proposition was in order or would be entertained or accepted 
by an architect. An ingenuous way in which architects have been 
known to treat the matter of a commission, when they have learned 
that a sum for this purpose has been included in a bill for work or 
materials, has been to require the contractor to send a check for this 
amount to the owner, to whom, of course, the money rightfully 
belongs, for, as no one does work without profit, it is the owner who 
in the end pays all the bills, if they are paid at all. It is unnecessary 
to write at length on the subject of commissions; the facts in the 
case are clearly set forth in the two quotations given above, and the 
conclusions are self-evident. If a contractor or material man wishes 
the confidence and respect of the best members of the profession, 
he must depend entirely on the merit of his work or material. When 
he finds that offers of commissions or special favors are accepted, he 
may know that those who entertain such propositions, whatever may 
have been their professional standing in the past, are no longer to be 
considered as engaged in honorable practise, and he may rest assured 
that if any violation of the by-laws quoted above is brought to the 
attention of the officials of any society requiring its members to 
practise in conformity with such a rule, the offender will, if the evi- 
dence is satisfactory, be promptly brought to justice. 


MR. EDW.ARD WOLFF, an American authority on the subject 
of limes and mortars, makes some very interesting sugges- 
tions relative to the proper method of slacking lime and preserving 
it in good condition thereafter. He says:- — 

" The slaking operation should be done in a watertight box 
made of board.s, and so much water should be mixed in that the con- 
tents will never get dry, and a sheet of water will remain on top to 
prevent access of air. If the box will not hold the entire quantity of 
lime required, the contents may be emptied into a cavity made in the 
ground close to the pan, and this process may be repeated. This 
should be done at least two weeks before sand is added, or before 
the mortar is prepared for use. Slaked lime prepared and kept as 
stated has been found free of carbonic acid after many years, air and 
gas not having been able to find access. 


M UN ICII'ALE.NCINEERINC, replies to the question. Has the 
color of cement anything to do with its quality ? as follows : — 

" As a rule, no. If a cement is very light colored, it is well to 
test it for strength, also for lime or possible adulteration with clay. 

" If the cement is very dark, lampblack may have been added to 
deceive. Test for lampblack by dissolving in water, when, if pres- 
ent, an oily black film appears on the water. Lampblack of itself 
does no harm, more than to deceive ignorant buyers who think 'good 
dark color means good strong cement.' Color, smell, and feeling 
have very little to do with the value of a cement. Tests made with 
briquettes in tension are sure indicators of its value. 

" It is surprising how many contractors and even cities trust en- 
tirely to the ' brand,' the manufacturers, or even the contractor, for 
a good cement. Cement tests are quickly and cheaply made, and 
should never be omitted in public or private important work." 



Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 
Work in American Cities, 


Manufacturers' Department. 

PHILADELPHIA. — Architecturally, at present, all eyes are 
turned to the exhibition of the T Square Club, held in con- 
nection with the sixty-sixth annual exhibition of painting and sculp- 
ture of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; this exhibition 
so totally exceeds anything of its kind ever held in Philadelphia that 
it has excited unusual comment, indeed we would have scarcely 
believed that the general public were sufficiently interested in archi- 
tecture to give serious cognizance to an architectural exhibition. Such 
exhibitions are generally considered as dry, mechanical, and artistic 
blendings of ideas which the layman cannot comprehend without a 
great deal of effort, and they are consequently very little patronized ; 
this has, however, been an entirely different affair, for — whether by 
the foresight of the committee or by accident, we know not — there 
have been shown in conspicuous positions many beautifully executed 
drawings in which the public at the present time are directly inter- 
ested, and around these have been grouped many others, less inter- 
esting to the public by reason of their being from other cities, but 
withal, beautiful, interesting, and comprehensive. It is, without 
doubt, the finest collection which has ever been exhibited in this 
city, and the general study and attention which has been given it 
will undoubtedly advance the cause of artistic design very considera- 
bly. As this is the very matter which the members of the T Square 

Club have for years been endeavoring to accomplish, it can be truth- 
fully said in this instance that they have made decided progress this 
year, and gone a long step forward. It is to be hoped that they will 
carefully follow up the advantage thus gained, and by many more 
such events bring the architect, builder, and layman in closer touch 
than heretofore. 

Of new work in prospect much might be said, as once again 
there are rumors of large undertakings; nothing, however, has taken 
definite shape except the work upon the new M which was begun a 
short time ago. The excavations are being pushed to the utmost, 
and it has been announced that the foundations and superstructure 
will follow immediately. 

As if to decide cjuickly the question as to whether there shall 


I I I I I 

f r • i,i ■ 


— ,.^ 'MB 


Parish & Schraeder, Architects. 

Bviilt of gray brick and terra-cotta made by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 

or not be a plaza in front of the city hall, came the disastrous fire of 
a few weeks ago, which practically destroyed every building in the 
block fronting the city hall on the northeast. This is one of the very 
blocks which the advocates of the plaza project have been endeavor- 
ing to have the councils condemn for that purpose, and the destruc- 
tion of the buildings will now compel them to decide once for all 
whether it shall be done. It is obvious that there will never be an- 
other such an opportunity offered, and should councils fail to act 
now, the plaza project will imdoubtediy be a thing of the past, and be 
shelved with the boulevard and other like propositions. There seems, 
however, to be a decidedly outspoken sentiment in favor of the proj- 
ect at the present time, and an ordinance has been drafted and pub- 
lished, for submittal to councils at their next session, which, if 
passed will at once clothe the proper authorities with power to take 
the preliminary steps in the condemnation proceedings, and it is not 
unlikely that the long-wished-for time has arrived when the city hall 
will be at least partially relieved from the danger of being entirely 
pent up upon all sides with sky-scraping buildings. If condemna- 
tion proceedings do not issue at once, active preparations will be 
made to immediately rebuild the destroyed portions. 

Bids have been asked for the erection of a building on the 
corner of 7th and Sansom .Streets, for the Philadelphia J'n'ssy 
the building will be 38 by 91 ft. in size, ten stories high, steel frame 
with brick walls, and stone and terra-cotta trimmings, fire-proof 
floors, etc. The drawings are by Theophilus P. Chandler, and the 
work of construction is to commence at once. It is said that as 
soon as this building is completed the Chestnut Street front of the 
lot will be cleared and rebuilt to conform with the work now being 



Messrs. Cope & Stewardson have completed the preHminary 
drawings for the Pennsylvania Institution for Instruction of the 
Blind, which will be built this summer at Overbrook, one of the most 
beautiful of the newly laid out suburbs of this city; the building 
will be very large and com- 
modious, will be built some- 
what after the manner of the 
monastery, and will consist 
of a central administration 
building with reception and 
executive departments, and 
two wings, cloisters for girls 
and boys respectfully. The 
material for the building will 
be stone, plastered and peb- 
ble-dashed on the exterior, 
with trimmings and columns 
of terra-cotta, set in position 
by the stone-mason. Hids 
for the work will shortly be 

A very pretty alteration 
by Keen & Mead, architects, 
shown in the accompanying 
illustration, is situated on 
the corner of 15th and Jef- 
ferson Streets, is of Pom- 
peian brick with red stone 
trimmings, the tympanum of the arches being of colored plaster, with 
small colored shields. 

eight days : The Lafayette Methodist 
Avenue Methodist Episcopal Church, 
.Shaare Emeth congregation. 

The old Lafayette Church was a 


Elevations shown on plates 23 and 24. 

William G. Preston, Architect. 

under contemplation, some of which 
shape soon. 

Episcopal Church, the Lindell 
and the Jewish Synagogue for 

victim of the cyclone last May, 
and in the rebuilding the 
seating capacity has been 
more than doubled to meet 
the demands, and provisions 
have been made for addition 
in the future. 

Messrs. Link & Rosen- 
heim were the architects of 
the Lindell Avenue Church 
and the Synagogue, and in 
the latter they have designed 
a building to meet the mod- 
ern requirements and ad- 
vanced thought of the Jewish 
Church. Past traditions 
and customs have influenced 
them but little, and there is 
nothing to distinguish it 
from its near Protestant 

Besides the above men- 
tioned there are a number 
of other large churches 

will doubtless a.ssume definite 

ST. LOUIS. — At the present time there seems to be considerable 
energy back of the proposition to cut Locust Street through 
the Exposition Building from 13th to 14th Street. Should this be 
done, the scheme to give us a place in which to hold large meetings 
will necessarily be abandoned for the present, at least, as the pro- 

CHICAGO.— It is too early for spring building and there will 
probably not be much of a rush this year. Business is indeed 
dull. Some architects who have been important factors in Chicago 
work say that they have done nothing for a year or more. 

The items of most importance just now seem to he warehouses. 





posed amphitheater was to be located in the north wing of the Ex- 
position Building. 

The property upon which the Exposition stands was given to the 
city years ago to be used perpetually as a public park, and was leased 
to the Exposition for fifty years, and the question as to whether a 
street can be cut through the property will doubtless have to be 
passed upon by the courts. 

Churches have been among the many improvements that the 
growth of our city and the migration of the wealthy have made 
necessary. Last month three large churches were dedicated within 

of which about half a dozen are in progress. Mr. Dankmar Adler 
has two to build, one 80 by 100 ft., nine stories high, and the other 
50 by 100 ft., eleven stories. Pile foundations will be used, and the 
general construction will be, at least partially, fire-proof. 

One announcement is that Greifenhagen & Kingsley are design- 
ing an apartment building exceeding §100,000 in cost. 

Dwen & White are directing work on the McCoy Hotel, which 
is to be remodeled at considerable expense. 

J. H. Wagner is the architect of a $60,000 shoe factory, which 
is just beginning construction. 



PITTSBURG. — As the winter months are coming to a close 
business in the architectural and building lines is livening 
up considerably, and much work is talked of and planned for the com- 
ing season. The Central Board of Education has settled on two 

competition for the People's National Bank to be erected at McDon- 
ald, Penn. 

Homestead is agitating the question of erecting a new town hall. 
Bradford is contemplating the erection of a public building, to 
cost $60,000. 

There will be considerable building at Turtle Creek the com- 
ing spring and summer. 

Westmoreland County will invite architects to submit plans 
for a new court house. 

Frank Freeman, Architect. 
Architectural terra-cotta made by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 

sites for the proposed sub-high schools one in the East End and 
the other on the South Side. 

An ordinance has been prepared for an appropriation for the 
erection of an isolation hospital in this city, to accommodate one 
hundred patients, and to cost between $150,000 and $200,000. 

Architect F. J. Osterling will prepare plans for an insane asylum, 
an addition to the Allegheny City Home at Claremont, to cost 

It is rumored that the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company is contemplating the erec- 
tion of a new station at East End, to be of 
brick, and cost about $75,000. 

Architects J. E. Carlisle & Co. were the 
successful competitors out of ten of the lead- 
ing architects of this city for the new school 
building at Turtle Creek. It will have six- 
teen rooms, be fire-proof, and cost $40,000. 

The First Presbyterian congregation of 
Wilkinsburg is contemplating the erection of 
a church building, to cost about $30,000. 

Architect F. C. Sauer is preparing plans 
for a new parochial school building for the 
St. Joseph's Church at Allegheny. 

It is reported that Mrs. Mary Kaufman 
will erect about thirty houses along Fifth 
Avenue, Walnut, and Howe Streets. They 
will cost from $7,000 to $12,000 each. 

Architect T. D. Evans is preparing plans 
for a residence for Geo. Bennett, Esq., to be 
erected on Fifth Avenue, Bellefield, to cost 

Architect Thomas Boyd has prepared plans for a Pompeian 
brick residence at Beaver, Penn. 

Architect Edward Stotz has prepared plans for a new town hall 
at Sistersville, W. Va. Mr. Stotz was the successful architect in the 

MINNEAPOLIS. — We are in the midst of our midwinter 
dulness, with more or less of uncertainty staring us in 
the face as to what the spring will bring forth. We have reason 
to believe that it will be a material improvement over last spring, 
both in the amount and character of the work to be done. 

It is understood that our Chamber of Commerce will not 
erect a new building, but will cover their present lot with an 
addition, to cost approximately $50,000. Architects were hoping 
that a well-conducted local competition would spring from the 
erection of a new building. The present one is such an eyesore 
and so inconvenient that a new and more representative structure 
is devoutly wished for by those interested in our city artistically. 

Architect George E. Bertrand has begun an education of the 
public on good architecture, and has presented some very tasty 
designs for the various problems arising in general practise, show- 
ing the adaptability of Greek models to our present needs. Let 
us hope his labor may not be in vain. 

Two of our leading architects have turned their attention to 
the manufacture of acetylene gas, each having devised a generator 
that is superior to the others, and formed stock companies, and 
disposed of territory, etc. They will certainly find it more profit- 
able than architecture, as it is practised in these parts. An archi- 
tect, to be thoroughly conscientious and dignified, must either be 
independent or be content with a bare existence. 

A medical building to be operated in connection with Hamline 
University by Minneapolis College of Physicians and Surgeons; 
cream brick and cut stone trimmings, and to cost about $50,000. 

Governor Clough has recommended a prison for women, to be 
located near the twin cities, and to cost approximately $100,000. 

Among the larger enterprises of the month may be mentioned 

D. E. Waid, Architect. 

school buildings at Waterloo, la., and Kaukauna, Wis., by Orflf & 
Joralemon. The former 68 by 108 ft., 8 rooms, of Gladbrook brick, 
cost, $30,000. Latter, 80 by 100 ft., 12 rooms, of brick with slate 
roof, cost, $50,000. 



Flat building on Dayton Avenue, St. I'aul, planned by F. A. 
Clarke, tS apartments, to cost 575,000. 

A bill has been introduced into State legislature calling for an 
inebriate department at Rochester Insane Hospital, to cost $50,000. 

There is an effort being made to so shape legislation as to 
allow of completing our new Capitol Building within a reasonable 
time, and permit of a saving of from $20,000 to $50,000 dol- 
lars. There seems to be a disposition to use the full ten years 
contemplated by the bill, but those conversant with the matter hope 
that it may be put through in a more business-like manner and 
within a reasonable time, say by the time our next session of legisla- 
ture sits, two years hence. 

delphia, in a series of pamphlets, showing their various patterns of 
brick-making machinery. The latest which has come to our notice 
shows two pugging mills and a clay disintegrator, in a manner that 
leaves little to be desired. 


THE International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Penn., 
have been in existence less than six years, but have amply 
demonstrated their reason for being by drawing pupils not only from 
Pennsylvania, but also from all over this country and from several 
foreign lands. VVe have received the Circular of Information of the 
Correspondence School of Architecture, which covers only one of 
the many branches in which instruction is offered. The method of 
these schools is implied by 
their name, and while they are 
not as far reaching as our 
higher technical schools and 
colleges, they are certainly a 
boon to the busy man ; to the 
poor artisan who seeks to 
better himself ; to the engineer 
in charge of a power plant, 
who feels the lack of educa- 
tion ; and to the aspiring office 
boy in a busy architect's office, 
who wants to rise but cannot 
afford a college education. 
They offer a substitute, but a 
most excellent one, and to 
judge by the sample pages of 
instruction papers, the fifty 
dollars invested in one of the 
scholarships, if followed by a 
couple of hours of daily ap- 
plication, would certainly re- 
sult in vastly enlarging one's powers, even if it did leave a few archi- 
tectural facts and experiences still to be acquired. 


Julius Franke, Architect. 

Built of gray bricic and terra-cotta made by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 


The Standard Dry Kiln Company, Indianapoli.s, Ind., 
present their case in one of the handsomest and best gotten up cata- 
logues that has ever come to our notice. The covers are bound in 
leather, padded in album style; in fact, it is nothing less than an 
album, containing as it does some forty or more fine half-tone illus- 
trations of large clay-working plants in this country. These illustra- 
tions are accompanied by testimonial letters from manufacturers, 
which must be accepted as conclusive evidence of the worth of the 
drj'ers and various other clay-manufacturing appliances which are 
made by this company. We presume this catalogue will be sent to 
any one upon application to the company, and certainly it should be 
possessed by every one interested in the manipulation of clays. 

The Cutler Manufacturing Company, Rochester, N. Y., 
have issued another interesting number of their series, entitled, 
" Details from Italian Palaces," measured and drawn by Claude F. 
Bragdon. The enterprise shown by this company in giving a series 
of sketches of subjects that have not been " published to death " is 
refreshing and commendable. 

The half-tone process as a means of effective illustration is 
being made good use of by the Chambers Brothers Company, Phila- 


IE annual convention of the general managers of the various 
branches of the Hydraulic Press-Brick Company of St. 
Louis was held in that city, beginning with Monday, February 8, 
and was continued for several days. 

The various plants of the company, located in nine different 
cities, were represented by their general managers. 

These yearly gatherings are important to the company from the 
fact that they bring together representatives of leading industries, 
covering a large section of the country. The reports of the man- 
agers of the general conditions prevailing, as made at the meeting, 
declare that the outlook for the coming season is very much better 
than has been experienced in the past two years, and a general re- 
vival of the building interests may be fairly expected. Mr. E. C. 

Sterling and Mr. H. W. Eliot, 
__ as president and secretary, re- 

spectively, of the parent com- 
pany, hold the same offices in 
the various branch companies, 
and the proceedings of the 
convention are conducted 
under their direction. The 
combined product of the com- 
panies represented by 
gentlemen, it is said, now 
amounts to more than 300,- 
000,000 pressed bricks annu- 
ally, and the capital invested 
in the various companies ex- 
ceeds 513,000,000. Mr. G. F. 
Baker has had charge of the 
arrangements of the conven- 
tion, to whom, as well as to 
the other officers of the com- 
pany, the success of the meet- 
ing was largely due. 
Among the interesting subjects for discussion was the "Chemis- 
try of Clays," on which a very able address was made by Mr. W. M. 
Chauvenet, in which he took up this very broad question, and ex- 
plained the characteristics of the large number of clays worked by 
companies in all sections of the country, in their relation to the 
actual manufacture of bricks. The address was unique, as being 
probably the most practical lecture on the subject ever given before 
a similar body. 


WE have had brought to our notice a novel production by the 
well-known manufacturers of fire-proof building material, 
.Henry Maurer & Son, 420 East 23d Street, New York City, and 
believing the same will be of interest to our readers, we give a few 
of the claims made for it by the manufacturers. 

It is a brick which they have named the "Centaur," patented in 
the United States, Great Britain, Canada, and France, and is claimed 
to possess the following characteristics: — 

It is absolutely fire-proof, yet, while seemingly as hard burnt as 
a front building brick, and nearly as dense, has the peculiar quality, 
and one heretofore deemed impracticable in a brick of allowing nails, 
to be driven into it as closely as one pleases, without either splitting 
or chipping, and the tenacity inherent in said material is such that 
after being driven "home " it becomes as difficult to draw the nails as 
though driven into hard wood. 



They are impervious to all weather, and will not disintegrate 
upon exposure, a failing hitherto associated with porous terra- 

They can be employed jointly with common brick on inside of 
walls in any and all cases where nailing is requisite, providing a 
thorough and reliable surface for nailing furring strips to the wall, 
giving also excellent " grounds " for all trim (hard or soft). 

If these claims are substantiated, and we have no doubt they 
have been, it becomes readily apparent that their use will make a 
great saving in time, labor, and expense in construction, to say noth- 
ing of their other novel features. 


Messrs. G. R. Twichell & Co. have been appointed the 
agents of the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company for New England. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Company has made 
a contract with the city of Boston to apply its non-slipping material 
to the worn granite steps of all police stations. 

The Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company will supply the 
architectural terra-cotta used in the residence for George J. Gould, 
Esq., at Lakewood, N. J., of which Bruce Price is the architect. 

The face brick used in building the Yerkes Observatory at 
Geneva, 111., were gray in color and not buff, as stated in our Janu- 
ary number. They were furnished by the Columbus Brick and Terra- 
Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio. 

The new cream-white brick made by the Pennsylvania Enam- 
eled Brick Company are a solid body mud brick that give a true 
ring when rapped with a hammer. Meeker, Carter, Booraem & 
Co., New York, will handle the output of these bricks. 

G. R. Twichell & Co., Boston, are supplying an old-gold 
face brick for the new hotel at Providence, R. I., for which Cady & 
Co. are the architects. They are also supplying a gray brick for the 
new block of stores on Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, C. Herbert 
Clare, architect. 

The Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company have closed 
contracts for terra-cotta for the following buildings : Hotel Chelten- 
ham, A. H. Bowditch, architect ; Gardiner H. Shaw, builder. 
Office building, Washington and Bromfield Streets, Winslow & 
Wetherell, architects ; the Geo. A. Fuller Company, builders ; 
both contracts being made through their Boston agents, Waldo 

Waldo Brothers have secured the New England agency for the 
Atlas Cement Company. This company is enlarging its plant at 
Northampton, Penn., and will have the largest output of any of the 
American Portland Cement companies. They will continue to have 
but one brand and one quality, every barrel of their output carrying 
a specific guarantee for strength and fineness. 

Such an indorsement as is given in the following letter, received 
by the Folsom Snow Guard Company, from F. W. Chandler, Esq., 
Professor of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
and consulting architect on Boston public buildings, is of value, not 
only to the favored manufacturer, but to the architect and builder 
as well. 

To Whom it may Concern : I have often used Folsom Snow 
Guards because I consider them better than the rail. The former 
hold the snow where it falls, while the latter makes the snow bank 
up with the consecjuent danger of back water and a wet interior. 

F. W. Chandler. 

The Zanesville Mosaic Tile Company have closed the 
contract through their agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., Boston, for the 
tiling in the five-story apartment house on Westland Avenue, Bos- 
ton. Arthur H. Bowditch, architect. 

The contract includes the tiling of twenty bath rooms, two 
porches, two vestibules, two main halls, and twenty fireplaces. The 
tile selected for this work is designated by the company as the 
Parian Vitreous Tile, of which they are the sole manufacturers. 

The Standard Terra-Cotta Company have secured 
through their agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., Boston, the terra-cotta 
to be used in the Masonic Temple, Pawtucket, R. I., Wm. R. 
Walker & Son, Providence, R. I., architects; W. T. Dearborn & 
Son, contractors. 

They have also closed the contract for the terra-cotta (gray) to 
be used in the Odd Fellows' Building, Attleboro, Mass., Alfred 
Humes, of Pawtucket, architect; Benj. Smith, contractor; and the 
contract for the terra-cotta (light buff) to be used in a business block 
now being erected in Pawtucket, R. I., Wm. R. Walker & Son, 
Providence, R. I., architects; Benj. Smith, builder. 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co. have recently secured two 
contracts for furnishing the University Library of Columbia College. 
One contract calls for some sixty thousand brick, including a large 
number of special brick for the base course in the hall and stairways 
of the library. These will be furnished by the American Enameled 
Brick & Tile Company, who are expert at making special brick. 

The second contract calls for the furnishing of some thirty odd 
thousand pure white front brick for the same building, from the out- 
put of the Pennsylvania Brick Company, for whom they are agents. 

The architects of this work are Messrs. McKim, Mead & 
White. The builders are Messrs. Norcross Bros. 

The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company has now com- 
pleted the terra-cotta work for the Y. M. C. A. building at Cambridge, 
Mass., and Masonic Temple, Newton, Mass., Hartwell, Richardson 
& Driver, architects ; the Ninth Precinct Police Station, New York 
City, John Du Fais, architect ; and the Osterweis Building, New 
Haven, Conn., Brunner & Tryon, architects. 

Of new contracts this company has received: stores 37th Street 
and Broadway, New York City, Hoppin & Koen, architects; ware- 
house, 455, 457, 459 West 14th Street, New York City, Thos. R. 
Jackson, architect ; apartment house. Pineapple and Hicks Streets, 
Brooklyn, J. G. Glover, architect ; chapel and lecture hall. Van Nest, 
N. Y., James H. McGuire, architect; apartment house, 65th Street, 
New York City, Geo. Keister, architect. 

W. S. Ravenscroft & Co. have recently purchased the 
village of Daguscahonda, Penn., together with a large clay bed 
of several hundred acres which adjoins the town. The property was 
purchased for the purpose of developing the clay deposits located 
there, and the company are at the present time equipping a large 
plant for the manufacture of front brick, by the most approved 
methods. The character of the clay gives them quite a range of 
color in the variety of bricks produced, varying from the dark 
mottled shades to old gold, light buff, and the various effects of gray. 
The company state that it is their intention to make a specialty of 
their gray and buff bricks, as they have been able to produce partic- 
ularly desirable shades in this respect, and anticipate that the 
demands on these two lines alone will equal the capacity of their 
plant. These bricks are similar to the well-known Ridgway gray 
and buff that have won such extensive favor during the past two years. 
The two plants are only a few miles distant from one another, and the 
clays are said to be identical. The town of Daguscahonda is sit- 
uated on the Philadelphia and Erie branch five miles e.ast of Ridg- 
way. Mr. Ravenscroft organized and built the Shawmut and Ridg- 
way plants, and is still a stockholder in the last-named company. 
He is a director in the Savage Fire Brick Company of Keystone 
Junction, Penn. 






BURNT clay is the oldest and most primitive of all building ma- 
terials, and has been used for untold centuries in much the 
same manner as we use it to-day. But although bricks have always 
been fashioned out of clay, the evolution from the primitive brick- 
yard, with its crude appliances and laborious manual devices, to the 
modern plant, with its highly organized mechanical equipment, is a 
development of the past two generations, and brickmaking at the 
close of the nineteenth century can be classed as an exact science, 
representing results of long and costly 
experiments, and calling for invest- 
ments of capital and vastness of oper- 
ations on a plane with the largest of 
American enterprises. The extent of 
the development of brick manufac- 
turing is well illustrated by the plant 
of the Sayre & Fisher Company, at 
Sayreville, N. J., which was originally 
established in 185 1, by Jos. R. Sayre, 
Jr.. and Peter Fisher, who remained 
in partnership until 1887, when the 
firm was incorporated as a stock com- 
pany, with Jos. R. Sayre as president, 
Peter Fisher as treasurer, and E. A. 
Sayre as secretary, and has continued 
since that time without any change in 
the management. The manufacture 
of brick was begun at this plant in 
1852. Only 3,000,000 common bricks 
were produced the first year, whereas 
in 1896, 73,000,000 bricks of all kinds 
were turned out, and the daily con- 
sumption of clay and sand, which in 
1852 was about 75 tons, rose to 1,000 
tons in 1896. 

The company controls over a 
thousand acres of clay beds. A force 
of from six hundred to eight hundred 
men is employed in buildings which 
are fully equipped with modern ma- 
chinery, exclusively devoted to the 
manufacture of brick, and extend 
along the full length of the frontage 
on the Raritan River, with a wharf- 
age a mile in total length, from which 
the output is shipped directly by 
water or by rail to any part of the 
world. All the Sayre & Fisher com- 
mon bricks are made by the soft mud 
process, while the stiff mud process 
is used for front bricks, the regulation 
machinery being utilized for each. 

As the front bricks are the ones 
in which most of our readers are 
presumably the more interested, we would briefly explain the stiff 
mud process as follows. The clay, after being thoroughly seasoned, 
is mixed dry, then run through crushers, where it is pulverized, then 
through a "wet" mixer, where it receives additional mixing, then 
through a die, to form the clay into the proper shape for cutting, 
thence being delivered to a machine which cuts it into bricks of the 
required thickness. The bricks so formed are then subjected to a 
heavy steam pressure, then dried by hot air, then burned in the kilns. 
The ordinary down-draft kilns are used, of which there are sixty-three 
in all, with a capacity running from 30,000 to 600,000 bricks, the 
average capacity being about 300,000 bricks. The process of manu- 
facturing is in every way facilitated by the adoption of the best ap- 
proved machinery, every stage of the work having its particular 


L L L 1. C C I J 



W. A. & F. E. Conover, Contractors. Harding & Gooch, Architects. 

Hrick furnished by Sayre & Fisher Company. 

appliance. From the loading of the clay on the cars by the steam 
shovel to the transfer of the burnt bricks from the kiln there is every- 
where employed the best possible device to save labor, and with a 
view to still further economy of labor the company has recently, at a 
great expense, equipped its entire plant with electricity. 

The clay banks of the company contain no less than eighteen 
different kinds of clays, and hence it can produce a great variety of 
shades in brick, not by artificial coloring matter, so apt to fade, but 
by the careful selection, intermixture, and burning of the clays. The 
annual output of the plant is over 73,000,000 brick. Of this .some 

64,000,000 are common, and the re- 
maining 9,000,000 face and enamel 

The Sayre & Fisher Company 
was among the first, if not absolutely 
the first company, to offer a variety of 
shades in brick. The first departure 
from the ordinary " red " was a gray 
buff, which was put on the market in 
1863. This was the first buff brick 
made in New Jersey, and used to 
easily bring sixty dollars per thousand. 
The company at the present time is 
making white, huff, red, gray, brown, 
old gold, mottled, and all the inter- 
mediate shades of brick, and these 
have acquired for themselves an en- 
viable reputation for holding their 
color and being hard and fire-proof in 

The enamel brick department is 
of a size and character in keeping 
with the vast proportions of the rest 
of the plant. The method employed 
here is what is known as the English 
process, wherein the enamel is placed 
on a fire-brick body and burnt with 
one firing. The number of shades 
which the company manufactures and 
keeps in stock, as illustrated in their 
catalogue, is over twenty-eight. This 
gives a wide range for selection in the 
choice of color. 

Nearly all of the machinery used 
in the works is manufactured by the 
company in a large machine shop of 
its own. All of the departments are 
kept in the most thorough working 
order, so that the vast organization 
operates with a smoothness and uni- 
formity which makes possible the uni- 
form excellence of the output. The 
attention to detail which the company 
shows is evinced in the consideration 
given to the men in its employ. 
Among its thousand or more employees there is a large proportion 
of single men, and for their benefit the company has erected a large 
building which is to all intents and purposes a regulation club house, 
in which the men can sleep and have their meals, and where they 
can enjoy, with some necessary restrictions, all the comforts and pri- 
vileges that men desire in a well-equipped club. 

The New York office of the company has been since its establish- 
ment, seven years ago, under the efficient management of Mr. A. J. 
Fletcher. The large and ever-increasing sales in the New York 
market, of brick made by this company, testify to the genuine merit 
and popularity of the output, combined with the energetic and con- 
scientious management of the department through which this output 
is sold. The company has branch offices in Baltimore, Philadelphia, 



Buffalo, Newark, Chicago, and Boston, and in all of these cities the 
number of Sayre & Fisher bricks used annually is rapidly increasing, 
and deservedly so. 

The list of large and prominent buildings in which Sayre & 
Fisher bricks have been used is so long that we can only cull from 
it a few of the most well-known structures. 

New York. 

Bowling Green Building . . 

Cable Building 

Bank of Commerce 

Lord's Court Building . . . 
Central National Bank Building 
St. Luke's Hospital .... 
American .Surety Building . . , 

Presbyterian ]5uilding . 
lyianhattan Life Building 
Mutual Life Building 

The Dakota Apartment House . . 

Colonial Club 

Museum of Natural History . . . 

Life Building 

Metropolitan Museum 

Fifth Avenue Theater 

Manhattan Athletic Club .... 
Residence of Mrs. W. K. Vanderl)ilt 

Central Building 

Taylor Building 

Postal Telegraph Building . . . 


800,000 white brick. 

500,000 „ „ 

400,000 cream-white brick. 

500,000 gray brick. 

300,000 „ ,, 

300,000 white enameled brick. 

80,000 „ „ „ 

and 1 1 5,000 light-gray brick. 

40,000 white enameled brick. 
140,000 buff brick. 
160,000 „ ,, 
and 40,000 gray brick. 
360,000 buff brick. 

60,000 „ „ 

30,000 „ „ 

30,000 „ 
200,000 „ „ 

25,000 „ „ 

80,000 „ „ 

45,000 mottled brick. 
250,000 old gold „ 
185,000 „ „ „ 
160,000 gray brick. 


W. & G. Audsley, Architects. 

White brick furnished by the Sayre & Fisher Company. 

State House Extension 200,000 buff brick. 

Castle Square Theater 120,000 white brick. 

In a general way it can be said that the Sayre & Fisher bricks 
are used very largely throughout the Eastern, Middle, Western, and 
Southern States. 

A very good view of the company's extensive plant is shown in 
their advertisement on page xvii. 


and most artistic results can be produced by us- 
ing our Fireplace Mantels made of Ornamen- 
tal Brick* No other kind can begin to do as 
well. Our customers are always pleased* The 
mantels are not necessarily expensive^ either* 

Each one of our designs is prepared 
by a noted architect. They are there- 
fore architecturally correct as well as 

Don^t place an order for mantels 
until you have seen the designs in 
our Sketch Book. Ours are the 
newest^ the best^ the most unique* 

We have them at all prices from $12 upward^ 
and the lower cost designs are just as attractive 
as the rest— they are only smaller—that is all. 

Any brickmason can set the mantels up — our Sketch Book 
tells all about 52 designs — Send for it and learn of the possi- 
bilities to be attained. 


15 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 








Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenliauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 

Pliilad'elphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 2S7 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 


Correspondence School of .Vrchitecture, Scranton, Pa. ..... 

_^American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
_i. Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
f'^ Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn. ...... 

Boston Office, 40 Water St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 
New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. PhiladelphiaiJffice, 24 South 7th St. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 
New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W. I,. McPherson, Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 1 1 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 

Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y 

Catskill Shale Brick & Paving Co., 11 1 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. ....... 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio .... 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, III. ......... 

Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co , Berlin, Conn. ...... 

Boston office, 72 Water St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co., The ......... 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ...... 

La Salle Pressed Brick Company, La Salle, III. ....... 

National Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. ......... 

New V'ork and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City. 

Boston Office, 171 Devonshire St. 
Parry Bros. & Co., 10 Broad St., Boston ........ 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, United Charities Bldg., New York City 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Ralston Brick Co., Ralston, Lycoming Co , Pa. ...... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Kaveiiscroft, W. S., & Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 
Ridgway Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa. ........ 

New England Agents, G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York Agent, O. D. Person, 160 P'ifth Ave. 
Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Shawmut Brick Co., Cartwright, Pa. ........ 

General Sales Agent, C. E. Willard, 171 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Rankine, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 
Williamsport Brick Co., Williamsport, Pa. ....... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. ....... 

F'iske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Hydraulic Press Brick Co., The ......... 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Co., Mt. Savage, Md. ...... 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, United Charities Bldg., New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern ."^gent, James 1,. Rankine, 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 


Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston 


Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 
Building, Philadelphia ........... 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Boston. 
Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City ..... 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston ........ 

Brand, James, 81 Fulton St., New York City 

Chicago, 34 Clark St. 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Brigham, Henry R., 35 Stone Street, New York City ...... 

New England Agents, Barry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office. 156 Fifth Avenue. 
Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Ebert Morris, 302 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office. 253 Broadway. 
French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. .... 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. i Broadway, New York City .... 
Manhattan Cement Company, 15 to 25 Whitehall St., New York City 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 









































Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., NewJYork 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, W. G. Nash, 220 State St., Boston. 

James C. Goff, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. I. 

J. S. Noble, 57-69 Lyman St., Spriogfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 WUliams St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 


Sturtevant Mill Co., Cor. Park and Clayton Sts., Dorchester Dist., Boston 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-prooflng, and Roofing: Tiles. 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange Baltimore, Md., and S08 F St., 

N. W., Washington, I). C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave,. New York City 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston 

Staveley, J. Mair, 40 Water .St., I5oston 

Thomas, E. H., 24 So. 7th St., Phila., Pa., 874 Broadway, New York 

Twitchell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire St., Boston 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston 


F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 

.^ American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio ..... 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ....... 

Chisholm. Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Raymond, C. W. & Co., Dayton, Ohio 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 415 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. . 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Sturtevant Mill Company, Cor. Park and Clayton Sts., Dorchester Dist., Boston 

The Wallace Manufacturing Co., Frankfort, Ind. 


Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 
New York Office, 126 Liberty St. 


Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

]5oston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., 104 South 12th St., Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremoni Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York ....... 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co , 14 E. 23d St., New York City 
Metropolitan Fire-proofing Company, Trenton, N. J. . 

New York Office, 874 Broadway. Boston Offi ce, i56 Devonshire St. 
Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 

Boston Office, 171 Devonshire St. 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1545 So. Clark St., Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Metropolitan Building. 

Western Office, 5 Parker Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Standard Fireproofing Co., II I Fifth Ave., New York 

GRANITE (Weymouth Seam-Face Granite, Ashler & Quoins). 

Gilbreth, Frank B., 85 Water St., Boston : 


Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. ... 


Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y 


Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Marsh Metallic Corner Bead, Edward B. Marsh, Tremont Building, Boston 
Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 


Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. .......••• 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

F'rench, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio 


Catskill Shale Brick and Paving Co., in Fifth Ave., New York City 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited, Marquette 
Building, Chicago ........-•• 

New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 


Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. .....••••• 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 


The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston .... 


Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 


J. C. N. Guibert, 39 Cortland St., New York City 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio 










XXX vii 




















Warranted Superior to any Hanufactured. 


Over 100,000 Barrels used on NEW YORK AND BROOKLYN BRIDGE, 


50,000 Barrels used on WASHINGTON BRIDGE, HARLEM RIVER. 

Telephone Connection. WM. C. MORTON, Sec'y. 


ia\rcon.r»ort.A.'r'£ii3 i887. 


Vulcanite Portland Cement Co. 




Philadelphia Office, 

304 and 305 GIRARD BUILDING. 

156 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK. 

Illustration from "A Little Talk on rietallic Paints and 
Mortar Colors." Write for this book, mailed free on 
application to the publishers. 


The Clinton 
Metallic Paint Co. 

of CLINTON, N. Y. 


Highest Grade 

Mortar Colors and 
Metallic Paints. 

Laid up with Clinton Mortar Colors, 











Manhattan Concrete Company, 

Incorporated under the Laws of the 
State of New York. 

Capital Stock, $50,000. 




ROSS F. TUCKER, President and nanager. 
Room 92a, 156 5tli Avenue, \E\V YORK. 


New England Agents for 

Snyder's " Crescent " Brand Rosendale Cement, 

" Burham " English Portland Cement, 

"Lafarge" French Portland Cement, 

" Qermania " German Portland Cement, 

«' Globe " Belgian Portland Cement. 

Also dealers in 

General Masons' Supplies. 

Removed to 




5old by Leading Lime and Cement Dealers Everywhere. 


677 and 679 RIVER STREET, TROY, N. Y. 

New York Office : 


St. Louis Office : 

407 No. 12th STREET. 


Chicago Office : 






Send for Circular. 

Most Durable, Fastest, Cheap= 
est Fine Grinders known. 

Value Proved in over 600 



VOL. 6. NO. 3. PLATE 25. 

ERNEST GEORGE & PETO. Architects. 


VOL. 6. NO. 3. PLATE 27. 



ll JHB'LfeliMlJiLjsSW 




PLATES 29 AND 30. 





ERNEST GEORGE & PETO, Architfxts. 


VOL. 6. NO. 3. 






'Vff//fS^/> ^^Vi^; 

i»l 3 




VOL. 6. NO. 3. PLATE 3L 

i^ •>H 





NOTEo VoussoiRS Brick and Sandstone:. 
Columns and Sill StonEo 
All other Work not marked differently, of Brick. 

measured drawing of window in south side of municipia. monza. 



VOL. 6. NO. 3. PLATE 32. 




ATES 29 and 30. 

4D. ERNEST GEORGE & PETO, Architects. 




VOL. 6. NO. 3. PLATE 28. 















ERNEST GEORGE & PETO, Architects. 



VOL. 6. NO. 3. PLATE 26. 

ERNEST GEORGE & PETO, Architects. 







Makers of 


Our Faience Mantels and Terra-Vitrea are displayed and sold by all the leading tile and mantel dealers. 

WALDO BROS., Boston Agents, - - 102 Milk Street. 

Chicago Office : 65-69 Washington Street, histitute of Building Arts. BURTON HILLS, Gen'l Agent. 

Grueby Faience Company, 

\ Glazed and enameled 


flrcMtecwral Cerra=Cotta 

For Exteriors and Interiors, 

Faience Mantels and,.., r$-> 164 Devonshire Street, 

Ecclesiastical JVork. 4* Boston, Mass. 


New York, O. D. PERSON, i6o Fifth Avenue. Philadelphia, O. W. KHTCHAM, 24 S. Seventh Street. 

Chicago, CHARl/HS T. HARRIS & CO., 1001-1002 Marquette Bldg. St. honis, J. P. & 

A. H. ANNAN, Union Trust Bldg. 

XXVI 11 


J&» — iJtu. 

VI fy 
S;^ J 897 

. No. 3 







ruin.isHED «Y 


Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. o. nox 32S2. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada )(t2.5o per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $3 50 per year 


Entered at the lioston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THEliRICKBUILnERisforsalebyall Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this puljlication. 

The Brickhuilder is puljlished the 20th of each month. 

NOT long ago there occurred in this city one of those lamen- 
table accidents which are of unfortunately only too frequent 
occurrence in our large cities, and which, in nearly every case, are so 
needless and could apparently have been so easily prevented tiiat it 
is hard to have any toleration for the conditions which directly or in- 
directly lead up to them. In the Everett School, as the pupils were 
being dismissed, smoke was seen issuing from one of the rooms and 
an alarm for fire was raised, with the result that in their blind, un 
reasoning haste to escape from a possible danger, a panic seized the 
children and they were crowded together at the foot of the stairs lead- 
ing to an inadequate exit to such an extent that many of them were 
badly injured, and it seemed for awhile as if very serious results 
would follow. The fire proved to be confined to a waste-basket, and 
was promptly extinguished by one of the teachers, but the occur- 
rence itself, coupled with the fact that the schoolhouse is in no sense 
modern in its construction, ought to ije the means of arousing a more 
decided public sentiment which would compel municipal authorities 
to adopt a better and more secure construction for every school- 
house, no matter where located, or under what surroundings. There 
is no excuse in these days for the existence of a schoolhouse which 
under even the most extreme cases is liable to destruction by fire. If 
the Everett School had been built according to modern methods, 
with terra-cotta floors, steel !)eams, solid furrings, and as far as possi- 
ble a total absence of wood, it is quite within the boimds of possi- 
bility that the pupils might even then iiave l)een seized with a panic, 
and quite as much harm might possibly have ensued; but the moral 
influence upon the children of knowing that they are in a fire-proof 
building would naturally tend to lessen their liability of becoming 
excited upon an alarm of fire, while the chances are that if our 

municipal authorities shoulcLinsist on 'all^occasions'upon a fire-proof 
construction, it would mean as a consequence more care devoted to 
arrangement of the schoolhouse, with the probability that better 
staircases and better exits would be provided and the likelihood of 
any occurrence such as we have cited would thereby be greatly 
lessened. It is no excuse to say that the Everett Schoolhouse was 
provided with fire-escapes. It has been said with perfect truth that 
only a person of mature mind and well-balanced head is competent to 
successfully descend even our best constructed external fire-escapes, 
and children are as likely to meet death on an iron fire-escape attached 
to the exterior of a building as they are to be overcome by the con- 
flagration within. We do not by this imply that fire-escapes should 
be omitted; on the contrary, they should be provided, but on a much 
more ample and secure scale than is adopted at present, and instead 
of being aerial balconies perched on the exterior walls, they should 
consist of thoroughly fire-proof stairs enclosed in brick walls, with the 
access to each story cut off by self closing fire-proof doors, the landings 
being of sufificient size to accommodate the greatest number of pupils 
that might use the stairs. 

The fire-proofing of schoolhouses is a point which cannot be 
too strongly insisted upon. The trend of modern thought is en- 
tirely in this direction, and in our larger cities nearly all of the 
recent schoolhouses have been constructed on fireproof lines. A 
few years ago the so-called slow-burning construction was advocated 
for schoolhouse floors, and a number of very fine buildings have 
been erected in accordance with this system. But however slow the 
combustion may be, it remains a fact that wood in any form is 
in no sense fire-proof, and that though the wooden beams may burn 
for quite a while without actually failing, it takes a very little wood 
to make a deal of smoke, and the moral effect on the pupils is what 
is to be most carefully considered rather than the ultimate resistance 
long after the building itself is uninhabitable. Wood in any form 
should be seduously avoided. With the floors constructed of steel 
beams and terra-cotta blocks, with mosaic or terrazzo finish for the 
floor surfaces throughout, with plastering applied directly to the 
masonry, and all partitions of terra-cotta or brick, a schoolhouse 
would be more durable, easier to keep warm in winter and cool in 
summer, would cost less for repairs, and the moral influence it would 
exert upon the students would in a very short time be such as to 
give them .sufficient confidence to see a blaze start in one room with- 
out necessarily rushing panic-stricken to the nearest exit. It is 
contrary to all experience, contrary to the best interests of the 
community, and in the long run contrary to true economy, to build a 
schoolhouse with wooden floor construction; while as for school- 
houses constructed entirely of wood, they ought not to be tolerated 
anvwhere, and the use of such where they exist ought to be imme- 
diately discontinued by the public authorities. 

In this connection we regret to note the report that one of our 
neighboring cities is about to commence the erection of a Latin high 
school, costing upwards of $200,000, in which the entire floor con- 
struction is to be of ordinary narrow wooden beams, and in which 
the partitions, though mostly of brick, are carried only to the ceiling 
of the upper story, leaving a large roof space undivided by brick 
walls. This is so fundamentally wrong that we can only hope our 
information may be incorrect, or that the authorities in cliarge may 
substitute steel and terra-cotta before it is too late. The introduction 



of so-called fire-proof paper between the upper and under floorboards 
is too insignificant a protection to be even considered. We repeat that 
tlie danger in a schooihouse lies not so much in the total destruction 
of the edifice as in the possible destruction of life ensuing from a 
panic on the part of the pupils. The life of a single boy or girl is 
worth too much to be put at a risk on account of false economy, and 
so long as there is wood used in the construction of a schooihouse, 
just so long are we liable to a recurrence of disasters similar to that 
in the Everett School ; and until the parents can feel that their chil- 
dren are attending school under conditions abreast with the most in- 
telligent thought upon the subject, just so long our school committees 
will continually fail to meet and properly provide for the fulfilment of 
a manifest duty. 


THE Palazzo P'ava is one of the largest and finest palaces 
in Bologna. Its finely proportioned brick fagade of two 
stories carried on a graceful arcade is decorated with delicate red 
terra-cotta ornamentation around the windows and arches, and a 
strong cornicione at the top. As in most Bolognese buildings, the 
upper stories are carried out to the curb line, the ground floor being 
arcaded to form a covered sidewalk. The mullion columns of many 
of the windows have been cut away to make room for modern win- 
dow frames, but several are left intact and are among the most in- 
teresting in Bologna. Inside there is a handsome court, the upper 
stories of which on one side are carried on handsome Renaissance 
cori)els. The columns both of the court and outer arcade are built 
of rounded brick with carved stone capitals. 


The Tenth Annual Exhibition of the Chicago Architectural 
Club opens at the Art Institute, Tuesday evening, March 23. 

A. Warkkn Goui.i), architect, Boston, has removed from the 
John Hancock Building to 2 .A Beacon Street. 

A. W. PUT.VAM, architect, Dayton, O., has formed a copartner- 
ship with Frank L. Sutter, the firm name being Sutter & Putnam. 
Offices, Louis Block, Dayton, O. 

At the Chicago Architectural Club, on the evening of February 
26, Mr. Hugh .M. Ciarden read a jjaper on " Style," prepared by 
Mr. John \V. Root for the club ten years ago. 

On the evening of March S, ■' Bohemian night "was observed, 
Messrs. Herbert Edmund Hewitt, Harry Do Ige Jenkins, and E. 
Greble Killen being the ho.sts. 

Monday evening, March 22, was Ladies' Night at the clul). a 
reception being tendered the lady menilieis of the Ceramic C lub, 
who in turn .served refreshments during tlie evening. 

TiiK regular nieeiing of the New Jirsev Socielv of Architects 
was held on March 12, at the Board of Trade Rooms, Newark. 
AH sections of the State were well represented, and subjects of general 
interest were discussed. Three new members were added, Messrs. 
Brouse, Arend, and Poland, all from Trenton. 

The entertainment committee announced tluil the annual ban- 
quet would probably be held in April. The asscciation has per- 
manently engaged the Board of Trade Rooms as a meeting place. 
Mr. John H. Post was elected to till a vacancy in the trustees. A 
committee to obtain, by competition, an association seal, was 

Satukd.w night, .March (>, was Poster night at the St. Louis 
Architectural Club. There was a good collection ; among them a 
number from Paris, exhibited by Mr. Ernst Klipstein. There were 
also a number of original designs by members of the club, of con- 
siderable merit. Among them one entitled '-After the Symposium," 
/. e., after returning home, by Mr. Ben Trunk. a verv excellent 
one bv Mr. Oscar Enders. 

A number of visitors from the local chapter of the A. I. A. were 
entertained during the evening. 

Messrs. Manny, McArdle & Ramsey acted as judges in the 
competition for a water tower. Mr. Ernst Helfensteller was given 
first place. 

The Detroit Architectural Sketch Club will hold, during the 
spring months, several competitions which are open to members only. 
The regular meetings of the club take place on Monday evenings of 
every week. The officers of the club are Emil Lorch, president ; 
Geo. H. Ropes, vice-president; Edward A. Schilling, secretary; 
Richard Mildner, treasurer. Directors, Alex. Blumberg, VV. E. N. 
Hunter, M. T. Wilcox. 


THE New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company send for 
illustration the upper portion of tower on (Irace Church 
Mission Buildings, East 14th Street, New York City. Messrs. 
Barney & Chapman were the architects. 

Trinity Memorial Church, Binghamton, N. Y., Lacy & Bartoo, 

architects, is shown in the advertisement of Charles T. Harris, 
Lessee, page xxvi. 

The Synagogue at New Haven, Conn., Brunner & Tryon, 
architects, is shown in the advertisement of the New Jersey Terra- 
Cotta Company, page ix. 

The New Central High School Building, at Detroit, >Lilcomson 
& Higginbotham, architects, is illustrated in the advertisement of 
J. B. Prescott & Son, page xxxvi. 




Spanish Brick and Tile Work. V. 



'HE picturesque qualities of Spanish architecture are due in no 
inconsiderable degree to the effect of the tiling which is used 
throughout nearly the whole of the peninsula for covering the roofs. 
Tile roofs of the same general description are found to greater or 
less extent throughout Italy, and in a few cases, in other parts of 
Europe ; still the semi-cylindrical form of the dull, unglazed tile is 
more generally associated with Spanish work than with that of any 
other country, and if not a direct development of Spanish thought, it 
has certainly found a very large application in Spanish construction. 
The fringed, scalloped effect produced along the eaves by the use of 
these tiles is a very pleasing break in the sky line of a building 
which aims to be picturesque, and the color, which is almost invaria- 
bly of a light red, adds a great deal to the effect. Tile roofs are used 
indiscriminately upon all classes of buildings. The illustration of 
the Antigua, at Valladolid, shows the picturesque effect of these tile 
roofs in a very striking degree, and the combination of the strong 
tones of the burnt clay with the clear, tawny shades of the stone, 
and the deep, rich purple shadows which are always a part of Span- 
ish buildings, give a deliglitful charm to this old structure, and 
though the walls are themselves of stone, the terracotta plays a very 
considerable part in the effect. The lower roofs are covered with 
the semi-cylindrical tiles, and the view shows a very good general 



/^ M 




average of the way in which these roofs look after they have been 

repaired a few times. The tiles themselves are quite soft, so much 

so that in walking 

over a roof one is 

very apt to break a 

tile at nearly every 

step ; but in Spain, 

where the rains are 

neither copious nor 

long continued, the 

easy-going inhabi- 
tants do not seem 

to consider this as 

a great calamity, 

and besides, it is 

so easy to patch 

one of these roofs 

by simply inserting 

a tile at intervals 

that the break is 

soon remedied. So 

far as I have been 

able to discover, 

such a thing as flash- 
ing is little known, 

and the tilos, after be- 
ing carried 
up from the 
eaves in a 
more or less 

direct man- diagram .showing composition of 
ner to the stalactite work. 

side walls or 

the apex of the roof, are literally swathed in good cement 
mortar, and if the side walls are to be stuccoed the 
cementing is carried up on the walls, so that to judge by 
external appearance these roofs, though very irregular 
and unworkmanlike in appearance, answer every 
of protection. The very irregularity, which from a utili- 
tarian point of view might lie deplored, is an added ele- 
ment of charm to the artist, and the scalloped eaves throw 
long, irregularly fringed shadows on the walls below in a 
manner which would be impossible with any .other con- 
struction. The tower of the Antigua itself is covered 
with fiat liles, laid in niucli the same manner as our slate. 

The porch of the Court of the Lions is an admirable 
examjjle of what is clone witli the .S] roofing tiles. 
Of course this roof has been thoroughly restored and re- 
paired, and as the buildings are not in actual use and are 
subjected to a careful oversight, these tiled roofs have a 
finished, workmanlike appearance which is, on the whole, 
rather un-Spanish. The usual experience is to find the 
tiles so broken and patclied that the surface is very much 
cut up and has a texture-like effect which is eminently 
picturesque, even if not a sign of first-class repair. A 
narrow band of colored tile is introduced below the base 
of the dome immediately over the eave tiles, and is capped 
by a row of the peculiar cresting tiles which are so often 
found in Moorish work, with a zigzag palm-leaf pattern. 
The effect of the vivid color interposed between the two 
masses of dull tilework is very striking and effective. 

The view of Toledo from the Alcazar consists prin- 
cipally of roofs, and illustrates the various ways in which 
a simple tile unit can be used on different slopes and under 
different circumstances. The secret of the durability of a 
roof of this kind, of course, lies in the fact that there are 
no surfaces for the water to remain in, there is no snow 
and ice to] work under the tiles, and cement is used very 



liberally throughout. Tiling of this description has been manufac- 
tured to a certain extent in this country, but has never met thus far 
with the encouragement which it deserves. Our climate is, of course. 

several very interesting examples of enameled or slightly glazed 
roofing tiles, usually flat rather than semi-cylindrical, and in some 
cases worked out in color. The tiles in this part of the country are 


against it to a considerable extent, but climatic disturbances can be 
provided for, and there seems to be no good reason why we should 
not avail ourselves of this excellent aid in general color treatment of 
a l)uilding. 

The Collegiata at 
Toro is roofed entirely 
with semi-cylindrical 
tiles. The roof has 
stood so long, and has 
been repaired so often, 
that it is at present in 
a most delightfully 
artistic state of delap- 
idation, and when I 
visited the church a 
few years ago anci had 
occasion to walk 
across the roof to 
measure the tower, I 
found the tiles were 
so friable that two or 
three of them would 
crush with every step 
I took. This did not 
seem to at all alarm 
the custodian who ac- 
companied me, and he 
seemed to think a few broken tiles more or a very slight matter 
easily obviated by a few trowelsful of mortar. 

In the ,south of .Spain along the Mediterranean coast, where 
the Moorish element has been most marked in its influence, there are 


also very much darker red than those in the north, and are made of 
much stronger material. 

There is a species of decorative treatment which is peculiar to 

Moorish work, and in 
fact has been used by 
no other race. It is 
the decoration of 
vaulted surfaces form- 
ing what is known as 
I,^^]^r\tLl, tlie stalactite vault. 

• 1 t ifii* ^ '^^ illustration from 

the Alhambra will 
show the appearance 
of the work. This 
same treatment is 
often carried entirely 
across quite large 
rooms, forming a de- 
light fully complex 
ceiling, which at first 
sight has the appear- 
ance of a maze of 
frost work, though 
closer examination 
shows it is constructed 
strictly upon mathe- 
matical principles. It 
is composed of numerous prisms of plaster which are united by their 
contiguous lateral surfaces, there being seven different forms of 
blocks proceeding from three i)rimary figures in plan. They are, by 
reference to the accompanying diagram, the right angle triangle A, 



the rectangle i?, and the isosceles triangle C. In these the sides aa 
are equal, ha-bb, and the vertical angle of C is the same as the lesser 

angles in ^, or 
45 degs. The 
figure B has 
one form in 
section, the 
figure ,-/ three, 
and the figure 
C three, the 
third figure, 
6 3, being a 
formed by the 
double isos- 
celes triangle. 
The cu r V e s 
marked .r of 
the sev e r a 1 
pieces are 
similar. 15 y 
this it will be 
seen that a 
piece can be 
combined with 
any one of 
llie others by 
either of its 
sides, t li u s 
rendering the 
l)locks suscep- 
til)le of com- 
binations as 
various as the 
which may be 
produced from 
the seven notes 
of the musical scale. So far as I know, this kind of work has never 
been successfully copied outside of Spain. It is probably a devel- 
opment from brick construction. This, however, is only a theory 
based upon the manner in which the individual blocks are used, 
upon the appearance of the work when finished, and upon the fact 
that it would be a not unnatural development of the attempt to cover 



a room with a brick vault without the use of centering. In the 
Moorish examples the blocks are usually of plaster and are, of 
course, set in fresh plaster of Paris. There is no reason why a similar 
construction could not be applied to terra-cotta or molded brick with 
most interesting results. A very few patterns would suffice to an- 
swer for a great variety of designs, and with a little intelligent over- 
sight a vaulting of this kind could be put up for moderate spans 
without the need of any centering, using a very quick-setting cement, 
as when once in place the blocks would key together thoroughly. 

Brick Vaults Built Without Centers. 

Translated from the " Atttilcs dc la Coustruccion y de la 1 ndustria,^^ 


IF the space to be vaulted is very long, it is customary to divide 
it into nearly square bays, by means of arches built with centers 
either by the ordinary method or by that of vertical leaves. In this 
latter case generally only the middle leaf is made vertical, while the 
other leaves are built in pairs on both sides of the first, and increas- 
ing their inclination in each succeeding leaf until the desired inclina- 
tion is reached. The vault is then completed as explained above. 

By whatever method these dividing arches are built, the con- 
struction of the vault must proceed from both sides simultaneously, 
so that the thrusts will neutralize each other. 

These vaults, as well as those of vertical leaves, may vary in 
thickness. If the thickness is equal to the length of a brick, the 
bricks may be laid as shown on Figs. lo and 1 1. If the thickness is 
one and a half bricks, they may be laid as shown in Figs. 12 and 13. 
The vault may also be built in separate concentric rings, which 
method is preferable when the thickness exceeds the length of the 
brick, for the reason that the joints do not then open so much at the 
extrados, and further, the labor of filling the joints a b c (Figs. 12 
and 13) with chips of stone or brick is avoided. The lime from 
Badajoz is of very good quality, and when used in making the mor- 
tar, the iui_lination of the leaves is generally increased beyond 45 
degs., which is the limit for ordinary mortar. 

In Extremadura most vaults are constructed in the manner last 
described, and are used in wells, cellars, basement rooms, and in farm- 
houses in which the upper fioors are used for granaries. They are 
made more or less decorative by varying their forms, etc. 

The advantages of being able to build vaults with ordinary 
mortars and without the use of centers are so obvious that it is not 
necessary to enumerate them. 


The construction explained in the last chapter may be applied 
to a groined vault as follows : — • 

Let a, b, c, d (Fig. 14) be the space to be vaulted; as in the 
previous cases, grooves determining the curvature of the intrados are 
cut in the walls ; then the corners a, a' a" a'", b, b' b" b'", c, c' c" c'", 
d, d' d" d'" are first built by laying the bricks as for an ordinary vault 
and until their faces reach an angle of 38 to 45 degs. From 
this point the construction is changed. To do the work properly four 
bricklayers are needed, who, placing themselves each in front of one 
of the walls respectively, fill in the spaces a' a" e and c'" c" e, a'" a" 
e' and b" b'" e', b' b" e" and d' d" e", d" d'" e'" and c' c" e'", setting 
the bricks in courses as shown by a" e' b", b" e" d", etc. This con- 
struction is carried on until the vault is closed, each mason building 
his portion as if it was a barrel vault, and when near the vertex, when 
the workmen would interfere with each other, the construction is 
carried on from the outside. Of course, at the groins the bricks have 
to be cut, and care should be taken to well bond the bricks which 
form the groins. 

The construction is guided by two strings stretched between the 
vertices of opposite arches, as e e", e'e' " (Fig. 14), marking the highest 
points of the vault, and by five plumb lines, to determine the plane of 
the groins; one at C(Fig. 14, Flan), the intersection of the diagonals; 
the other four also on the diagonals but near the springing points, as 
at a a" b" c" d". The plumb lines of opposite angles together with 
the one at the vertex determine the plane of the corresponding groin, 
the curvature of which is generally given by the eye. This requires 
skillful workmen, and to facilitate the work the lightest kind of frames 
having the desired curvature may be used, and thus obviate the 
irregular groins which are very common in this kind of vaults. 

In the construction of groined vaults of this kind for a factory 
recently built in liadajoz, the engineer determined the curvature of 



the groins by using four strings, which, being stretched in pairs from 
opposite points of the head arches, and in the same horizontal plane, 
were thus elements of the barrel forming the vault, and therefore the 
intersection of these strings were points of the groins. By increasing 
the number of strings great accuracy may be obtained in determining 
the curvature of the groins. 


The construction of this kind of vault is very similar to that 
of a groined vault. 

Suppose abed (Fig. 15) to be the space to be vaulted. Hav- 
ing cut grooves on the walls determining the curvature of the vault and 
beginning at the four corners simultaneously, the portions a p e-p c f 

the rapidity of their construction and their small cost. Below is 
given the average cost per square meter, in .Spain, of a vault 14 c. m. 
thick, as deduced from several examples. 

0.20 day mason's work at 60 cents S .12 

0.40 day mason's assistant's work at 30 cents . . .14 

70 bricks at JS4. 50 per 1,000 31 

0.038 c. m. ordinary mortar .10 

10 liters water .02 

Stone for wedges, wear and tear of tools, etc. . . .07 

Total cost per square meter $ .76 

Groined and cloistered vaults cost somewhat more on account of 

and 1) g q-d h (j are built first. Then between these, the portions 
i e r-r g o and 1 f s-s v h are built, after which the other courses are 
similarly built in alternating series, as i k 1 m, o n v t and k w x ny 
m t 7.. 

To close the vault the bricks are cut to a wedge shape, as the 
key of the vault is a truncated pyramid. 

The construction is guided by a straight edge .M-N placed 



6' ■ 



■<^'-<^^f!^^'5?j^^s^"?v^-N^^^^' ! 

"'"'■■■■"" r:^\:- 

r" 7; ; ! ; : ; i : : ; 1 ; i ' ; ! : »J' 

between opposite walls at their middle points and above the apex of 
the vault, and by two strings p-q and r-s stretched between the 
vertices of the springing arches a r b-c s d and a p c-b q d. Their 
points of intersection V, which marks the vertex of the vault, may be 
made higher or lower by means of the string V'-j attached to the 
middle of the straight edge M-N, and according to the desired camber. 
The two greatest advantages of vaults built without centers are 

the greater difificulty in their execution, but with skilled workmen it 
is safe to say that the cost per scjuare meter would not exceed 80 
cents. Comparing these prices with the cost of a center in that part 
of Spain, it will be found that in most cases the center costs more 
than the vault. 

The following examples will prove the durability and resistance 
of vaults built as described above. 

Within the precincts of the castle of Badajoz there is an old 
ruined building called the house of the Zapatas, which was pur- 
chased in the year 1779 to be used for barracks. All the roofs, the 
floors, and most of the walls are now destroyed, but a portion 
remains 13.50 m. long by 5.50 m. wide, covered by a barrel vault 
which has been preserved intact, notwithstanding the long time 
which it has been exposed to the weather. This vault has a uniform 

^■'T-rr:"r::irrTT-i i i • 1 ' i i ; ■ • • , i 



; i ; \"J~.'.'i : !■•■;'.•: 

i-=-iii.t:;4::dili-i-; M ^ ■ 

\ \ lUii fc.~"r.;i"v.v:: 



thickness of 0.14 m., and is formed by a single thickness of brick. 
The backing is of masonry and 0.28 m. thick. The springing line 
is 3.50 m. above the floor, the wall being i m. in thickness, while the 
thickness of the head walls, which are of adobe, is 0.84 m. 

In the casemate to the left-hand side of the bastion of Santiago, 
in the same castle, there are six vaults ; one of them is a barrel vault 
consisting of three sets of superposed rings of curvilinear rows, the 
bricks in each row being placed with the ends tangent to the curve 
of intersection of the intrados with a plane forming an angle of 50 
degs. with the horizon. The other five are segmental barrel vaults with 
four sets of superposed rings ; the three first sets of rings are laid 
as in the former vault, with their ends tangent to the curve of the 
intrados, while in the last or outer ring the faces of the bricks are 
the tangent ones. The thickness of the vault is 0.90 m. about 3.5 
times the length of the bricks; the springing line is I m. above the 
floor with walls 1.70 m. thick, all of ordinary masonry. The vaults 
have a backing of rammed earth m. deep at the crown ; over 
this the upper batteries of the fort are placed. These vaults were 
built in 1866, and are in very good state of preservation. 

In the Normal School a cloistered vault was built in 1866 and 
has the following dimensions: Span, 7.90 m.; camber of springing 
arch, I m. ; height of crown above top of springing arch, .30 m. ; 
thickness of vault, 0.14 m.; thickness of walls, 0.84 m. 

In the barracks of San Francisco and military hospital of the 
same city all the rooms on the ground floor have vaults executed 
without centers, the rooms in the first floor being used as dormitories 
for the troops and as hospital wards. These vaults vary in dimen- 
sions and in shape ; some date from the time of the convent which 
formerly occupied the site, and others were built between 1S53 and 
1856. Among these last the most noteworthy of all is a segmental 
barrel vault 20 m. long, 8. So m. clear span, and 0.28 m. thick, the 
springing line is 3.20 m. above the floor and the walls 0.80 m. 

In Merida there are many vaults of this kind, some built before 
the sixteenth century, well preserved ; and in those which have been 
neglected and that the action of time is slowly destroying, the cracks 
have appeared as one would expect, considering the manner in which 
the forces act in these vaults. In the old convent of Santo Domingo, 
in the same city, there is a groined vault in which one of the walls 
has been destroyed and only the portion of the wall that transmitted 
strains to that wall have fallen in. 

The following fact is worthy of notice: in 1876 the (luadiana 
River overflowed its banks, inundating the surrounding country and 
the farmhouses in the neighborhood. In one of these, as in most of 
them, the ground floor rooms had vaults as those described, the vaults 
being loaded with grain. The ground floor of this farmhouse con- 
sists of four sets of chambers around a central court and forming a 
rectangle. The main suite, more than 40 m. in length and divided 
by a few partitions, is covered by two parallel barrel vaults 4 m. span ; 
the vaults are 0.2S m. thick at the springing and 0.14 m. at the crown ; 
the outer walls are 0.84 m. and the central wall between the two 
vaults was for the greater part of its length built of mold and 0.56 m. 
thick, strengthened by a few stone quoins and by the stone jambs and 
lintels of the doorways. 1 he water completely undermined and 
destroyed the mold, leaving the vaults supported only by the stone 
quoins and by the stone jambs and lintels, and a large crack started 
between the two vaults not far from the springing line. To repair 
the vault a new wall of brick, laid without mortar in order to avoid 
shrinkage, was built in place of the mold wall. The crack was then 
filled, and soon afterwards the vault was again loaded with grain and 
has ever since been in perfect condition. The vaults had been built 
in 1840. The head wall of one of the vaults was also damaged and 
two small cracks appeared, separating from the rest of the vault that 
portion which exerts a thrust on the head wall. After repairing the 
wall and filling the cracks the latter have not separated. 

These examples speak for themselves and sufficiently prove 
the strength and durability of vaults as built in the province of 

Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



PASSING from the construction and manipulation which expe- 
rience has thus far proved most advantageous in terra-cotta 
columns, we now proceed to a consideration of the work commonly 
resting upon them. The introduction of iron as an auxiliary sup- 
port has been suggested in the examples already given; and in those 
that are to follow, a free use will be made of it wherever necessary 
or expedient. We are aware of the objections that have been urged 
against the principle of composite construction, such as we now pro- 
pose to discuss, but they are all of a purely academic kind, and may 
be put to rest without extended argument. A bare recital of the 
stubborn facts of every-day practise, in which iron and steel are being 
so extensively used to supplement or displace other materials, fur- 
nishes a conclusive answer. There is no inherent antagonism between 
these two materials, which in their natural state are closely allied. 

We are willing to admit the scarcity of precedents for the use of 
iron in buildings of antiquity, but it will not be denied that the pres- 
ent generation of builders are doing their share to supply that defi- 

Seetiorj t}7roud,l7 Balco9v. ^ 

FIG. 15. 

ciency on behalf of posterity. Whether posterity will approve of all 
that is being done for it, is, of course, an open question, and one 
which must await an answer from that inexorable tribunal. Mean- 
while we shall be content to stand by the assertion, that a material 
of practical utility, however new, or a new way of using such a one 
to advantage, however old, should not he allowed to go begging 
through lack of a precedent. Let them all have a trial, free from 
trammels that are merely traditional, and in so far as they survive 
the test of service, the innovation of to-day will become the custom 
of to-morrow, with a good chance of being cited as a precedent on 



the following day. To deny the sul)sidiary use of iron, as a partial 
support in terracotta construction, when almost everything in the 
building is in some measure dependent upon it — when in fact the 
fabric of the building itself is often largely composed of it, would in- 
deed be "straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel." 

The constructors of past ages did not have the superabundance 
of iron and steel, or the means of producing it which we possess. 
Wren, most scientific of constructors, made the best possible use of 
the scanty supply at his disposal, when he encompassed the dome of 
St. Paul's with four tiers of chain bond, wisely inserted in the 
masonry. .As a further precaution, a complete ring of bar iron, 

HG. 1 6. 

riveted together in short segments, was sunk into the stone gallery 
behind the parapet, and to make doubly sure, run with lead, instead 
of being bedded with mortar. Unlike us, he did not have Portland 
cement in which to set his Portland stone ; nor yet a catalogue of 
rolled sections at his elbow, from which to select the shape, size, and 
weight best suited to the particular work on which he happened to 
be engaged. What use he would have made of these, we are at 
liberty to infer from the skillful way in which he applied the meager 
resources at his command. Of one thing we may be certain ; he 
would not have used wood, — -not even oak of English growth, and of 
which the " wooden walls " were built, until retired in favor of armor 
plate, — in the framework of the outer dome. Hut with him, as with 
all his predecessors, the supply of iron was limited, its cost relatively 
high, and the size of the forgings no more than could be hammered 
into shape, or welded on an anvil. .So far, however, as it was avail- 
able, they did not hesitate to employ it in connection with both wood 
and stone, and had they possessed half our facilities for the produc- 
tion of iron and steel, they would certainly have turned the product 
to good account. Posse.ssing these serviceable materials we must be 
at liberty to use them, in an age of electicism, of which it may be 
said, that sufificient for the day are the resources thereof. Like many 
other things in the affairs of life, the use of iron as an ally to terra- 
cotta becomes censurable, only when it is abused, by being appl-'ed 
in the wrong place, or in an injudicious manner, and (as often hap- 
pens) when no e.xtraneous support is required. On the other hand, 
the converse of all these furnishes an unanswerable vindication of 
the legitimate use of both materials. 

The availability of these resources being granted, it is part of 
our self-imposed task to show in what way the best possible use may 
be made of them, under various conditions. Some of these condi- 
tions are unalterably fi.\ed ; and may as well be frankly accepted as 
such, without wasting words on theories no better than a spider's 
web, as to " what might have been." Others again are so variable 
as to be considered in the light of an unknown quantity, until they 
assume definite shape. These must be met; if not by existing methods, 
then by special devices; or by the readjustment of those with the 
practise of which we have become somewhat familiar. There are, 

however, other conditions, — and they by no means the least impor- 
tant — which are entirely of our own iiiakiin:;. It is with these that 
we propose chiefly to deal. And, as it is but a new reading of an 
old a.\iom to say in this connection that •■ example is better than 
precept," we shall give '• line upon line"; backed up in most cases 
by what some idealist has been good enough to term " the brutal 
fidelity of a photograph." 

Beginning in each case with the more elementary problems of 
the class to which they belong, we shall in due time deal with others 
of a sufficiently complex character, most of which will be from work 
actually done. A simple portico having but little projection from 
face of building is shown in section at Fig. 15. The maximum dis- 
tance between columns being about 9 ft., the necessary support is 
supplied by two 5 in. channels placed back to back, and bolted to- 
gether at intervals of 4 ft., with just enough room to receive the ^ 
in. hangers ; which, passing between them, take the place of sepa- 
rators. The soffit blocks are made in lengths of I ft. 10 ins., with 
two hangers placed 3 ins. from the ends. The ^4 '"• •'O'' having 
been inserted in the hole, which passes longitudinally through each 
piece, the chambers are then filled with concrete before being set in 
position. A level staging should be erected in line with top surface 
of abacus, on which to rest the blocks. The ]4 in. rebate left in the 
ends to form a receptacle for the mortar, and each block being 
pre.ssed the preceding one, a sufificient body of mortar will be 
retained securely between the ends of the blocks, though the vertical 
joint need not appear more than three sixteenths of an inch on face 
of the work when pointed up. The two channels having an inde- 
pendent bearing on each capital, the hangers may all be adjusted to 
requisite tension by nut and washer until the whole architrave is in 
line. When a slightly wider soffit has to be suspended, that may be 
done by means of an I beam of sufficient weight, instead of the two 
channels. A plate of >i by 4 in. iron, with a hole in each end, is 
laid across the upper flange ; and from it two (or if necessary, four) 
hangers take hold of each block in the manner indicated in alternate 

The blocks forming frieze are molded to fit on flanges, with just 
enough allowance for cement, and have a continuous chase made to 
clear the heads of nuts. etc. The vertical joints of the inner and 
outer courses should alternate, and the two thicknesses may then be 
cramped together 

on top bed. The 
platform is made 
in single blocks 
with paneled soffit, 
and bonded into 
wall as indicated 
in section. These 
blocks containfrom 
9 to 12 cu. ft., 
which, in some sit- 
uations, are cer- 
tainly much larger 
than it would be 
advisable to at- 
tempt. But in the 
present case, their 
shape is so suitable 
and the other re- 
quirements so con- 
venient, that no 
special difficulty 
was experienced in 
turning them out 
free from cracks 
and fairly accurate 
in size. Scuppers 
are provided in 
parapet panels to 






FIG. 17. 



allow rain water to escape, and a raised fillet on each end of the block, 
prevents any of it entering the vertical joints. It will be seen from the 
photograph (Fig. 1 6) that the actual result obtained is quite presentable, 
and that the same principle of construction as shown in this simple ex- 
ample may be adopted in work of greater magnitude and importance. 
In the portico shown at Fig. 17, where the span is wider, and 
the load to be carried much greater, a somewhat different arrange- 
ment has been made. A girder composed of two 12 in. I beams and 

't I 

Fire-proofing Department. 



IN preparing tlie following notes the writer feels the necessity of 
offering an apology in advance for the use of the first person 
singular, for there does not seem to be any possible way to avoid it 
if this history is to be complete. In the places where this has to 
be done the reader will kindly bear in mind that he has no financial 
interest now in the matters to be referred to. 

The use of brick arches for floor construction was coincident 
with the introduction of the manufacture of I beams into this country, 
and had preceded it to a certain extent; for, a few floors had been 
constructed before 1850 in which cast-iron I beams had been used, 
and in some of these the I beams had been strengthened by the in- 
sertion of a wrought-iron rod shrunk in a recess on the under side 
where the flanges of the I join the web. Rolled deck beams in- 
verted had also been used for floors. In all these cases brick arches 
were used. I beams of the general section now employed, or double 
T beams, as they were sometimes called, were first rolled in France in 
1853. Their introduction was generally followed in that country by 
the " Thausne System," which consisted of filling the space between 
with plaster b^ton reinforced by occasional iron bars. 1 beams 
were first rolled in this country by the Trenton Iron Works, in 1854, 
and were first used in the Cooper Institute in New York; though 
the beams of the first floor were made of two channels riveted to- 
gether, and those of some of the upper floors were of inverted deck 

FIG. 18. 

an 1 8 in. cover-plate is necessary in that case. Tlie soffit being 2 ft. 
wide (which is equal to the size of column at its greatest diameter), 
it could not be made in single blocks with sufficient accuracy to give 
good alignment in the architrave on /uj//i faces. This member is 
made in three sections, two of them being molded to fit on the flanges 
of cover-plate, with the panel resting on rebates between them. The 
architrave and frieze are continued around vestibule, and the paneled 
ceiling is carried on the inverted tee sections inserted in joints at A. A. 
The space between the inner and outer blocks of frieze is backed up 
with brick, and the two thicknesses anchored together on top bed. 
Balusters are usually jointed in short sections for greater convenience 
of pressing. In this case they are made in two pieces with a J^ in. 
hole in center for an iron rod, one end of which presses down into 
plinth, the other e.xtending through channel, which has been holed 
to suit spacing of balusters. The ends of this channel are built into 
pedestals, and it but remains to set the coping to line on a good 
bed of cement, taking care that the vertical joints are all well filled 
and neatly pointed. The enclosed space behind balustrade is covered 
with metal, flashed into 1 continuous groove around plinth and 
graded to outlets with leader at each side of portico. .So much for 
the anatomy of the subject ; which, however needful, is usually for- 
gotten after the components have been assembled. There are, of 
course, several ways in which an entablature of this kind could have 
been supported, and .some of them will be embodied in subsequent 
examples. This one, however, was found to answer its intended 
purpose and was favorably spoken of by the men who set the work, 
whom, it would seem, did their share of it with more than ordinary 
intelligence. Among other evidences of care and forethought may 
be noted the .slight camber over the opening; just sufficient to cor- 
rect the optical illusion, which makes a perfectly straight architrave 
appear to sag. In Fig. 18 we .see the skeleton clothed, and are better 
able to judge whether or no — in a materialistic sense at least — " the 
end justifies the means." 

.Americaiv Raienl issoei to F.A.PsUrson.AprilS. I&55. 
Fid. 2. 

Eud Pressure Voussoir 
Endlish. Patent ii&ued to Josepli Bunncti JuneS. 1858. 

EndlisK Pateat is&uecL to M<iuTice Abord, Julj2,.186(p. 
Fid- 4 - 

AmeTJcan Patent i6&iiecl to Maurice Aljorcl Au^^.21 1(366 

beams. The first building in America in whicli 1 beams were used 
throughout was the brownstone Court House in City Hall Park, 
New York. 

It is a fact, however, tiiat liollow burned clay tiles were used in 




this country as soon as I beams were rolled, thou^'li their employ- 
ment cannot be considered as having been anything more than exper- 
imental. They were invented for the Cooper institute, and used in 
the first story only, by Frederick A. Peterson, the architect of the 
building, whose name, by the way, appears among the " Founders " 
of the American Institute of Architects in the last printed Procecd- 
iiii^x. These, according to the best evidence obtainable, were the 
first hollow burned clay tiles for floor construction ever designed, 
made, and put into a building, and the invention and introduction 
can be fairly claimed as American. As proof of this assertion I will 
add that I am in possession of the records of two important law- 
suits involving the authenticity of the invention of flat hollow arches 
and the fire-proofing of I beams, and that the records of all inven- 
tions and publications bearing on the subject were e-xhaustively 
searched by the parties in interest for evidence affecting their respec- 
tive sides. The patent taken out by F. A. Peterson, April 3, 1S55, 
anticipates all others, and while it would in these days likelv be con- 
sidered impracticable, it was put in use in this one building through 
the perseverance of the architect, and the determined pertinacity of 
Peter Cooper. When a schoolboy I remember seeing the work 
set. When involved in a lawsuit in which it was thought nece.s- 
sary by my attorneys to present evidence of what was then done, 1 
found the building in process of alterations, and was enabled not only 
to make drawings of the construction on 
the spot, but to remove some of the tiles. 
I found that they were all made of a 
semi-fire-clay and molded by hand. The 
following section drawing is taken from 
the patent issued to Peterson, and shows 
exactly how the floors were built. (Fig. I.) 

The drawing shows inverted deck 
beams; but double 3 by 6 in. channels were 
used, so that they were 6 ins. wide top and 
bottom. They were set about 2 ft. 6 ins. 
from centers. The bottoms of the beams 
were covered with cement, flush with the 
bottoms of the tiles. The ceilings then 
received two coats of plaster. 

The above construction was never 
repeated, to my knowledge. The usual 
method for filling between I beams, there- 
after used for many years, was with seg- 
ment brick arches, and flat ceilings were 
obtained by furring off, in some cases with 
wood, and in others with iron, using cor- 
rugated iron lathing. There, were some 
instances in which sheet iron, with very 
deep corrugations, and flat in form, was 
laid on the bottom flanges of the beams 
and covered with concrete. In these the 
ceilings were furred off for lath and plaster. 
I know of one instance where slabs of 
sandstone were .set on the bottom flanges 
of the beams and carved with tracery pat- 
terns to form an ornamental ceiling pattern. In this the bottoms of 
the beams were covered with ornamental cast iron. In one building 
the space between beams was filled with heavy boiler plates riveted 
to the top, and a patent was taken out by Samuel P. .Snead, of 
Louisville, the founder of the Snead family of iron workers, for filling 
between the beams with ornamental cast-iron plates. It was many 
years before corrugated iron arch plates were used. 

Three years after the date of the Peterson patent, Joseph I5un- 
nett, of Deptford, England, on June 8, 1858, took out a patent for 
constructing very wide span segmental arches of hollow tiles between 
wall plates of angle iron, connected by iron tie-rods. The Hunnett 
arch was shown by two sectional drawings, and in each the arch was 
of sufficient length to cover a moderate-sized room, and with very 
slight rise, so that the tie-rods were contained within the arches. 

in. De&cnpiive PampliUlof E.Muller^Co 
FraTLce \ixtt- 
Fip' 6 

AnolKer Fottii of Arch, by Prore&sor M teller, 
f ronx the Qa^eUe. cUs AvcKiieclts Pan's. 1867. 

M.Xerclier's fUi Illu&lra-lloii-in. UiC' 
(gazelle des Ai-ckilecies . Paris 1867. 

From Leonce Rej'naucl's Traiic d"Arclukciu.Te 
Paris, 1867. 
Fid. 9 

ceui Qaroiu'i Freixch Pcileui OcLll 1867. 

One of these arches was on the side-pressure, and the other on the 
end-pressure plan. The tiles were described as being pressed out 
through dies, with hollow chambers and webs. Those for the side- 
pressure arches had peculiar notches on the sides, and were cut off 
square at the ends, while those for the end-pressure arches were of 
the same section, but cut off in the ends to the same section as the 
sides. The result was that the side-pressure arches could be set 
with broken joints, and the end-pressure arches so that each course 
could be notched into the adjoining course, thus avoiding a defect in 
all end-pressure arches that have lately been used so extensively. 
The key tile of the side-pressure arch was made with notches on 
both sides. In this patent we find the earliest claim for using inde- 
pendent voussoirs for hollow-tile arches, and the first for pressing 
them out through dies by machinery. It also establishes the early 
date of the invention of arches constructed on the end-pressure 
principle. The following illustration is reproduced from the draw- 
ings attached to Hunnett's patent. (Fig. 2.) 

liunnett was a well-known clay manufacturer, and brought his 
invention into use. I remember finding, with great surprise, a sample 
arch of this construction set up on a vacant lot in the rear of the tem- 
porary oflice of architect W. W. Boyington, at Chicago, in 1872, very 
shortly after the great Chicago fire. At that time several architects 
had temporary offices in the burned district, my own among tiiem. 
But I have never heard of the Bunnett 
arch being used in Chicago, or elsewhere 
in this country. The sample was of about 
12 ft. span, and with only a few inches 
rise, and was not more than 6 ins. thick. 
It must have been sent over from England 
in expectation that the lessons of the great 
fire would result in the erection of many 
fire-proof buildings. But this was not the 
case. There was no time to study up the 
subject. The most that was done at first 
was to greatly increase the thickness of 
brick walls between buildings, to which 
architects and owners then agreed, as a 
provision against the spread of fire, even 
before any special laws had been passed. 
As one of the results, the building laws of 
Chicago now require an average thickness 
for party walls in high buildings greater 
than those of any other large city. An- 
other is seen in the fact that the fire 
records since that time show that fires in 
Chicago are almost invariably confined to 
the building in which they originate. The 
second great fire of 1874, which raged 
through frame buildings for several blocks, 
was stopped when it reached the new 
five-story brick party walls on Wabash 

Invention in this direction seems to 
have ceased for eight more years. The 
Americans were using brick floor arches, and in some cases corru- 
gated iron ; the English were using solid concrete arches, that in- 
vented by Dennett being a favorite, and the French used the 
plaster concrete filling, called the Thausne System. On July 2, 1S66, 
Maurice Abord, of liuissonniers, France, took out an English patent 
for a solid-tile arch in one span with arched top and flat bottom, for 
use between wooden floor joists. He had probably previously 
patented it in France. But very shortly after, August 21, 1866, he 
took out a similar patent in the United States, in which he showed the 
combination of his arch brick with I beams. While his arch tile 
was similar in general form to that of Peterson, it differed from it in 
that the soffit was set much lower, and ])rojections on the sides 
formed a covering or protection to the beam which he specifies as 
being useful in fire-proof work. This appears to be the first inven- 



tion patented in which burned clay is used for the protection of the 
bottoms of both wooden and iron beams from fire simultaneously 
with the construction of flat plastered ceilings. Illustrations from but 
the English and American patents are here given. ( Figs. 3 and 4.) 

Following this invention there seems to have been a great revival 
of interest in the subject, though there is no evidence of Abord's 
invention having been put into practical use. The objection to it 
was the same that held against Peterson's. It was very difficult and 
expensive to make such large hollow tiles of clay, and not economical 
to set the beams close enough together to use tiles of a size within 
the practicable limits of manufactures of clay. But the interest in 
fire-proof floor constructions with hollow tiles found its expression 
in the French International F.xposition of 1867 in many ways, and 
several inventions appeared which there is no record of having been 
patented. They are, however, described in many publications of the 
time. Emile iMuller, professor of construction at the Central School 
of Arts and Manufactures, Paris, in 1867, made many inventions for 
floor and ceiling constructions with I beams and hollow tiles. Among 
these is one described and illustrated in the price-list of E. Muller & 
Co., called " Light hollow filling, termed plate band brick, for filling 
in of floors," of which I give a reproduction. (Fig. 5.) 

It will be seen that he used in some cases two bricks, and in 
others three. In the latter the third brick acted as a key. In these 
there appears to be no protection for the bottom of the beams except 
by carrying the plaster over their surfaces. The circular shows many 
other kinds of hollow tiles for segment arches (in which they are 
arranged in voussoirs), partitions, and other purposes for which they 
are used to-day. 

In the Gazette dcs Architcctes lor 1867 I find a description of 
some of the French exhibits of hollow tiles. Here is an illustration 
of another invention of Professor Muller, similar to the last described, 
the arches being in two pieces. (Fig. 6.) 

Another interesting exhibit is thus described : " Mr. Verdier 
has exhibited a floor formed of hollow brick, fitting the one into the 
other ; one of them forms the key, and those which touch the beams 
are of variable length, so that the joints may be broken on each row. 
\^ery little mortar suffices to unite together these bricks which 
are held together, so that if one takes care to bond them in setting, 
the soffit of the arch shows a concavity of two centimeters between 
the beams." (Fig. 7.) 

It will be observed that this is a fiat arch though built of sym- 
metrical tiles, and is equally strong as against a weight or upward 
pressure. The utility of this is not apparent where the floors are 
only intended to carry loads on top. 

In Leonce Reynaud's Traite d' Architecture, Paris, 1867, is 
a description of hollow-segment and flat-arch construction between 
I beams accompanied by two illustrations. The former shows the 
style of segment arch now in use. The latter is the first flat hollow- 
tile arch in voussoirs as now generally used of which there is any 
record, and was the invention of Vincent Garcin, who patented the 
same in France, Oct. 11, 1867. These two styles of beam filling 
arches are here shown. (Figs. 8 and 9.) 

To Vincent Oarcin, therefore, must be ascribed the invention of 
the practicable flat hollo rt'-tile arch as now so extensively used in 
this country. It will be noticed that this arch still leaves the bottoms 
of the beams exposed, to be covered only with plastering. But it 
has another feature. There are projecting lugs on the bottoms of 
the voussoirs and corresponding recesses, as if to prevent each 
successive voussoir and the key from slipping down. This idea 
seems to have taken hold of many succeeding inventors, and several 
patents have been taken out in tliis country for similar devices, 
evidently without knowledge, on the part of patentees or examiners 
at the patent office, that they were anticipated by the (iarcin patent. 
But the idea was not even new with (^arcin, for it was anticipated 
by the Englishman Bunnett. The futility of all such changes from 
the simple form of voussoirs with straight joints was long since 

{To be continued^ 

Mortar and Concrete. 





(^Continuation of tests made l>y Prof. Cecil D. Smith.') 

Frost Tests. 

IN a previous paper, read before the society, the writer promised 
to place before its members the results of certain frost tests, 
which were being made at that time. 

They are now given, in hope that they may be of some interest 
to those engineers who are contemplating the building of cement 
mortar masonry, or cement concrete in cold weather. 

Method of procedure. — The briquettes were all made in the 
same manner, the i to I mixtures having 18 per cent, of water, and 
the 3 to I mixtures 1 5 per cent., being purposely greater than the 
amount used in ordinary laboratory tests, so as to get the mortar 
softer, and resembling more closely the condition in which masons 
use mortar in ordinary construction, as the effect of frost may be 
greater on soft mortars than on dry ones. 

The briquettes were all rammed into the molds in 3 layers, and 
the briquettes to be subjected to frost tests were immediately put 

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outside on a window-sill. In a few hours, after the briquettes were 
frozen hard, they were removed from the molds, and left e.xposed 
on the window-sills for two, three, or four months, care being taken 
to keep the snow swept off so as to allow the frost to have its full 

The tables, given, speak for themselves, and probably each en- 
gineer will draw special conclusions of his own ; the writer will only 
mention a few points that seem obvious to him. 


It would appear, from these tests, that it is quite safe to build 
masonry work in November, in Montreal climate, when the materials 
are mi-xed and e.xposed to the air at about the freezing point. The 
proportion which the strength of the frost tests bears to the sub- 
merged ones is about that which would be obtained under the most 
favorable circumstances. The briquettes were all firm, smooth, and 
hard on the surface, and although subjected to 4 months of severe 
frost in an exposed position, they did not seem to have been at all 


These were all made in December, and the coldest days were pur- 
posely selected. Yet the only briquettes which were blown in pieces 
were those made from two very inert, slow-setting, poor Canadian 
natural cements. The two other natural cements (one Canadian, 
the other Belgian) were quicker setting, and stood the test well. 
With the Portland cements, the diminution in strength is more ap- 
parent than real, the proportion of 90 to 164, which is the average of 
1 1 brands, is really between briquettes }{ to J^ in. square, and 
briquettes i in. square, the frost specimens being weathered off. 

It is reasonable, however, that a briquette i in. square, exposed 

on 3 sides to the direct action of the frost, is rather more severely 
tested than mortar would be if placed in a wall, even the botton\s of 
the bri(juettes resting freely on the stone window-sills were largely 
uninjured, and the centers of all the briquettes appeared uninjured. 
.'\s a result of these e.xperiments, the writer would feel perfectly safe 
in laying cement mortar in December, with Portland or active 
natural cements, in weather 10 to 15 degs. above zero, and in the 
most exposed situations, expecting in the spring, to find X^ to j4 ins. 
disintegrated at exposed joints, and needing re-pointing, or better 
still, the pointing could be left till spring, and done once for all. 


These tests were much more severe in their nature, the sand and 
cement were exposed for hours in the open air, in small quantities, 
until they were absolutely down to the temperature of the outer air, 
and in the cold water and salt water series the water was also exposd, 
until it was, in three, actually below the freezing point, being 
in a slushy condition. 

These materials were put together in the laboratory, as rapidly 
as possible, and exposed again at once, the usual interval being about 
6 minutes, and the actual temperature of the mortar just before ex- 
posure having reached about 33 or 34 degs. F., while in the hot water 
tests the mixture rose, on an average, to 5.8 or 60 degs., just before 
exposure, which was just about laboratory temperature. 

The experiments are hardly extensive enough to be fully con- 
clusive, being made only on 7 brands of cement, but they point clearly 
to the advantage of the use of salt. Those briquettes made with .salt 
showed good strength and little injury ; although made with mate- 
rials, at low temperatures exposed in severe cold, they seemed to be 
chiefly affected only on the surface. 









Briquettes frozen long before set could take 
place, all blown to pieces by frost, 

Seemingly quite sound, but broke irregularly 
as to loads and position of fractures. 

Practically sound, some slight cracks on the 

About i-if>" on the surface, disintegrated, 
the remainder quite sound, 

Three of these disintegrated for 1-16" on out- 
side, the other twi> injured to the very 
center, average of three being (72). 

Seemed perfectly sound and solid. 

These during a warm spell of three days re- 
mained quite soft, not setting at all ; when 
tested, they showed a slight weathering on 
the top surface. 

Seemed perfectly sound and solid. 

Disintegrated for Vt" on top and sides, re- 
mainder solid looking. 

Disintegrated for ^" on top and sides, re- 
mainder solid looking, 

Only I briquette was disintegrated on the 
surface, but all were weak and brittle, 
crumbling if rubbed with the fingers. 




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Practically all blown to pieces, the 
solid core of two briquettes giving 
105 lbs.:=2i lbs. average. 

All the exterior blown to pieces, in- 
terior solid. 


All soft and crumbling. No strength 
at all. 

Cement frozen when mixed 6'. mixed 
by h.ind, a very severe test ; bri- 
quettes appeared firm on surface, 
but crumbled when touched. 

Disintegrated on top for 1-16" ; re- 
mainder solid. 

This mortar frozen when mixed, 
mixed bv hand on table, a very 
severe test, briquettes appeared 
firm on surface, but weakened all 

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Badly blown on exterior for ^", but 
interior still solid. 

Top surface blown off for H", in- 
terior solid looking. 

All soft and crumbling, no consist- 
ency at all. 

Set very slowly in laboratory, those 
exposed were neither frozen nor 
set after 4 hours. 

Disintegrated for about /s" on top, 
remainder solid. 

Slightly disintegrated on top, and 
weakened all through. 









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Blown on surface for about J4") in- 
terior solid. 

Slightly blown on bottom, other fine 
cracks on top, otherwise solid- 

Exterior worn with loose sand, but 

interior hard and firm, water was 

slushy at time of mixing. 
In perfect condition, water was slushy 

at time of mixing. 
One briquette badly affected, and 

others quite sound. 







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On the other liancl, the use of hot water does not seem to be of 
any advantage, particularly in Portland cements ; a reason advanced 
by one writer for this fact was, that the bringing together of mate- 
rials in a mortar, at widely divergent temperatures, exerted a prejudi- 
cial effect on the cement, hindering proper crystallization, and that 
the use of materials, at, as nearly as possible, the same temperatures 
would produce more rapid and stronger action. The effect of hot 
water on natural cements is not so disappointing, but does not show 
much increase over the strength of similar specimens made with cold 

The general result of these experiments, to the writer's mind, 
points to the idea that in any weather, in winter, not extremely cold, 
say not lower than + 15 degs. F., masonry work can be laid with cold 
sand, cold cement, and cold water, provided the natural time of set 
of the cement is not more than 5 or 6 hours, and that by the addi- 
tion of about 2 or 3 per cent, of salt to the water, the same work may 
be done in weather down as low as zero, which is as cold as men will 
work. The disintegration will not extend probably deeper than j4 
to J4 ins. — the remainder of the mass being quite sound. 

By what process cement sets, after it has, in a few minutes, been 
frozen solid, and remains frozen for months, the writer will leave to 
others to explain, but set it certainly does, without ever having been 
thawed out. 


EXCAVATE the ground to a depth of about 5 ins. below the fin- 
ished level, and upon this lay about i in. thickness of cinder 
or gravel ; upon this lay a layer of clean hard stone or other suitable 

material broken so as to pass through a 3 in. ring, well watered and 
rolled, filling up inequalities and leaving the surface about 2 ins. 
below the level of the footway (sidewalk). Divide into bays (sec- 
tions) about 6 ft. in width with battens of soft wood, and complete 
each alternate bay by laying upon the stone foundation carefully 
prepared concrete composed of one part Portland cement, two parts 
coarse, clean gravel, or other suitable procurable material, passed 
through a I in. screen, and two parts clean, sharp sand, which must 
be well beaten or rolled into place ; and before it is set a finishing 
coat I in. in thickness of a finer and richer concrete to be added and 
brought up to the finished surface of the footway, and well troweled 
and smoothed into place. This finishing coat may be composed of 
one part Portland cement to two parts granite chippings, three parts 
gravel or other suitable material which will pass through a '4 in. 
sieve. As the work is finished the battens may be removed and the 
joints filled with fine sand. — Carriage and Footway Coiistriiilion. 



HE color of the manufactured cement, being due principally 
to the presence of a small quantity of oxide of iron and 
sometimes of manganese, or to the carbonates of these oxides, 
which for all practical purposes are conceded to be a passive ingre- 
dient in hydraulic mortar, should be a matter of indifference to con- 
sumers. In fact, the presence of a large proportion of the coloring 
|)rinciple, like that of any other inert substance, might be expected 
to have a tendency to deteriorate the quality of the mortar by dimin- 
ishing the cohesive strength of the cementing substance, and, there- 
fore, if taken into consideration at all, ought at least to direct 
suspicion to the darker varieties. — Gen. Q. /I. Gilniore. 



The Masons' Department. 




THE one thing above all other.s which enahle.s an individual, 
firm, or corporation to carry on an extensive building business 
is the ability to select competent and able foremen : and with the in- 
creasing complications involved in the construction of a large modern 
building, and the speed with which the work must be done, the 
duties and responsibilities which devolve on a foreman have materially 
increased. In truth, he must have practically all the qualities which 
go to make a successful master builder, differing only from his em- 
ployer from the fact that he has no capital involved. When one 
considers the amount of time the average master builder must spend 
attending to the strictly financial side of his business in estimating 
travel and other details, it can readily be seen that the actual carry- 
ing out of a piece of work must necessarily be entrusted to a subor- 
dinate, and that upon his ability will depend to a great extent the 
success or failure of the undertaking. 

Of the qualifications which go to make a competent foreman, the 
most important is an accurate and complete knowledge not only of 
his own particular trade, but of all others which come in connection 
with it ; he must also be a thorough mechanic, for if he is unable to 
do work in the right and economical way himself, it is hardly possible 
that he will be able to show others how to do it. 

After the mechanical skill as a requisite for a competent fore- 
man should be placed foresight, which, although at first thought may 
seem to be a matter of minor importance, is, nevertheless, an essential 
(|uality. In order to have work which is done in a hurry (and very 
little, unfortunately, is now done in any other way) proceed smoothly, 
the foreman must be constantly planning ahead. He must have the 
method by which the work is to be carried on clearly in mind ; he 
must see that the proper materials and sufficient in quantity are at 
hand when needed : and by no means least important, he must see 
that he has proper drawings from which to lay out the work in ad- 
vance. While it must be acknowledged that many delays are caused 
by the lack of drawings, it must at the same time be admitted 
that if some one makes timely and reasonable requests of the archi- 
tects the necessary drawings can be had, and the foreman is the man 
who should issue the reminders which are always necessary to keep 
such people up to time. A foreman who combines the two essential 
(|ualities of foresight and care will save his employer from much 
expense, and the architect from many embarrassing positions, for if 
the plain truth be told, the architect practically never pays for mis- 
takes; the owner sometimes pays for them, while the contractor 
usually pays for them. 

The first thing a foreman should do on receiving a roll of draw- 
ings is to look them over carefully to see if there are any practical 
difficulties which stand in the way of executing the work as proposed. 
He should also take the precaution to check the various lines of 
figures and make sure there are no discrepancies. In connection with 
this work the specifications should be read. If such a course is 
pursued, it enables the foreman to start the work with a clear idea of 
what is expected. In going over the drawings, a memorandum 
should be made of any discrepancies, omissions, or matters about 
which information is desired, and on the first opportunity which 
offers these matters should be talked over with the architect or his 
representative, when generally most of the questions which have 
arisen can be easily adjusted and explained. It is important, how- 
ever, for the foreman to keep in mind the fact that it is out of his 
province, unless a special arrangement has been made, to make any 
changes which involve extras or allowances without first reporting 
the matter to his employer. 

It may be the custom of some contractors to require all such 
transactions as have just been described to be done by the master 
builder in person ; hut as a rule, matters of mere detail, with the 
exceptions noted, can be settled in a perfectly satisfactory manner 
on the work. There is a disposition on the part of some architects 
and superintendents to ignore suggestions which are advanced by 
foremen, which, it is needless to say, is most short-.sighted policy, but 
unfortunately practised to such an extent that many foremen, when 
asked why they did not call attention to some point in season to 
avoid trouble, reply that experience has taught them that the archi- 
tect did not care to receive suggestions from their direction. 

It is policy for the architect or his representative who superin- 
tends the actual construction of a building to say to the foreman at 
the beginning of a piece of work that there are two important 
things for him to remember ; first, never to deviate from the plans 
and specifications without express permission; and secondly, if 
there is any point which is not fully understood or clearly shown, or 
if any work is shown or called for which he does not consider 
proper, he should invariably call attenion to the fact in time to have 
the matter remedied before any expense is incurred or harm done. 
If these simple suggestions are followed and the foreman under- 
stands that he is to work with the architect and not at cross pur- 
poses with him, many of the minor complications which ordinarily 
arise in building transactions will be avoided. Method and neatness 
are two qualities which should be cultivated by a foreman, for there 
is nothing which makes a better im])ression on both the owner and 
architect than to find that their work is being done under a well- 
defined system, and that the premises are always kept clean and free 
from an accumulation of rubbish. This also helps the contractor, 
for it is always possible under such conditions to advance the work 
rapidly, and with the least possible disorder and confusion. 

It is particularly desirable for journeymen who wish to become 
foremen, and foremen themselves who have not had much experience, 
to make a special study of the trades other than their own which 
come in connection with their individual work, and it is excellent 
practise for such persons to take a course in draughting, which will 
enable them to thoroughly understand the drawings from which 
they are to lay out and execute their work. Such training was 
formerly given to a limited extent under the apprentice system, but 
since that has been abolished the learner is left to pick up the neces- 
sary information as best he can. With the development of night 
schools in the cities, however, there are ample opportunities for get- 
ting an elementary education in such matters, and it only needs the 
disposition to learn and some one (who can always be found) to 
direct intelligently the efforts of a beginner to enable a man to per- 
fect himself in the theoretical matters which pertain to his trade, 
while at the same time he can be earning his living and gaining 
practical experience on the actual work. 


A WORKMAN on a building, who fell and was injured by rea- 
son of stepping upon a joist which had just been sawed 
nearly through by another workman who had momentarily left it, 
cannot recover from his employer for such injury, on the ground 
that he should have been notified of the danger. — Supreme Court, 

An architect who prepares plans for a building, and also super- 
intends its construction, is entitled to a mechanic's lien for his 
entire services, but the preparation of plans alone, not supplemented 
with superintendence, does not give him a lien. It is the part the 
architect fakes during the construction that draws his services within 
the lien law. And where only a portion of the work has been done, 
and the construction indefinitely suspended, the argument that the 
plans may be used eventually in the completion of the building does 
not assist the architect, for he never had a lien for his plans. — 
Supreme Court, New York. 



Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 


Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — The most important event of late has been the 
finishing of the preparation of the charter for Greater 
New Yorl<, its unanimous acceptance by the commission, and its 
presentation to the legislature, the result of which we are all 
anxiously awaiting, as it is sure to have an important effect in 
many ways on the future of the architectural and building interests 
of the great metropolis. Probably as soon as the matter of govern- 
ment is decided the question of a new city hall will be again 
atritated, for the need has become an absolute necessity. We trust 
that the competition will be as well conducted as the late unpleasant 
one promised to be. 

Greater interest was taken this year in the annual exhibition 
of the Architectural League than ever before, not only among mem- 
bers of the profession, but by the public at large. The lack of 
ability on the part of ordinarily intelligent persons to intelligently 
criticize a work of architecture has been especially noticeable for 
years past. This condition of things can be, and in fact has been, 
materially improved by the admirable exhibitions given by the 
Architectural League in New York, and by kindred societies in other 
cities. The exhibition is particularly fine this year, and gives a very 
good idea of the amount of work in hand for '97, which is encourag- 
ing. The prospects are good ; an unusual amount of large work has 
been announced during the past month. One item of interest, and 
we must say regret, to architects is the contemporaneous demolition 
of the two finest specimens of Egyptian architecture in this country, 
— the old Tombs Prison and the Bryant Park Reservoir. The old 
historic prison will give way to a new and complete building 1S6 ft. 
long, 45 ft. wide, and 123 ft. in height. It will have a capacity for 
eight hundred prisoners, and will cost $700,000. Withers & Dickson 
are the architects. 

Bryant Park will be cleared of the reservoir and all existing 
buildings, and the entire block bounded by Fifth and Sixth Avenues 

The city is to issue $2,500,000 in 4 per cent, gold bonds for the 

The Grand Central Station is to be altered and improved at a 
cost of $500,000. Bradford L. (iilbert is the architect. Several 
stories will be added for offices, and the towers materially altered. 



Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 

Made by Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, Waldo Bros., Boston .Agents. 

and 41 St and 42d Streets will be devoted to the use of a great 
public library to be erected by the city. It will be the home of the 
New York Public Library, and the Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Libraries. 

Peabody & Stearns, Architects. 
Gray terra-cotta furnished by Waldo Bros., New England Agents for Perth Amboy Terra- 
Cotta Company. 

The new waiting room will be one of the largest in the world. It 
willbe 200 ft. long by 100 ft. wide, and will front on 42d Street. 

The Academy of Design has finally decided on a site for its 
new building. They have bought the entire east block front in 
Amsterdam Avenue, between 109th and i loth Streets. The plot has 
a frontage of 171 ft., and in each of the side streets 200 ft. The 
site is opposite that on which the Cathedral of St. John the Divine 
is to be erected, and is near the handsome new buildings of St. 
Luke's Hospital and Columbia University. A competition will 
probably be held, and we trust will result in a building which will 
be a credit to that part of the city, which promises to be most at- 
tractive architecturally. 

Many new office buildings will be begun this spring, and all 
very close together, in the neighborhood of Wall Street. Among 
them are the Empire Building, by Kimball & Thompson ; Exchange 
Court, Clinton & Russell; Washington Life Insurance Company, 
C. L. W. Eidlitz; Singer Machine Company, Ernest Flagg; office 
building for the Crocker Estate, by C. C. Haight ; and the American 
Realty Company, W. B. Tuthill. A new custom house is contem- 
plated, the committee still being undecided as to a choice between 
the Bowling (ireen site and the present site on Wall Street. A new 
hall of records is also being considered, 



PHILADKLFIIIA. — In building circles there certainly is seen 
some substantial improvement at the present time over the 
condition of a few months ago. and there is on all sides the usual 

Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 
Architectural terra-cotta made by Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

preparation for a brisk season; whether the work expected will 
materialize or not will remain to be seen, but there is expressed by 
some of the most extensive builders and operators the opinion that 
all signs must fail if there will not be a prosperous season. The 
demand for modern business buildings in the heart of the city is as 
strong to-day as it ever was, and it is probable that some of the proj- 
ects mentioned last month will be carried to completion. The one 
for the large business and office building on the .southwest corner of 
Broad and Chestnut Streets is being pushed forward with more than 
usual energy, and the present status in that case is that the adjoining 
property, No. 1408 Chestnut Street, now occupied by the Citizens' 
Trust Company, has been purchased by Messrs. Widener & Elkins, 
and will be added to the corner plot : the tenants, it is understood, 
are to vacate on or before the first of April next. The property as a 
whole will be offered to the Land Title & Trust Company at its next 
meeting, on March 22. and it is this company which proposes to 
put up the extensive building. A competition between several in- 
vited architects was held some few weeks ago by Messrs. Widener «& 
Elkins, but up to the present time no statement as to the selection of 
an architect has been given. 

Considerable advance has also been made in the restoration of 
the old State House at 5th and Chestnut Streets. It is proposed to 
restore the entire group of buildings, as far as possible, to their 
original condition. The interior has been practically finished, and 
the buildings have been formally turned over and accepted by the 
city; the lower portion of the main and the two wing buildings will 
now be restored, and the arcades which originally connected the 
buildings will be reproduced. Estimates for the work are now being 
asked by Architect T. Mellin Rogers, who has had charge of the 
work since its commencement. 

Hids are now being asked for an eight-story " housekeeping 
apartment " building, which is contemplated on the northeast corner 
of 13th and Budd .Streets; this will be one of the most complete 

buildings of its kind, and the con- 
veniences are first class in every 
respect. The entire building will 
be strictly fire-proof, Fawcett floors 
being specified, and the walls of 
brick, stone, and terracotta. 
There is an elevator in the en- 
trance hall, and a lift in the rear of 
the building, extending from the 
kitchens into the basement, where 
tlie janitor's apartments and the 
compartments of each of the ten- 
ants for coal, wood, etc., are lo- 
cated. Each apartment consists 
of a parlor, library, dining-room, 
two Ijedchambers, kitchen, ser- 
vant's room, pantry, two store- 
rooms, linen closets, etc., besides a 
liberal amount of hall space, and 
an arrangement with the front and 
rear vestibules which completely 
isolates each apartment from the 
entrance as well as from the adjoin- 
ing one; there are two apartments 
on each storv. The architects 
are Wil.son Brothers & Co., Drexel 

Edward A. Cameron, of St. 
Louis, has been appointed, after 
examination under the Civil Service 
rules, to the position of superin- 
tendent of construction of the 
l^hiladelphia Mint; his name, it is 
imderstood, was at the head of 
the list of applicants, and he has 
been highly recommended for the position by leading architects of 
Chicago and Boston. The contracts for the basement and area 
walls will be let within two months, and during the summer the con- 
tracts for the entire superstructure, including the marble, brickwork. 

Made by Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 



and structural steel, will be placed. The intention of Architect 
Aiken is to carry on the work without interruption to its completion. 

CHICAGO. — A matter of considerable interest to architects has 
been the exhibition of architectural work from the American 
Academy at Rome, which Mr. Charles McKim is so wisely sending 



Made by Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

on a tour from city to city. Mr. McKim is certainly entitled to the 
gratitude' of the profession, on which this exhibition will exercise a 
beneficial influence, for his personal trouble and expense in thus ex- 
hibiting the scholarship work of prize winners. Mr. D. H. Burnham 
generously defrayed the expense of bringing the collection to Chicago. 
Three of the twelve men whose works make up the large exhibit are 
associated with Illinois institutions. S. (i. Temple is an instructor 
in the Illinois State University, and Messrs. MacNeil and Fellows 
are both instructors in the Chicago Art Institute. 

A matter of concern to Illinois architects just now is a bill be- 
fore the legislature which, if it passes, will institute in this State ex- 
aminations and license fees to regulate the practise of architecture. 

Building news continues to be depressing. The number of per- 
mits taken out is increasing with the season, but they cover, for the 
most part, a cheaper class of buildings. 

One Chicago-Philadelphia item is that D. H. Burnham & Co. 
have on hand a fourteen story building, which is to be erected in the 
Quaker City. 

Henry Ives Cobb has a large " out-of-town" building, — a sav- 
ings bank at Albany, N. Y. 

The underground Van Buren Street suburban station of the 
Illinois Central Railroad is now almost completed, and displays a 
very interesting variety of " burned earth " products. There are 
walls, floors, beams, arches, and columns covered with rough surface 
terra-cotta, hollow tile, variously colored glazed terracotta, enameled 
brick, and ornamental tiles. This list of finished work is varied 
with a considerable use of ornamental iron, marble, plaster, glass, 
and stone. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Chicago, have 



condensed much valuable information into another attractive little 
pamphlet, which treats in an interesting and instructive manner the 
uses and purposes of enameled brick. This book should be at the 
right hand of every one who contempletes employing this material. 

We have received a very attractive pamphlet issued by James A. 
Davis & Co., sole New England agents of the Alpha Portland Cement. 
It contains a number of illustrations of buildings, dams, and bridges 
in the construction of which Alpha Portland Cement was used ex- 
clusively; also a number of letters from prominent authorities in- 
dorsing the superior merits of this cement. 

Copies of this book will be found very interesting, and may be had 
by applying to James A. Davis & Co., 92 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

We have received the recently published illustrated catalogue of 
fire-proof building material as manufactured by Henry Maurer & Son 
of New York. The fire-proofing products of this house are so well 




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D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 

Made by Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 

Henry Ives Cobb, Architect. 
Built of gray brick and terra-cotta. Brick furnished by tlie Columbus Brick and Terra- 
Cotta Company and tlie terra-cotta by the American Terra-Cotta & Ceramic 

known, and have so strong a hold on the good-will of the building com- 
munity, as to require very little comment on our part. There are one 
or two features introduced in the catalogue which are novel and 
interesting. One of these is the 2-in. Phoenix fire-proof hollow tile 
partition, which is made of hollow burnt clay or porous terra-cotta 
tiles, set on edge, with a long strip of band iron imbedded in cement 
or mortar between the courses, giving to the 2-in. partition the same 
tensile strength as a wall 4 or 6 ins. thick. The catalogue also 
illustrates the forms of hollow brick which are made to be used as 
bottle racks, which is somewhat of a novelty in its line. 3"here is 
also illustrated the Eureka system of hollow tile floor construction, 
which comprises three tiles, two skew-backs which fit the beams, and 
one center or key tile, forming a flat ceiling of floor requiring no 
centering during the erection, which can be put in rapidly with or 
without the use of cement, as the tiles cannot work out or get 



loose in any manner. In addition there are the standard shapes 
manufactured by this company, together with reports of tests, etc., 
and many very valuable suggestions as to fire-proofing methods. 

The pamphlet recently issued by Fredenburg «S: Lounsbury, 
Metropolitan Building, New York, sole agents in New York and New 


Parish & Schraeder, Archiiecls. 

Made by Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 

England for the Hydraulic Press Brick Companies, contains a concise 
and splendidly arranged description of the various structures erected 
of the Hydraulic Press Brick during the years uSgj and 1 896, together 
with mention of color and shape of brick, character of trimming of 
the buildings, and the names of the architects and builders. 

The book has been carefully compiled with a view to making it 
particularly serviceable to an architect desiring to adopt a shade of 
brick different from those he is accustomed to employ. By consult- 
ing its contents, he can ascertain tlie location and general character 
of the buildings wherein a particular brick in which he is interested 
has been used, and he is then in a position, if he so desires, to make 
a systematic inspection of the work in question, and see the various 
shades in actual use, in buildings of varied designs, and note the 
effect of same with the several comljinations of stone, terra-cotta, 

We can commend Messrs. Fredenburg & Lounsbury on the 
general good style and character of their contribution to trade 
literature, and are glad to recommend it as being of real interest to 
those engaged in the building profession. 


VValho Bros, have closed a contract witli Hootons & Hemmen- 
way, of Providence, for furnishing the terra-cotta for the new building 
for the William F. Low estate, Westminster .Street, Providence. 

The Celadon roofing tiles have been specified for the Municipal 
Building, Yonkers, N. Y., E. A. Forsythe, architect. Also for the 
residence for Phillip Kleeburg, Esq., New York City, H. P. Gilbert, 

The Union Akron Ceme.nt Comi'ANV, of Buffalo, are fur- 
nishing their Akron Star Brand of cement for the new building of 
the Brooks Locomotive Works, at Philadelphia, and also for the 
Willard State Hospital, at Willard, N. Y. 

Walho Bro.S. will furnish the terra-cotta roof tiles for the 
Newton Bank Building, Newton, Mass. They will be a very rich 
dark-red glaze, making a pleasing contrast with the rest of the 

In the February Brickbuilder, under the illustration of the 

Y. \L C. A. Building, it was stated that the brick for the building was 
furnished by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. The statement 
was incorrect, the terra-cotta only having been furnished by the 
Excelsior Company. The Raritan Hollow & Porous Brick Company, 
New York City, furnished the gray brick used. 

The New Central Hk;h School Buildino, of Detroit, 
is a structure of which the citizens of that city are justly proud. The 
utmost care has been used in constructing the building on the most 
approved lines, and under most up-to-date methods. The building is 
faced throughout with pressed brick, and the Board of Education, 
liaving the matter in charge and adopting the Morse Patent Wall 
Ties for' bonding the same, realized that, considering every feature, 
this was the most approved form of bonding in use. That they were 
entirely satisfied with the result is conclusively proven as the ties 
were also used for the same purpose in the construction of the 
Delray School Building and Lysander .School Building, of the same 
city. Attention is called to the illustration of the Central High 
School Building, on page xxxvi. 

The ^L^TAWAN Terra-Cotta Company is the name of the 
new corporation which has succeeded the firm of K. Mathiasen & 
Co. This firm has, until the later part of last year, been doing busi- 
ness at Trenton, N. J., in a leased factory ; but with the growth of the 
company this factory had become inadequate for the amount of 
business done, and it was decided to move the works to Matawan, 
where the large pottery and brickmaking plant formerly known as 
the I. S. Rue Pottery was secured. This plant, with its machinery 
and four large kilns, is admirably fitted in every respect for the 
manufacturing of architectural terra-cotta. 

The Matawan Terra-Cotta Company is composed of all the old 
members of K. Mathiasen & Co. Karl .Mathiasen, the president and 
general manager, has been known for many years in the terra-cotta 
field as a successful manufacturer of architectural terra-cotta. He 
is also the president and general manager of the New Jersey Terra- 
Cotta Company, of Perth Amboy. N. I. The other meptibers of the 

Willis G. Hale, Architect. 
Made by Standard Terra-Colta Company. 

company, the Eskesen Bros, are well known throughout the terra- 
cotta trade as enterprising and progressive business men. 

The Boston agents of this concern are G. R. Twichell & Co., 
ly Federal Street. 

A MEETING of the Philadelphia Brick Manufacturers' Exchange 
was recently held in the .Master Builders' Exchange, when a scale of 



prices for brick during the ensuing year was formed. Tlie meeting 
was attended by tlie members of twenty firms in that city, repre- 
senting three fourths of the brick manufacturing interests of the 
vicinity. The scale agreed upon places the price of salmon brick at 
from $5.50 to $6 per thousand; hard brick, $j to $S ; stretchers, $g 
to $13; pressed brick, $17 to $ic), and pressed stretchers, $12 per 
thousand for the average haul. The brick production for the past 
year was about 400,000,000, a decrease of about 40,000,000 over the 
preceding twelve months, caused by some of the yards becoming ex- 
hausted and the firms owning them going out of business. 



IN every large city there occurs each year a number of fatalities 
through the operation of cleaning the windows of the large 

buildings from the outside, and we are glad to call the attention of 

our readers to the Bolles 
Sliding and Revolving 
Sash, as being a device 
which will eliminate all 
such danger and render 
accident from this cause 
an impossibility. 

This window is so 
constructed that both 
sides of it may be 
cleaned from the inside. 
It can be revolved, re- 
versed, or placed at any 
desired angle whatso- 
ever for the purpose of 
ventilation, besides slid- 
ing up and down the 
same as any ordinary 

sash. To turn the window, reverse it, or place it in a slanting or 


horizontal position, all that is necessary to do is to raise the sash 
slightly, and then push the bottom rail outward. 

In order to obviate all possible rattling and to render the sash 
both wind and dust proof, a special device is attached to each end 
of the strips which press firmly against the window jamb. The 
sash is snugger and closer fitting by far than the old-style sash; 
and runs with equal ease and smoothness. The joint is self lock- 

The upper sash is similarly constructed as the lower, and both 
sashes may be turned either way, separately or together. 

The patentees call particular attention to the following impor- 
tant points: Its simplicity, the entire absence of complicating 
mechanism, the fact that it can be hung with as great ease as the 
old-style sash, its low price, and the doing away with all the dangers 
incident to the cleaning of windows. 

Further information in this matter may be obtained from 
Edward Diggs, General Agent, Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md. 





A GENTLEMAN having well-located office in Boston would handle 
some building specialty as side line ; is in thorough touch with 
building work throughout New England, and has good acquaintance 
among architects and builders. Would prefer something in fire- 
proofing or structural work. Address, SPECIALTY, care The 

Houses Can Be 

made much more attractive by the use of our 
Fireplace Mantels made of Ornamental Brick. 

There is no other kind of mantel that looks as well as 
ours. No others have those soft effects of coloring so 
restful to the eye. No others show such a perfect com- 
bination of richness, simplicity, and harmony. None so 
durable and substantial. Ours, when completed, bring 
forward the thought that nothing else could fill the space 
so well and so appropriately. And yet they cost no more 
than other kinds, and any good brick-mason can set them 
up from our plans. 

These pictures are only suggestions. Our Sketch Book 
describes and illustrates $2 designs of various colors, 
costing from $\2 upwards. Send for it. 

\<, Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 



Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Keicham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 287 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. H.\rris & Co., Marquette BIdg. 


Correspondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. ..... 

American Terra-Cotta and Cerainic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn 

Bo.stnn Oifice, 40 Water St., J. Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 Fast 22d St., New York City 

New Kngland Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, Charities Building, zSq 4ih Ave. PhiladelphiaOffice, 24 South 7th St. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, r34i Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston .Agents, Waldo liros., 102 Milk St. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W. L. McPherson. Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 1 118, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 
BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
lirush li Sclimidt, Oliice, 2 Builders' Excliange, Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Catskill Shale Brick & Paving Co., in Fifth Avenue, New York 
Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. ....... 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio .... 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ......... 

Donnelly Brick and Terra Cotta Co , Berlin, Conn. ...... 

Ito.ston Office, 72 Water .St., J. Mair Staveley, .Agent. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 2S9 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Otiice, 24 So. 7th St. 
Hydraulic- Press Mrick Co., The ......... 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ...... 

La .Salle Pressed Brick Company, La Salle, 111. ....... 

National Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. ......... 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City. 

Oliphant, Pope A- Co., Trenton, .\. J. . .' . 

Parry Bros. & Co., 10 Broad St., Boston ........ 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, United Charities Bldg., New York City 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston .Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia (Jffice, 1044 Orexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Ralston Brick Co., Ralston, Lycoming C!o , Pa. ...... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Ravenscroft, W. S., & Co , Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 
Ridgway Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa. ........ 

New England Agents, G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 
New York Agent. O. D. Person, 160 Fifth .Ave. 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Shawmut Brick Co., Cartwright, Pa. ........ 

General Sales Agent, C. E. Willard, 171 Devonshire St., Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern Agent, James L. Kankine, is,fi l''iflh Ave., New York. 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 
Williamsport Brick ("o.,, Pa. ....... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa. ....... 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

Hydraulic Press Brick Co., The ......... 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Co., Mt. Savage, Md. ...... 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, United Charities Bldg., New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany ICnanieletl lirick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

Eastern .Agent. James L. Rankine, 15'^' I'iflh .Ave.. New York. 


Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston ........ 

Gabriel iV Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 


Alpha Cement Company, General .Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 
Building, Philadelphia ........... 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., gz State St., I'oston. 

Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston ........ 

Brand, James, 81 Fulton St., New York City 

Chicago, 34 Clark St. 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Brigham, Henry R., 35 Stone Street, New York City 

New England Agents, Barry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 

Cumniings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y 

Ebert Morris, 302 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 253 Broadway. 

French, Samuel H., & Co., York .\venue, Philadelphia, Pa 

Gabriel ..V Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. i Broadway, New York City .... 

Lesley i"v; Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. i 5th St., Philadelphia 

Manhattan Cement Company, 15 to 25 Whitehall St., New York City 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 





















XX vii 



XX vii 
















CEMENTS.— tV«//««£</. 
xxvn Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

New York & Kosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 
xxvil New England Agents, I. W. Pinkham & Co., 18S Devonshire St., Boston. 

James C. Go£f, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. I. 
J. S. Noble, 57-69 Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 
Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 Wrlliams St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. . . . *. 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 


Sturtevant Mill Co.. Cor. Park and Clayton Sts., Dorchester Dist., Boston 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental) 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-prooflng, and Roofing: Tiles. 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange Baltimore, Md., and S08 F St., 

N. W., Washington, D. C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave.. New York City 

Meeker, Carter, Booraeni & Co, 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston 

Staveley, J. Mair, 40 Water St., Boston 

Thomas, E. IL, 24 So. 7th St., Phila., Pa.. 874 Broadway, New York 

Twitchell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire St., Boston 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston 


F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 


American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa 

Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Raymond, C. W. & Co., Dayton, Ohio 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 415 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. . 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Sturtevant Mill Company, Cor. Park and Clayton Sts., Dorchester Dist., Boston 

The Wallace Manufacturing Co., Frankfort, Ind. 


Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Moore & Wyinan, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 

New York Office, 126 Liberty St. 


Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

I'loston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., 104 South 12th St., Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York ....... 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & t"o , 14 E. 23d St., New York City 
Metropolitan Fire-proofing Company, Trenton, N. J. . 

New York Office, S74 Broadway. Boston Offi ce, 166 Devonshire St. 
Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty .St., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1545 So. Clark St., Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, .Metropolitan Building. 

Western Office, 5 Parker Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 1 1 i Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

GRANITE (Weymouth Seam-Face Granite, Ashler & Quoins). 

Gilbreth, Frank B., 85 Water St., Boston 


Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 


Cutler Manufacturing Co , Rochester, N. Y. ...... . 


Gilbreth Scalfold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Marsh Metallic Corner Bead, Edward B. Marsh, Tremont l!uilding, Boston 

Waldo P.rothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 


Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y. . 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. .......... 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

Ittner, .Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ...... 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ........ 


Catskill Shale Brick and Paving Co., lit Fifth Ave., New York City 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited, Marquette 

Building, Chicago 

New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 


Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. .......... 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 


The American Ma.son Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St.. Boston .... 


Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 


J. C. N. Guibert, 39 Cortland St., New York City 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio 


J. B. Prescott cS: Son, Webster, Mass. 


Belles' Sliding and Revolving Sash 

Edward R. Diggs, General Agent, Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md. 









XXX vii 



























The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co. 

Manufacturers of 

Terra- Cotta. 

K. MATHIASEN, President. 

Works : PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

Office: 108 Fulton Street, New York City* 


Orange Street, New Haven, Conn. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta Furnished by 


Sales Agents for New England, 

G. R. Twichell & Co., 

19 Federal Street, Boston. 



Patented in England, 3elgitin:i, France, United States. 

^ " ' ':-v ' ' ' r'K^,'^'''^'-^X''^''^'^'^^'-'^^ '' ^ ' <; ' ^t ' ^ ''' ■^'.';■^^'v vv ' ^ 

/^''/'v^'''' ''^^^ '''"'' '^''■'n^''V'r' ''"*''''■ ■ '■ '^•^'^' ■'"'"''■ ' ''^ •• '• ' ii M.i)m\\w.v\.rf.,v., n.^,\,,».,^^y^^\ v.'\\\iv\\\\>\a\».,\\ AVMrnv-.v 


Concrete. CiMoeit. 

i M i[i i. i » i n ' rii i i-, | .n ii uiiiiuii»iii r n iMrjiji.Mjiiiuin7innimroniipriTiiiiiiiii:wii,iMini , T:iTniTniit7;i 


LONGITUDINAL SECTION Showing the Tubular Terra-Cotta Lintel encasing the Beam, 
THE Air Passage under Beam, and the Admission of Cold Air into the End of Tubular Lintel. 

lintels with concrete 

Passage under the Beams and the Admission of 
CcLD Air into the Side of the Lintel. NOTE.^ 
Only two Air Bricks are absolutely necessary 
in Each Room to obtain a Thorough Draught 
UNDER the Beams, and they may both be in the 
SAME Wall. 

' ^ I ' I I I I ' H t I I I 

crete Bearing on the Bottom Flange of the 
Beam A. NOTE.— There is no Room for the 
Concrete to work under the Beams at A. other- 


Sc-Ai-E in Feet. 

Table showing the Weight of Materials used in Constructing the 
Fawcett Ventilated Fireproofing System. 



l.^ Floor. 

Steel Keams 
Wood Floor 

Wt. of floor material persq. ft. of surface, for various size beams. 


IN Flook. 


4 in. 

5 in. 




9 in. 

10 in. 12 iM. 

3.7 lbs 
15.0 „ 
•2C.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

.5. 11 us 
15.0 „ 
32.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

15.0 „ 
3U.0 „ 
3.5 ,, 
7.0 „ 

8.9 lbs 

15.0 „ 

45.5 „ 

3.5 „ 

7.0 „ 

l0.5 lbs 
13.0 „ 
52.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

12.2 lbs 
15.0 „ 
58.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

15.5 lbs 
15.0 „ 
•55 ,, 

3.5 ,. 

7.0 „ 

19 libs 
15.0 „ 
7X.0 „ 
3 5 „ 
7.0 „ 

Steel P.eams 
Wood Floor 

Total Dead 1 
Weight } 

52.2 „ 

C3.1 ,. 

71.4 „ 

79.9 „ 

88.0 „ 

9C.2 „ lOC.O „ 

122.0 „ 

Total Dead 

NOTE.— The Dead Weight per sq. ft. of surface is calculated for Concrete 
2 inches above top of Beams. 

Table showing Size of Steel Beams used in the Construction of the 

Fawcett V entilated Fireproofing System. 




Sq. Ft. 

ino lbs. 





Sq. Ft. 

10 Feet. 

14 Feet. 

IG Feet. 

18 Feet. 20 Feet. 

22 Feet. 

24 Feet. 

26 Feet. 




2 J 

per ft. 
















11.9' CI 



15 5 


17 2 


100 lbs. 



7 5 

5 1 



11 9 




14 4 71 

17.8 8 1 



20 3 9 124.4 

150 lbs. 

2 in lbs. 


9 2 

5 1 

10 3 




14 4 

7 1 ,17.8 8 1 

18 9 1 

20 3 

10125 5' 10 I 30 

200 lbs. 



10 3 




14 4 7 I 

15 5 

81 17.2 9 1 

20.3, 9 1 


10 1 ; 0.0: 10 I 33 1 

250 lbs. 

300 lbs. 



CI 13 




91 20 3 91 

1 1 

25.1 101 

.too 12I.-«).G|12I.i2.0 

300 lbs 

NOTE.— The above sizes of beams are for the finished floor including concrete 2 inches 

above top of beams, yellow pine flooring, and plastered ceiling. 



The Onljf System that provides an Absolutely Scienlific Safeguard against Rre. 

Adopted by Architects and Engineers on Account of 
!• Fireproof Quality. 4. Strength. 

2. Sanitary Value. 5. Ease and Quickness of 

3. Lightness. Construction. 

6. Cheapness. 

In these 6 Main Advantages The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Floor 
Excels all Other. 


448, 449, 450, and 451 

Philadelphia Bourse, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England states, JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Trcmont Buildlng, BostoH, Mass. 
sales Agent for New York, A. J. COFFIN, 412 Presbytcnan Building, Fifth Ave., New York. 





No. 4 


® OFFICE ?5 

B05T0N >|i 








Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 
States and Canada ..... 

Single numljers ........ 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... 

$2.50 per year 

25 cents 

$3.50 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The ijRiCKHUll.DER is published the 20th of each month. 


THE constructive importance of brick masonry has during the 
past twenty years undergone several distinct modifications. 
Before 1880, the approximate date when skeleton construction first 
made its appearance, the masonry construction was depended upon 
to resist static loads as well as to afford rigidity to walls when 
subjected to lateral or angular strains. The principle was entirely 
one of inert resistance to thrusts, and the mass of masonry by its 
cohesion and dead weight afforded the required stability. The 
introduction of the steel frame brought about what at first seemed to 
be a radical change in the function of masonry, which from being a 
supporting member was considered simply as an envelope, a protec- 
tion, or a mere external adornment to the hidden vital sinews of steel ; 
and all of the calculations of recent years which have been made 
looking to a determination and resolution of wind strains have 
assumed that these are taken care of entirely by the bracing or the 
arrangement of the members of the steel work. There is, however, 
another function which brick masonry in these modern structures 
should possess, the necessity for the observance of which is being 
recognized by our constructors. In the newspapers, which often 
reflect only a suggestion rather than an exact statement of fact, we 
sometimes read that a certain building is constructed so strongly that 
if it were set up on edge it would not distort, and that to all intents 
and purposes the high building, if properly constructed, is practically 
a huge cantilever or beam, the lower end of which is thoroughly fixed 
in the ground. There is no scientific reason to believe that this is 
an exact statement of fact, and yet after the steel frame has been 
calculated to provide for every possible strain that would theoreti- 

cally come upon it, the building receives an enormous addition of 
rigidity by reason of the brick filling which is added to it; and if, as 
is the practise in much of the work, the supporting and bracing 
members are reduced to a minimum expanse of cross section and 
thoroughly built around by the masonry so that the bricks can tie in 
through all the parts of the frame, the resulting rigidity is a very 
considerable element in the stability of the structure. Any one who 
has had occasion to investigate the stiffness of the steel skeleton 
before the terra-cotta floor arches and the brick envelope are in place 
must have noticed the extent to which the frame is affected even by 
the rumbling of passing teams in the street, and in a high wind the 
steel frame is jarred very perceptibly; whereas in the completed 
structure, when the steel frame is properly housed in the brickwork 
and the floor arches are thoroughly laid, even the tallest of the build- 
ings which have been erected within recent years are not perceptibly 
affected by the most severe gales, while they seem to be absolutely 
unresponsive to any jarring or rumbling caused by teams on the sur- 
face of the ground. In other words, while the steel skeleton has in 
a sense reolaced a very considerable portion of the constructive value 
of brickwork, by itself it is not sufficient to afford the necessary 
rigidity required in a modern .structure, and the brickwork plays a 
very vital part in making the building habitable, and preserving it 
from the vibrations which in time would cause disintegration if not 
destruction. We have in mind at this moment a sixteen-story office 
building which was constructed by a firm of architects who are 
acknowledged masters of their profe.ssion, in which the system of 
cross bracing to provide for vibrations and wind strains was carried 
to the scientific limit, the brick walls being treated, however, merely 
as curtains, and reduced to the least possible areas of cross section, 
with the result that after an occupancy of a little over a year the 
vibrations in the building were found to be so great that it became 
necessary to build two heavy brick cross walls inside of the building 
from foundation to roof in order to acquire the needed stiffness. In 
another very prominent building, the movements of the steel frame 
before the brickwork was in place were such that it was not thought 
prudent to even build in the floor arches until after the external walls 
were carried to a considerable height, lest the action of the wind upon 
the floor surfaces should bring undue strain upon the steel work. 
These examples illustrate the necessity of care and good workman- 
ship, and serve to emphasize the constructive functions of brick 
masonry, even when the envelope is carried independently by a 
scientifically designed steel skeleton. 


A POPULAR belief does not differ from a popular skepticism in 
point of endurance. When once fairly established, it becomes 
a cherished habit of thought, and whether right or wrong, is not easily 
effaced. It clings to the imagination and continues to influence our 
judgment in spite of overwhelming facts to the contrary. The evi- 
dence of our own eyes, though admittedly conclusive in ordinary 
affairs, is not always sufficient to eradicate a prejudice of long 
standing. " Give a lie twenty-four hours' start, and it will have 
accomplished its mi.ssion before the truth has overtaken it." This 
maxim, though formulated by an experienced politician, has a sub- 
strata of truth, and may be accepted — in this case cum grana salts. 1 1 



is notably the case in regard to the supposed want of uniformity in 
the color of terra-cotta, when compared with that which may be relied 
upon in stone taken from the same quarry. Yet the facts do not 
justify any such sweeping conclusion. We have seen terra-cotta 
rejected, or what is nearly as bad, belied, on these grounds, though 
it was not less uniform in color than stone which had been accepted 
and set in the same building without a murmur of complaint. In like 
manner we have seen stone accepted simjily because it was stone, 
when the same variation in color would have been deemed sufificient 
cause for the rejection of terra-cotta. Or, if its use had been per- 
mitted at all, it would have been under protest, and after the whole 
vocabulary of opprobrium had been exhausted. Such is the force of 
unreasoning prejudice. In this respect, at least, the captain's " choleric 
word," coming from the mouth of a corporal, is still held to be " flat 

Whatever may have been the relative condition of things, say 
ten, or even five years ago, they have undergone changes in the interval 
of which the general public — even the building public — are not 
fully cognizant. Not only have they changed, but there is good 
reason to believe that they have in many instances been reversed. 
Indeed, the signs pointing in the direction of this reversal are so gen- 
eral and emphatic that their existence cannot much longer remain a 
subject of debate. We will give a few of them for the benefit of 
any one who may doubt this proposition. We would invite him to 
take an impartial look at the Si.\th Avenue entrance to the Siegel- 
Cooper Huilding. Plate glass and steel constitute most of the first 
story, but the elaborate entrances are limestone. All other parts of 
the immense building are cream-white terra-cotta and brick of re- 
markable uniformity. We need not rest our contention on any iso. 
lated e.vample, for instances of this kind are becoming plentiful, and 
they are not confined to buildings of minor importance. 

The new Astor Hotel, on Fifth Avenue and 34th Street, now 
approaching completion, is an operation of such magnitude and 
grandeur that the adjoining Waldorf appears little more than an 
annex. The prevailing color in this case is a glowing hospitable red. 
The predominating material is terra-cotta. Seventeen stories of 
Flemish Renaissance towering into space, and terminating in a highly 
picturesque sky-line. Fourteen of these stories are red terra-cotta and 
red brick, the three lower stories being stone of varying degrees of 
redness. The absence of uniformity in the color of the stone is 
sufficiently marked to attract the attention of a casual observer. It 
becomes more aggressive if he lingers long enough to inquire into the 
cause,or speculate upon its ultimate effect as an aptly instructive object 
lesson. Tenacious indeed must be the popular belief, or delusion, 
that survives the shock of this silent, unanswerable demonstration. 

At first sight it might be surmised that the stone had been 
obtained from at least two quarries, but we have been assured that 
this is not so. It is of course supposed to be cut in a way that will 
permit it being set on its natural bed, but this good rule may not 
have been adhered to in all cases, and wherever departed from, in 
addition to being less durable, we get a different texture, which would 
to some extent account for the difference in shade. The method 
employed in working the stone is another element that has now to be 
reckoned with, viz., whether it has been tooled by hand or by machine 
labor. A conspicuous case of this kind may be seen in the cartouche 
window transoms on the westerly side of the 34th Street elevation, 
which, being richly carved, represent the color effect produced by 
hand labor. The contrast presented by the work on the intervening 
piers, which has evidently been tooled in a mill, is very decided. The 
more delicate touch of the carver has cut without abrading, leaving 
the grain of the stone favorable to the absorption of light. The 
automatic and less .sympathetic action of the machine has stunned 
the surface of the stone, producing an entirely different effect, which, 
in turn, goes far to produce a difference in color, that otherwise would 
not have been so pronounced. But it must be remembered that this 
is in stone; and being so, we are expected to close our eyes to its 
defects and shortcomings, lest anybody should think us capable of 
flying in the face of nature. 

We may not go so far as the satirical Mr. Whistler, who, when 
a patron remarked that a certain landscape called to mind one of his 
pictures, replied, "Ah! I'm glad to hear that nature is learning. 
But we will go far enough to assert that men are learning to assist 
nature by taking advantage of nature's laws and of nature's bounti- 
ful store of raw material in the production of building blocks more 
even in color, and altogether free from the laminations inherent in her 
own product. 

THE removal of brick edifices which were erected in the early 
part of this century often causes comment upon the thorough 
manner in which many of them were constructed. While there are 
numerous exceptions to this rule, and it by no means follows that all 
of our old buildings were well built or substantial in character, it is 
true that the work of the early part of this century was in the main of 
a very high constructive value. This was due largely to care and 
intelligence in the use of material, but also quite largely to ignorance. 
With the idea of making things strong enough, a pier or wall would 
often be made widely in excess of the exact strength required. It is 
only within (juite recent years that the extent to which first-class 
brickwork can be loaded has been fully appreciated. The 
twenty or twenty-five years ago was to allow a load of not more than 
6 or 7 tons per square foot bearing upon thoroughly first-class 
brickwork, whereas now by law in Boston we are allowed to put as 
high as 15, and judging by experiments which have been made at 
Watertown and elsewhere, there would be a sufficient margin of 
safety in some cases if the bricks were loaded to 25 tons per foot. 
This, of course, implies the utmost care in construction, with the 
best of mortar and intelligent bonding of the bricks. While the 
statute limitations are advisable, the tendency of modern building 
methods has been to reduce the factor of safety in proportion as the 
extent of positive knowledge of resistance of materials has increased ; 
and whereas in the days of our forefathers the intelligent engineer would 
use a factor of safety of 6 to 10, we are now perfectly content with 
one of from 3 to 4, and this with our best modern constructors is 
really a factor of safety, based upon actual knowledge, and not a 
factor of allowance for ignorance. 


THE accompanying triple window is one of four used in a block 
of high-class residences in New York City, of which Messrs. 
Neville & Bagge are the architects. The illustration shows the work 
set up temporarily just as it came from the kiln, and previous to its 
being shipped along with other work of equally good design, from 
the works of The New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company. 

Ch.vrles T. H. arris, Lessek, takes a full page (xxvi; this 
month on which to give a partial list of buildings which have been 
roofed with the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company's tiles. This page 
will be found to be of especial value, as not only is the name of 
building given, but location, style of tile used, and architect, as well. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta at the League 

THE annual exhibition of the Architectural League of New 
York offers an excellent opportunity for studying the tenden- 
cies of current work and for observing the lines upon which study 
for future work is being conducted. The exhibitions held by the 
league have every year grown in interest and in scope, and the one 

Green & Wicks, Architects. 

which closed the fifteenth of last month is quite in the line of regular 
progression, including work from many parts of the country, and to 
a very considerable extent representing the best talent of the profes- 
sion. As in previous years, a considerable space is devoted to the 
work of the so-called allied arts, a term which 

can be conveniently stretched or restricted to 

suit almost any desired classification. Had 
the exhibition been confined more closely to 
purely architectural effort, it would in some 
respects have been more interesting to the 
architect, though, judging by observation the 
day we were in the galleries, the arts and 
crafts attracted more visitors than the draw- 
ings, and the combination is always a good 
one even if it goes no further than to show 
how haltingly architecture has developed of 
late years by comparison with the sister arts. 
The impression given by the archi- 
tectural portion of the exhibition is that an 
immense amount of work has been expended 
by exhibiting architects merely for the pro- 
duction of show drawings, which, as far as 
actual study or application to real architec- 
ture is concerned, have a relatively slight 
value. Many of the drawings are overdone, 
and not only is a great deal of detail work 
suggested, but a great deal is actually put on 
drawings which, if they were rendered more 
lightly, with less attempt to produce pictures, 

would in many cases gain directly in proportion to the simplicity of 
treatment. This is emphasized by the few, but very large French 
drawings which are exhibited together at one end of the hall, which, 

however one might criticize the design, are certainly rendered in a 
style which somehow or other seems to be acquired only in Paris, the 
least possible work being expended to secure the greatest effect. 
The over-working of the American drawings seems to be specially 
noticeable in connection with the buildings which are intended to 
illustrate brick or terra-cotta designs. Brick suggests color, and 
color evidently means paint, for the majority of the brick drawings 
shown are very strongly colored, and instead of being indicated, the 
tones are laid on with a heavy brush. Somehow, simplicity and 
terra-cotta arc hard to combine on paper, at least, and though a quiet, 
dignified treatment is naturally associated with brick, when we begin 
on terra-cotta the details run riot; and the knowledge that ornament 
will repeat so easily in this plastic medium without arousing the 
bugbear of expense, that bete noir of true art, seems to limber one's 
fingers and stimulate one's inventive faculties until it requires firm 
repression and deliberate self-control to abstain from encoring one's 

Brick and terra-cotta alone, and in combination with other mate- 
rials, were very much in evidence in the exhibition, — indeed, we 
cannot recall any collection of architectural designs in which so large 
a proportion were intended to suggest burnt clay. And this is speak- 
ing simply from the external evidences. Undoubtedly there were 
many drawings which were intended to represent brick or terra-cotta, 
but which for the purpose of the exhibition were not specific. The 
distinction in style between stone and teira-cotta is one that is seldom 
made in a perspective drawing, and consequently many designs which 
have the appearance of monumental stonework may be intended in 
the mind of the designer to be worked out in terra cotta ; so that 
while terra-cotta work, as such, was not specially prominent, there 
were a quantity of designs which one would reasonably expect to be 
carried out in clay, though there was less special attention to giving 
it a terra-cotta character than we would like to see. But of brick 
there was a lot, and on the whole very satisfactory. One of the first 
designs near the entrance of the gallery was the government drawing 
of the proposed post-office at Pawtucket, a combination of brick and 
stone worked out in a quiet, dignified manner and forming a very pleas- 
ant composition. And, by the way, what a relief it is to feel that at last 
we have a government architect who is competent to design a credit- 
able building ! There were exhibited two other post-offices due to 
Mr. Aiken's taste, that at San Francisco and the one at Pueblo, Cal., 

lllm ^H ^um wf^ww>l^ff ^ a q l 


proKfjrs Offices 



~1;n for a urokers office. 

Wilson l''.yn;, Jr., Arcliitect. 

both of which are admirably designed, seem fitted for the location, 
and are in marked contrast to the stuff which the government archi- 
tect's office has put out in the past. And to think that we, of Boston, 



have that horrible, cold granite monstrosity for a post-office, which is 
too solid to wear out, is not built to burn, and we cannot hope that a 
providential cataclasm will ever remove it from our midst I 

The drawings exhibited by E. Raymond Bossange, of the house 

in full color with all the accessories, and the accessories are so charm- 
ing that one questions whether the trees and shrubbery which are 
shown to such an advantage were planted for the house, or whether 
the house was planned to come so nicely between such well-balanced. 


HftUx for Giraud ftotcr.Esq; 
Lenoji . t\e^ 

5outt> ttevanon. 



Carrcre & Hastings, Architects. 

at Scarborough-onthe-Hudson, presented a charming combination of 
brick and half-timbered work, rendered in the most delicate water- 
color, and affo r d i n g , 
with its green roof and 
polygonal tower, a charm- 
ing composition in color. 
The house is perched on 
a high knoll, with irregu- 
lar plan, permitting of a 
large brick tower ; the 
lower story is all of brick, 
the upper stories half 
timbered and plaster 
work. Close beside this 
was a design by Edward 
1'. York and Philip 
-Sawyer, for a recitation 
hall at Vassar, a straight- 
forward, well-worked-out 
Elizabethan composition 
of red brick with stone 
trimmings. Longfellow, 
Alden & Harlow exh.ib- 
ited a drawing of a large 
house at Alleghany, also 
in red brick, with an 
added red tone in an in- 
tensely strong tile roof. 

One of the most 
charming studies in the 
exhibition was Carrcre & 
Hastings' house for 
Giraud Foster, at Lenox. 
It is indicated to be con- 
structed of brick, with 
trimmings of light stone 
or terra-cotla, and is 
thoroughly delightful in 
every respect, with a 
carefully studied academ- 
' ic setting, not shown in 


INSURANCE COMPANY BUILDING. herewith. The drawing 

Walker & Morris, Architects. exhibited was rendered 

mighty oaks. As an example of the possibilities of an architectural 
treatment of masses of foliage, and of symmetrical gardening, it is 
eminently successful. 

The design for York Hall, New Haven, by Grosvenor Atter- 


Thoinas Henry Randall, Architect. 



bury, which was hung close to Carrcre & Hastings' design, showed a 
Venetian treatment of buff brick with an elaborate central motive 
and a crowning story richly worked out apparently in terra-cotta. 
Collegiate buildings, by the way, seemed to be quite plentiful in the 
exhibition. Another recitation hall for Vassar, shown by Rossiter 
& Wright, was a simple, well-studied design, in the style which 
seems to have come to be accepted as the American Collegiate, a 
Pretty straight adaptation 



■f* fPiPf 

of the best features of 
the English Tudor Colle- 
giate buildings. Lamb& 
Rich exhibited their de- 
sign for Barnard College, 
New York, a strong, 
restrained, well-studied 
effect in brick. 

Of a very different 
kind was the perspective 
showing the garden and 
wing to Union League 
of Philadelphia, Keen & 
Meade, architects, a 
strong composition in 
yellow brick and white 
stucco, recalling some- 
what the feeling of South- 
ern Spain, or Pistoja, 
with a foreground formed 
by a simple garden, 
charmingly arranged, 
with a fish pond in the 
center. The drawing, by 
Hughson Hawley, is a 
very striking one, both in 
composition and render- 
ing. It is a pity that it 
should have been hung 
so high, and so immedi- 
ately over one of the par- 
titions of the alcoves 
that it was hard to get a 
really fair view of it. 

The country house 
in Maryland, by T. H. 
Randall, architect, which 
we publish herewith, is 
the kind we should be 
glad to see more of, and 
it shows that Mr. Randall 
has studied to excellent 
advantage the brick 
country houses of the 
South. It was a delight 
to find these straightfor- 
ward, direct elevation 
drawings in the midst of 
highly colored perspec- 
tives. After all, though 
clients demand a perspective, and are easily caught by brilliant color- 
ing or effective if impossible effects of light and shade, the real study 
is shown on the elevation drawings. Green & Wicks appreciate this, 
as is evidenced by the happy design for house for Dr. S. W. Put- 
nam, also published herewith, a very successful treatment of a city 

Mr. Bruce Price exhibited an interesting design for the St. James 
Office Building, which attracted considerable notice, and which pre- 
sented a very successful decorative feature in the use of colored brick 
diaper work. The unfortunate results which accompanied the use 


-- i 

fi*i t: 


R. G. Kennedy, Architect ; Kennedy, 

Hays & Kelsey, Philadelpliia. 

of this treatment in the church which fonnerly stood on the corner 
of 42d Street and Madison Avenue, which gained for it the designa- 
tion of the Church of the Holy Oil Cloth, have prevented a fair 
recognition of the effectiveness of this method of decorating a wall 
surface, and it is encouraging to see that some of our best architects 
are returning to this perfectly legitimate system of color treatment. 
Mr. Price also exhibited a large drawing of Mr. George Gould's 

house at Lakewood. 

- The office buildings 

exhibited were less distinc- 
tively of brick and terra- 
cotta, though there was 
Walker & Morris's design 
for the Washington Life 
Insurance Company Build- 
ing, in brick and terra- 
cotta, and the proposed 
Woman's Hotel, by Gan- 
non & Hands, in buff, or 
old gold brick and light 
terra-cotta ( ? ), the drawing 
of which was very strong 
in tone with a color effect 
helped out by the banners 
at top of the building. 

A building we should 
have liked to see illustrated 
to better advantage was 
the new Astor Hotel, Fifth 
Avenue, adjoining the 
Waldorf, both by Mr. H. J. 
Hardenberg. The com- 
bined Fifth Avenue fronts 
were shown on a single 
highly rendered elevation, 
the scale of which was, 
however, too small to do 
justice to the beautifully 
designed and executed 
terra-cotta details. The 
35th Street front of the 
Astor Hotel is an especially 
good example of the best 
and most recent adaptation 
of terra-cotta and brick. 
The new Delmonico, by 
James Brown Lord, is an- 
other building presumably 
in brick and terra-cotta 
which was tantalizingly 
suggested rather than 
shown by a large rendered 
drawing in full color. 

Philadelphia was well 
represented. Cope & 
Stewardson exhibited a 
design for a city residence, 
conventionally treated, in 
thoroughly good taste, well balanced and exquisitely proportioned. 
This was indicated as in red brick with white trimmings. After all, 
there is a good deal of satisfaction in being able to revert to a type 
and polish away on that type until the proper degree of finish is 
attained. Wilson Eyre, Jr., contributed one of his charming studies, 
designated as " A Design for a Broker's Office." Mr. Eyre is so 
unique in his style, and his work has such a delightful personal qual- 
ity, it is always anticipated with pleasure. The drawing seemed to 
indicate purple-black brick. It is quaint, jolly, convivial, represent- 
ing just the sort of structure we would expect some of Howard Pyle's 



characters to inhabit, and to issue from with church-warden pipe and 
bowl of punch for solace. The residence by Mr. R. G. Kennedy is 
a picturesque, sunny treatment of a city front, one of the few designs 
exhibited which showed a use of terra-cotta roofing tiles. 

Howard & Cauldwell exhibited an interesting drawing for a 
church at New Brighton, .Staten Island, showing a very conscien- 
tiously developed design in gray brick and .Spanish roof tiles. The 
brick might be buff or gray, the drawing being graded in different 
parts. The building is Romanesque in style, recalling some of 
Vaudremer's work, with large windows on the sides separated 
by buttresses, diaper work of 
deep red brick in the spandrels, 
and the same deep red or orange 
tones carried out in the tym- 
panum of the door. The door 
itself was painted on the draw- 
ing a bright green, affording a 
very emphatic contrast, which, 
however, was warranted by the 
general result. The plan is a 
very irregular one, with the 
tower on the side, and the 
whole church, while perfectly 
individual, suggested in arrange- 
ment and design S. Pierre de 
Montrouge, Paris, but without 
the coldness of the French 

As a scheme of color treat- 
ment may be noted a design 
for three residences, in a single 
block, by Marcus T. Reynolds, 
showing a high basement of 
rusticated terra-cotta in simple 
courses, and a perfectly jjlain 
brick surface above, the whole 
in a monotone of gray buff ex- 
cept for streaks of strong red 
marble used as mullions of the 
windows of the upper .story, 
adding just enough emphasis to 
relieve the tones of brick. 

Around the central gallery 
of the exhibition rooms were 
placed eight terra-cotta columns 
with Ionic capitals, the whole 
standing 8 or lo ft. high and 
executed in a light-colored buff. 
The workmanship, while not 
perfect, was so nearly so as to 
recall the days, not so very long 
ago, when such true work with 
evenly matched tlutings and 
symmetrical entasis would have 
been impossible in terra-cotta. 
These columns were set up ap- 
parently without any mortar, 
but seemed to stand perfectly 
true, and were excellent ex- 
amples of what can be done 
with the material. 

The exhibition .showed by inference our national timidity in the 
handling of color. When we undertake to indicate color, we do not, 
like the Japanese, use real color, but rather make colored pictures, a 
distinction which will be appreciated by any one who has tried, for 
his own satisfaction and without any reference to what a client wants 
or thinks, to study out on paper in advance the actual colors which 
should be used in a chromatic treatment of a front. It is really a 

question how far we can to advantage undertake to study in perspec- 
tive, for if we apply color directly to a perspective without gradua- 
tions it ceases to have the effect of a picture, and pictures are what 
clients and exhibitors demand. The real study can to best advantage 
be put upon the elevation, as is shown by Mr. Price's excellent study 
of the old house at Lakewood, which is in direct elevation, and from 
an architectural standpoint shows the building to a great deal better 
advantage than any perspective could possibly do. 

The exhibition emphasized a statement which has frequently 
been made during the past few years, that architecture is not advanc- 
ing as rapidly as her sister arts, 
and that within recent years 
decoration, sculpture, and the 
applied arts generally, have 
developed a wonderful vitality 
and have made rapid strides in 
every direction, while in archi- 
tecture we seem to be making 
way for our artistic craftsmen 
and perfecting our own art by 
its accessories rather than by 
its intrinsic advance. The ex- 
hibition shows the tendencies 
of our public work far better 
than the actual work itself 
would make them manifest, for 
an architect will very often put 
himself on record on paper 
where he would hesitate to 
carry out the same thought in 
actual practise, and conse- 
(|uently an exhibition of this 
sort is better able to measure 
what the architects want to do 
than if we should go around 
and see what the same archi- 
tects were actually doing. 



cot* AND Stc««iIU>$OM 


M KSSRS. Shepley, Rutan 
& CooLiDGE have removed 
their Chicago office to the Old 
Colony Building, Dearborn and 
\'an Buren Streets. 


architects. New York City, 
have removed their office from 
1 3 Astor Place to the Hartford 
Building, Union Square. 

H. E. BouiTZ, architect, 
liaving opened an office at 
Wilmington, N. C , would be 
glad to receive catalogues and 
samples of building materials. 

Cope & .St<:w,->rds<in. .Architects. Rendered by Chas. A. Kiauder. 

On the evening of April 19, 
Mr. Peter B. Wight, architect, 
delivered an address before the Chicago Architectural Club on the 
" Fundamentals of the Development of Style." 

The Art Institute of Chicago has invited the Chicago 
Architectural Club to make its home within the Institute Building. 
Aside from the desirable location, the club will have special privileges 
in connection with the Art Institute. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 



THE twenty-six Ionic columns used on the Hoffman Library, 
and referred to in a preceding chapter (Fig. 6, page 8), 
were, we believe, originally intended to carry an entablature and two 
pediments in the same material. It was afterwards proposed to 
substitute metal, and this, we regret to say, was ultimately done in 
the building shown at Fig. 7. If the wisdom that is said to repose 
in " sober second thought " be open to exceptions, we think that the 
latter determination should count as one of them. Had the original 
intention been adhered to, it could have been executed without serious 
difficulty, and a scheme of construction such as that shown at Fig. 19 
might have been adopted with confidence as to the result. This 
particular cornice is, of course, an incident beyond recall, and we 
refer to it merely as an abstract proposition, which will serve as a 
convenient illustration of what may be done in terra-cotta under 
similar conditions. The methods employed have a wide range of 
adaptability, and are 
open to whatever mod- 
ification may be found 
necessary or desirable 
under other circum- 
stances. It will be 
noticed that in point 
of detail our design 
does not differ mate- 
rially from well-known 
c 1 a ssical examples, 
while the construction 
has been modernized 
to date of writing, 
and made not only 
practicable in terra- 
cotta, but quite simple 
of execution. 

The two 12 in. 
continuous I beams 
constitute the princi- 
pal support between 
columns, and will be 
found ample for the 
load resting upon 
them. To the bottom 
flanges is bolted a 
series of straps, at in- 
tervals equal to the 

length of the pieces of terra-cotta, and from these straps the blocks 
forming soffit of architrave are suspended. While these blocks were 
being pressed they would be made to receive a rod of yi in. round 
iron, which, being inserted from the back, would pass through the 
partitions without penetrating the finished face. Two hangers would 
then grip this bar as at section A. A., and passing through holes in 
the strap would be adjusted by tension nuts until perfect alignment 
was obtained in the soffit. Similar provision would be made for rods 
in the blocks forming upper portion of architrave, and they in turn 
would be bolted to I beams through holes previously located, making 
it possible to have all punching done at the mill, for greater con- 
venience and economy. These rods should be a trifle shorter than 
the blocks into which they are inserted; all cavities being then filled 
with cement, each piece is ready for being bedded solidly against I 
beams, carefully adjusted at the joints, and tightened up to line by 
means of nut on the inside. Separators should be introduced between 
the I beams to give greater rigidity, and to prevent any tendency to 
spread or buckle. The whole of the space between beams should 
then be filled with concrete, special care being taken to grout down 

4' OFF K-r «ACK^no 




FiG. ly. 

into chambers showing on top bed of soffit blocks, also around and 
between the straps until every crevice has been filled. These blocks, 
being now embedded into a concrete core, would no longer depend 
for support upon the hangers, which, however, would be allowed to 
remain undisturbed as an extra margin of safety. 

We are aware that work of the kind contemplated in this last 
item is frequently forgotten, or done (if done at all) in a very per- 
functory manner. It would therefore require close supervision to 
ensure its being done uniformly and thoroughly. Hut, assuming that 
a reliable brand of cement has been used, and that conscience, as 
well as the requisite amount of skill, has been put into the work, we 
would in this way obtain a terra-cotta architrave of composite con- 
struction that would be stronger, and perhaps more durable, than a 
monolith in stone of corresponding section. Cement is an excellent 
preservative of iron, and the interior skeleton being completely pro- 
tected from the effects of fire and water, there would be little to fear 
in the line of deterioration or discoloration from rust. 

The inverted tee of light section at X.X. would be inserted in 
joints of ashlar ceiling, which would be made in slabs of convenient 
length. This has no weight to carry, but it, too, should have its 

chambers filled, and 
the top bed floated in 
cement. Another in- 
verted tee would be 
inserted at every joint 
in lower member of 
cornice, and should 
extend back some dis- 
tance into main wall. 
These cant i 1 e v e r s 
would carry the direct 
weight of the top 
member of cornice, 
which, having been 
set to line, should be 
securely anchored 
back to roof ; the 
hooks taking hold of 
a rod, for which pro- 
vision would be made, 
as in the case of 
architrave. In back- 
ing up the frieze, the 
bi icks should be built 
into the chambers of 
every block; and if 
this is done, no addi- 
tional anchors would 
be required. 
The frieze and tympana may, of course, be finished in plain 
ashlar, where a simple or severe treatment is considered preferable. 
But in most instances the plasticity of them aterial would, no doubt, 
furnish tempting inducements for the introduction of allegorical sub- 
jects, suggested by and befitting the character of the building. The 
jointing of the actual work would be much less conspicuous than it 
has been made to appear in the drawing, in which, as in previous ex- 
amples, the joints have been intentionally exaggerated. None of 
these drawings were prepared with any view to pictorial effect. 
Their primary object is not to clothe or conceal, but to dissect and 
exhibit the anatomy of the subject. The aim is to show as clearly 
as possible the exact relationship which one block bears to another, 
and on what the whole of them must ultimately depend for support. 
For the same reason we have selected this particular subject, because 
it embraces in a comparatively small compass a number of the chief 
difficulties usually met with in work of a similar character. Granted 
that we are not called upon to duplicate a Greek temple every day, 
the fact remains that such a thing could be done very successfully. 
The system of composite construction now proposed does not differ 


a^v^ iv 



in principle from that which has frequently been tested on a smaller 
scale in actual practise. The example before us merely calls for its 
extension under favorable conditions. 

In almost every phase of modern Renaissance work troublesome 
problems of the same kind are frequently encountered, and, whether 
we like it or no, have to be met by the adoption of similar expedients. 
Nearly all the latest and best work is but a free adaptation of classi- 
cal forms, with very often a literal application of classical detail. 

The actual construction of an entablature such as that to which 
we have just referred is shown in Fig. 20. It was adopted in the 
erection of the new City Hall, Elmira, N. Y., and when submitted to 
a practical test was found to work admirably. If any doubt had 
existed on the point, it would have been set at rest by the very 
reassuring reply just to hand from the architects, to whom we are 
likewise indebted for a confirmatory photograph, showing this por- 
tion of the buildini; at Fig. 21.* In answer to a 

C/iLADQtD ^tlCTlon opAPCMiTDAVt 

AT. ^ 



Wherever the architrave, frieze, and cornice becomes part of a de- 
sign, certain portions of it have, at times, to depend upon some form 
of invisible support. So long as the architrave rests directly on a 
wall, the making and setting of the work remains a simple affair in- 
deed. But when it has to be carried across openings of considerable 
extent, between piers, columns, or pilasters, the problem is to all in- 
tents the same as the one now in question. In such cases, the solu- 
tion usually resolves itself into an iron core of sufficient strength, to 
which is attached a terra-cotta casing. 

specific inquiry on this subject, they write : " In regard to the con- 
struction of the terra-cotta, and the manner of supporting it, we 
would say that we cannot suggest any improvement on the method 
adopted. It has answered the purpose perfectly, and no settlements 

•The scope of our remarks is at present restricted lo a somewhat narrow, but very 
necessary phase of terra-cotta conslruclion. It precludes, for the time being, a more gen- 
era! review of this highly creditabb eicample of municipal architecture. We propose re- 
verting to this building (among others) at a later date ; by which time its completion, and 
the removal of temporary enclosures, will permit of more adequate photographic illustra- 




or cracks have developed since the work was finished." In this 
particular case the soffit was made in single blocks, with a panel 
and rosette in the center of each, and the joint passing through 
the center of rail. This allowed the iron rods to be inserted 
longitudinally, passing clear through the ends and partitions of the 
block. Separators, bolted at intervals between the I beams, prevent 
lateral deflection and thereby greatly increase their rigidity. Being 
held at a uniform distance apart, the flat bars (through which the 
hangers pass) may be placed where required during the setting, as 
they merely rest on the bottom flange of each beam and do not need 
any other fastening. 

We cannot be too emphatic in urging the use of cement filling 
in all work of this kind, and that for the reasons given in speaking 
of Fig. 19. It has already been spoken of as a good preservative of 
iron, which it undoubtedly is ; but in saying this two conditions are 
implied which cannot always be had for the asking. To be effectualj 

the iron should be entirely sealed up in the cement, and it must be 
well protected from moisture. If allowed to corrode, it then becomes 
merely a question of time when something must give way. But long 
before that could happen, the terra-cotta is liable to suffer irreparable 
discoloration from iron stains. A solution of rust will find its way 
to the surface, and if accelerated by damp will soon trickle down 
through joints of soffit, in work such as that to which we are now 
giving attention. 

We think the best way to prevent such an occurrence is for the 
architect to anticipate it in his specification. This he can do by 
directing that all bolts, cramps, anchors, etc., coming into direct 
contact with terracotta, be galvanized. In much of the work of 
past ages which we profess to admire, and (in a superficial way) 
seek to imitate, the cramps and anchors were often made of copper. 
.Similar precautions against oxidation are sometimes adopted in 
modern work, but the tendency of the times is against burying any- 
thing of intrinsic value in places where it will not "show for all it is 
worth." A deposit of zinc on the surface of the iron usually reaches 
the limit of allowable expenditure in this direction. It may, how- 
ever, be trusted to protect the smaller appliances, and with two coats 
of metallic paint on the larger sections, no .serious consequences are 
likely to ensue. 

{To he conliniied.) 

Fire-proofing Department. 



{Continued from March N'lunher.) 

RESUMING our historical narrative, we find in Edward Dob- 
son's " Rudimentary Treatise on the Manufacture of Bricks 
and Tiles," printed in London, 1868, a description and illustration 
of hollow brick construction used in H. R. H. Prince Albert's model 
houses. These arches were segmental in form, and used to span 

Fl^. 10, 

From dvawinaaUAched to Roux Fferes' Fr. Patent.Mar. 15.1868. 

entire rooms 10 ft. 4 ins. wide. The external springers v. ere of 
cast iron, built in the brick walls, and connected by wrought iron tie- 
rods. This construction so much resembles the Bunnett arch that 
it is hardly necessary to reproduce the illustration. Its main differ- 
ence is that the joints are straight, and side pressure tiles only were 
used. The rise of the arch was also greater than in Bunnett's, so 
that the tie-rods were exposed. 

We now come to the invention of Roux Frcres, which soon fol- 
lowed that of Garcin. They were manufacturers of all kinds of 
tiles and hollow bricks at St. Henry, Marseilles, France, and pat- 

ented a flat hollow tile floor and ceiling arch on the twenty-fifth of 
March, 1S68. Fig. 10 is a copy of the drawing attached to their 

Their invention was of the nature of an improvement on that of 
Garcin. They placed alternate notches and ledges at the upper 
corners of their tiles. They also brought the soffits of the vous- 
soirs below the bottoms of the I beams, so as to allow a thickness 
of cernent between the heels of the springers and covering the bot- 
toms of the beams. This kind of tile was the same that was first 
made in the United States of burned clay, about 1872, but they 
were much heavier. The first tile ever made in the I'nited States 
as light as those of Roux Freres were those of the Wight Fire- 

From CircuUr issued Ijv RouxFrereS. 1868. 

Proofing Company, made in Ohio, in 1 881, for the Montauk Block at 
Chicago. The burned clay body was only % in. in thickness, yet 
the New Jersey manufacturers continued to make much heavier arch 
tiles for many years after that time. 

In a circular issued by Roux Frcres, in 1868, are illustrations 
of two other forms of flat hollow tile arches, which are shown in 
Figs. 1 1 and 12. 

The first is a flat arcli, very similar to that desciibed in the 



patent ; but it will be noticed that the lugs and recesses at the 
upper corners of the tiles have already been omitted. The second 
is a construction in which three keys are used to form an arch, a 
method which has been frequently used by American contractors 

Fia 13. 

FrotTi dTawindciltiiched. io Johnson and Kreisthtv PaUnl 
Mir. 21 1871 

where the beams were very close together. The same circular shows 
many other interesting forms of hollow tiles for fire-proofing purposes. 

We have now reached a point' of time which is still nearlv 
thirty years back, and find that then flat hollow tile floor arches 
were invented in all particulars e.\cept the use of tiles under the I 
beams. Naturally, there are no more records of French patents; 
but in the United States there was a lapse of three years before 
any patents appeared. 

The first was that of CJeorge H. Johnson and Balthazar 
Kreischer, dated March 2i, 1871. Fig. 13 is a copy of the drawing 
attached to this patent, and Fig. 14 is a copy of the drawing attached 
to a patent granted to Balthazar Kreischer alone on the same day, 
and bearing a number only four greater than that of the partnership 

The curious nature of this sequence of invention is obvious 
without ex])lanation, and forms an illustration of .some of the strange 
methods of inventors and what can be accomplished through the 
Patent Office ; but the sequel shows that neither inventor ever received 
any benefit, unless it may have been from the sale of the patents. It 

From clrawjnd allaohed to Balthc\Sc^r Kveischer Paltnl 

Mav 21.1871. 

was evident,;and the records of the Patent Office show that the form 
of arch in the first patent had been anticipated by the Peterson and 
Abord patents, and that the division of the arch tile into three parts 
had been anticipated by many English and French inventions. So 
the office recognized invention by only allowing claims in the John- 
son and Kreischer patent ; first, for the recesses on top to hold the 
wooden floor strips ; and second, " The removable clay filling strips, 
D, in combination, etc., etc., ... for the purpose specified," the only 
purpose specified in the description being " a good finish to the 
ceiling." The part enacted by the last claim will be referred to 
hereafter. The only claim allowed in the Kreischer patent was for 
making the arch tile in three pieces. This patent was reissued Dec. 
3, 1872, with two claims substantially the same, but the number of 
pieces is not stated. In the drawing attached to the Kreischer patent 
(Fig. 14), the .strips under the beams are cross-sectioned like the 

Flat Avck from circixUM-of }ie.Vive.\m&n.}ic\ve.nSjCQ NY iSyS. 

floor strips, as if of wood, but are not referred to in the description 
or claims. When this patent was under fire eleven years later in the 

United States Circuit Court, these strips were always referred to as 
wooden strips, and this was not disputed. 

Flat beam arches of hollow tile were manufactured in 1S72 and 
1873 in this country, and I believe that these were the first in which 
voussoirs of burned clay were used in America. They were employed 
in the floors over the outer corridors of the New York post-ofiice, in 
the Kendall Building, Chicago, and in the Singer Manufacturing 
Company's building, at St. Louis, and a few others. Fig. 15, taken 
from a circular of Huvelman, Haven & Co., of New York, who were 
licensees under the Balthazar Kreischer patent, shows what these 
arches were. 

About the same time flat hollow arches were made at New York 
by the Fire-proof Building Company of that city, which was organized 
to introduce French methods of construction for fire-proofing pur- 
poses in this country, the company controlling certain process patents 
"for using cement and plaster. But they do not concern this historical 
review, which is intended to cover only manufactures in clay, e.xcept 
as throwing side lights upon constructive methods. The methods 


Flat ArcKmadeby Henry Maurer. NT. I875 

employed in building fire-proof floors followed mainly those of (Jar- 
cin and Roux, but the material was French cement, plaster, and coke 
breeze. These received great favor from architects at the seaboard 
cities, mainly on account of the confidence reposed in the scientific 
attainments of Leonard H. Beckwith, who was at the head of the 
enterprise. But at the same time the late A. H. Piequenard, archi- 
tect of the new Illinois State capitol at Springfield, introduced the 
Garcin and Roux systems into that building, using only plaster and 
cinders m making the hollow blocks. These he had seen in 
France, and such floor construction was used generally in the upper 
floors of the capitol. 

The Fireproof Building Company of New York commenced to 
use flat hollow arches made of burned clay in their contracts on the 
Coal and Iron Exchange and Tribune Buildings in that city in 1S74. 
The avowed object at the time was that they would be better than 
cement in hallways and rooms which were to be finished with 
encaustic tile floors. The following section shows the system of 

Fid. 16 

Flat ArcL made by FiVt Proot BuiUlinp,Co.N.Y. 1874 

floor arch built al lh;U lime, and very similar ones aie even now em- 
l)loyed (Figs. 16, 16 a). 

Flat arches of essentially the same section were soon after made 
and sold by other manufacturers of fire-clay goods, located in New 
Jersey and Staten Island, notably Henry Maurer and the Raritan 
Porous and Hollow Brick Company. 

It was many years after the Kendall Building was constructed at 
Chicago before any more hollow tile arches were used in that city. 
About the year 1878 they were used for all the floors of the new 
Court House, having been manufactured in Ohio. They were made 
of common clay, straight at top and bottom, rather crude m form of 
voussoirs, and without interior webs. When the City Hall adjoining 
the Court was built a few years later, hollow tile floor arches 
were used. They were flat on the soffit, and arched at the to]), and 



were without interior webs. These were manufactured at Utica, III, 
for the Ottawa Tile Compan)-, now the Pioneer Fire-Proof Construc- 
tion Company. 

There was little or no change in the form of flat fioor arches 
used in the seaboard States before 18S5, but they were extensively 
employed for nearly all buildings in which iron beams were used. 

In 1 882, the Montauk Block was built at Chicago, being the first 
of the distinctively high office buildings of that city. The architects 
were Burnham & Root, and the writer was consulting architect up to 
the time that the company of which he had just become the general 
manager was awarded the contract for the fire-proofing. This building 
signalizes several departures in construction which are historic. It 
was the first in which iron rails were used in combination with con- 
crete in the foundations, the account of which has heretofore been 
described in The Bkickhuilder, and the first in which the walls of 
an adjoining building were supported on adjusting screws during its 
construction and settlement. The original intention was to construct 
the floors of iron rails and concrete, similar to the Southern Hotel at 
St. Louis ; but this was abandoned and 6 in. I beams were substituted 
in most of the floors, while 8 in. 1 beams were used in some parts 
where necessary. The spacings between the beams were conse- 
quently narrow. The floor arches used were of the section here 
shown (Fig. i 7). 

The main object sought was the least weight consistent with 
requisite strength. These arches weighed only 25 lbs. per superficial 
foot. Diagonal webs were introduced in the skew-backs, and vertical 
webs in the skew-backs and wide keys. 
The material was reduced to a thickness 
of half an inch. This was only possible 
by using great pressure. In addition to 
this I determined to make them of pure 
fire-clay. They were therefore made on 
a vertical sewer pipe press, and I believe 
that they were the first tiles ever made to 
demonstrate how the weight of floor 
arches could be reduced to the minimum, 
at the same time using fire-clay. Before 
this, the only floor arches made of fire-clay had been those for the 
City Hall, but the walls were all ^ in. thick. Up to this time the 
weight of hollow tile floor arches had been little considered in this 
country, and no thought had been given to the importance of using 
fire-clay outside of Chicago, any refuse clay, worthless for other 
purposes, being considered good enough. The development of the 
business became rapid in the Central Western States after this, too 
rapid to here describe in detail. Two companies were in operation 
at Chicago, and their imitators soon sprung up in other localities. 

The next advance came in the use of porous terra-cotta for floor 
arches. This valuable material had been employed in Chicago for 
other fire-proofing purposes as long ago as 1873, ^"d was first used 
in making roof blocks set between T irons at the Chicago Water 
Works, and for fire-proofing iron columns in the Mitchell Building at 
Milwaukee, and the Chicago Club Building. The first use for flat 
beam arches was in the roof of the old south wing of the Patent 
Office at Washington. As nearly as 1 can remember, this was about 
1885 or 1886. The north wing had been burned out and restored in a 
fire-proof manner. Then Congress appropriated a sum to be ex- 
pended in reconstructing all that part of the original building now 
called the south wing. The architects were Chiss & Shultz, of 
Washington. It was found that the whole roof of the pediment 
would have to be rebuilt, including the attic story and rooms in the 
same. There was considerable girder, column, and truss work also 
to be protected. On my suggestion, the architects decided to use 
only porous terra-cotta. The contract for the roof fell to Henry 
Maurer, of New York. As continuous flat ceilings were not necessary, 
and lightness a great desideratum, each of the beams was first covered 
with porous terra-cotta to about one third of its height from the bottom. 
Then a flat, hollow, porous terra-cotta arch was sprung from beam to 
beam flush with their tops, and resting on the porous terra-cotta 

filling on the sides of the beams. The whole was plastered and 
hard finished, showing the shapes of the beams. 
(To be continued.) 

Ordtnavy M£.lhocL 
of covav\n6 V)e,a-\TVs. 

AVERY interesting test was recently made of the Guastavino 
arch construction. The experiment was conducted at 68th 
Street and Avenue A, New York, and combined a fire and a weight 
test. A space i ( by 14 ft. was enclosed by brick walls and covered 
by an ordinary Guastavino vault laid with three courses of tiles, 3j^ 
ins. thick in all, with a rise of 10 per cent. Over half of the surface 
of the vault there was laid a concrete filling to a height of 2 ins. 
above the crown, while the haunches over the other half were built 
up with ribs or bridges connected by two level courses of tiles, leav- 
ing hollow spaces as indicated by the diagram. This was to ascer- 
tain whether one construction would be more affected by heat than 
the other. A fire was built in the chamber under the vault, the 
gases being carried off through flues at the corners of the rectangle. 
The resulting temperature in the combustion chamber varied from 
2,000 to 2,500 degs., rising sometimes as high as 2,525 degs. Dur- 
ing this time there was a fixed load of 150 lbs. per superficial foot 
upon the arch. The closest observation did not indicate any deflec- 
tion due to the load before the fire. During the test the ceiling and 
the walls rose by expansion one half an inch, and the crown of the 
vault of one fourth of an inch more. After being exposed to the heat 


/ . < 

\\ \\ 



\ 1 

I /'/ ^\N>\ 





/ 1 





1 b /' / ^""n 

1 '1 1 1 

^ ! i 1 1 

!> / ■14'-0" -^ 

iil ! i 

^ 1 1 1 ' 

^ ^^ / 

\\ / / 





' / 

for five houi's, water was thrown on the vault from below, and the 
fire put out. Through the action of the sudden lowering of tempera- 
ture when the water was applied, the templet course fell in a few 
places. When the vault was cooler the deflection of the ceiling was 
only .22 of an inch, but when the load was removed the vault rose 
again so the deflection was only .17 of an inch. After this, the 
load was again applied, and increased until 600 lbs. per supeificial 
foot, something over 50 tons in all, was imposed. The operation of 
loading took some six hours, during which tim-j the ceiling gradually 
deflected in the crown to a total deflection of .37 of an inch, remain- 
ing in that position thereafter. 

The load and the fire were much more severe in this than in 
any previous test, especially the loading after the fire. There was no 
perceptible difference in the behavior of the two methods of con- 
struction above the vault. 



Mortar and Concrete. 




{CoHtiuuation of tests made by Prof. Cecil D. Smith.) 

ALTHOUGH the utilization of natural cement rock for Portland 
purposes is not practised to any great extent in Europe, 
owing, no doubt, to the uneven quality of such rocks, yet in this 
country more than two thirds of the Portland cement produced is 
from this source. 

Limestone to the e.xtent of lo to 15 per cent, is added to the 
cement rock, which, in the section where sucli Portlands are manu- 
factured, contains an excess of clay. 

Portland cements produced in tliis manner are fully e(|ual in 
{|uality to those which are compounded by an artificial admi.xture of 
clay and carbonate of lime, and it may be said, in passing, that there 
are no Portland cements in the world superior to those produced in 
this country. 

The consumer who uses imported brands in preference does so 
at his own risk, for no manufacturer in Europe guarantees the quality 
of his cement after it is delivered into this country. The Portland 
producers here guarantee their product, as do the rock cement manu- 
facturers, and they are here on the ground ready at all times to make 
good any damage which may be caused by the failure of their 

And yet, at the present time, there are three barrels of imported 
Portland used in this countrj- to one of our home production. Such 
is prejudice. Still, it is pleasant to note that it is gradually dying 
out, and it is to be hoped that the time is not far distant when 
American Portlands will be used in preference to those from other 

If we take a few pounds of correctly proportioned cement rock 
in one piece, and divide it into two equal parts, and designate them 
as samples No. i and No. 2, and take No. i and calcine it, and then 
grind it to powder, we have converted it into a natural hydraulic 

If we take sample No. 2 and first grind it to powder, and then 
calcine it, and again reduce it to powder, we have converted it into a 
Portland cement. This comprises all the difference in the manufac- 
ture of the rock and Portland cements. 

Now if we mold these .samples separately into briquettes and 
submit them to a tensile strain test per square inch of cross section, 
treating them alike as to time in air and in water, it is probable that 
when tabulated they would appear about as shown in the following 
table, provided, of, that both samples had been calcined in 
accordance with the methods now in vogue by the manufacturers of 
each class. 



Lbs. ' 
1 Day. 1 Week. 

I Month. 

6 Months. 

1 Year. 

No. 1 






No. 2 






If the actual values are to he measured by the pounds in tensile 
strength which the briquettes are capable of sustaining, and this is 
the prevailing belief at the present time, and has prevailed during the 
past thirty-five years, it would seem indisputable that up to one 
year No. i had but one half the value of No. 2. 

It is safe to assert that not one engineer or architect in a thou- 
sand carries his tests beyond one year. 

It is equally safe to assert that not one in a hundred carry tests 
beyond three months. 

It is not diftkult then to understand, in the light of the table 
given, how the prevailing opinion became so firmly established. 

The idea that the highei the test the greater the value has come 
to be firmly fixed in the public opinion as being sound beyond 

The manufacturer whose cement tests higher than that of his 
neighbor in a one or thirty day test, wears an air of superiority which 
is simply indescribable. 

It is settled in his mind that his cement is better than that of 
his neighbor. 

And the neighbor who is defeated in the test is correspondingly 
depressed. He has a feeling akin to that of the speculator in 
Buffalo, N. Y., who walked across the road to bestow a kick on a cer- 
tain sleeping omniverous mammal lying in the gutter, because pork 
had taken a drop in the market that day. 

And well may the defeated cement maker feel somewhat de- 
pressed, for the chances are ten to one that the engineer who made 
the tests believes the higher testing brand the better of the two. 

It does not follow that the lower testing cement is the better, 
although it is not impossible, by any means. Neither does it follow 
that the same results would obtain had some other engineer tested 
the same brands from the same packages. 

But in the table we have anotlier problem to deal with. Here 
the two classes are made from identically the same material, and the 
differences in the testing can only be attributable to the different 
modes of manufacture. 

The Portland cement has set much more rapidly than the other 
during the first year, and it is this fact alone that has brought almost, 
if not quite, all the cement-making and cement-using world to believe 
that Portland cement is vastly superior to the rock cement. 

The question arises as to whether or not the prevailing opinion 
is founded on fact. If the answer is confined to the one year's 
showing, then it must be said that the opinion is sound. 

But if the public could be brought to realize that one year is but 
the beginning of the test, that the real trial is but fairly started, and 
is on, so long as the work endures, in which the cement is used; if 
it were understood that after five years not one engineer in a hundred 
can tell either by simply looking at a wall laid in cement, or l)y the 
use of the hammer, whether the cement used was rock or Portland 
cement, and if it were known that it is a fact, that when we have 
occasion to blast out old concrete laid in rock cement twenty-five 
years before, we find it as hard as any rock ; and if it were possible 
for the public to become as familiar with three to five year tests as 
they are with the prevailing tests, then there would be a remarkable 
overturning of preconceived notions in regard to cement values, and 
thinking men to undertake a readjustment of their opinions, for 
nothing is more certain than that if the samples Nos. I and 2 of the 
table given were carried along in the tests yearly from one year to 
five, the table \ continued, would appear substantially as follows: — 


Granting that this table is apjiroximately correct, and we have 
a large collection of tables gathered from many .sources which sub- 
stantially verify the figures given, what are the conclusions to be 
drawn therefrom ? 


2 Years. 

3 Years. 

4 Years. 

5 Years. 

No. I 
No. 2 

I, coo 





The following table of tests was made by C. E. Richards, cement 

tester on the new Croton Aepieduct at Brewster, N. Y., from American 
rock cement manufactured by the author. 



Briquettes one square inch in cross section, one hour in air, 
balance of time in water. 

No. of 

Time when Made. 

Time when Broken. 

Tensile .Strength lbs. 





Oct. 4. i886. 

Oct. 11, i886. 

Oct. II, i886. 
Nov. 29, i886. 
Nov. 21, i886. 
Nov. 30, 1886. 

Nov. 18, 1889. 
Nov. 18, 1889. 
Nov. 1 5, 1889. 
Nov. 18, i88g. 



Unbroken at 1,000 pounds. 
^Unbroken at 1,000 pounds. 

The Riehle 1,000 pound testing machine used. 

The following is an extract from " Records of Tests of Cement," 
made for the Boston Main Drainage Works, 1 878-1884, by Kliot C. 
Clarke, M. Am. Soc. C. E., page i6o: — • 

" The following series of tests may be of interest on account of 
the age of the specimens. The mortars were made with an English 
Portland cement, both unsifted as taken from the cask, and also 
after it had been sifted through the No. 120 sieve, by which process 
about 35 per cent, of coarse particles were eliminated. 

TABLE NO. 12. 


Kind of Cement. 

Neat Cement. 

Cement 1. 

Sand 2. 

Cement i. 

Sand 5. 

2 Years. 

4 Years. 

2 Years. 

4 Years. 

2 Years. 

4 Years. 

Ordinary cement unsifted. 







Cement which passed No. 
120 sieve. 







" This table also shows that fine cements do not give as high 
results, tested neat, as do cements containing coarse particles, even 
coarse particles of sand. It also shows (what is often noticed) that 
neat cements become brittle with age, and are apt to fly into pieces 
under comparatively light loads." 

It cannot be denied that at five years artificial cements are ex- 
tremely brittle, and briquettes made from this class of cements, if 
let fall on a stone floor, after they are four or five years old, will 
fly into as many pieces as would a glass bottle falling from the same 
height, and this is not true of the better quality of rock cements. 

But engineers tell us that they cannot wait five years, or five 
months even, to learn whether a cement is good or bad, which is true 
enough, but does not alter the facts in the case ; and the facts are 
that very high short-time tests are unfailing evidences of subsequent 

These facts are demonstrated in every table wherein the tests 
have been carried from one day to five years, that has ever come 
under the observation of the author. 

The following is an extract from a lecture delivered by the 
author before the Society of Arts of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Boston, November, 1887: — 

" The testing machine reveals many curious freaks, and taken 
on the principle that "everything is for the best," it may yet reveal 
to us that a cement may tesi: too high, that this modern demand for 
high testing cement, and the tremendous struggle on the part of the 
Portland cement manufacturers to supply it, striving by every con- 
ceivable means to beat the record, is all wrong. 

" This may sound strangely at first, but a study of the tables of 
long-time tests of Portland cements, as compiled by such engineers as 
Clarke, of Boston, and MacClay, of New York, and others eminent 
in the profession, reveals the rather startling fact that bricjuettes of 
neat Portland do not test as high at three or four years as they do at 
one or two years old. Clarke says: — 

"' They become l)rittle with age and are a])l to (ly into pieces tiniler 
comparatively light loads.' 

" If this is the result with neat cement at that age, what is to 
prevent the same results with sand mixtures at fifteen to twenty 
years or so ? 

"The ten years' tests of Portland cement, made by Dr. 
Michaelis, of Berlin, show that the maximum strength was reached 
at the end of two years, and this point held fairly well until the end 
of the seventh year; but from that time until the end of the tenth 
year there was a remarkable falling off in values. We do not recol- 
lect ever having seen any table of long-time tests of Portland cement 
that did not exhibit similar results, and it is more than probable that 
it may yet be shown that our best natural, slow-setting American 
cements may, in ten to twelve years' tests, surpass any artificial 
cements. The excellent condition of some of our old work, done 
many years ago with American cements, would seem to indicate as 

" At all events, we have no proof that the Portland is superior 
in the matter of durability, and we do not believe that clay and lime 
can be suddenly thrown together, and kept there by any skill of man, 
that can, in any manner, compare with the staying qualities as found 
in first-class natural cements, where the clay and lime have existed in 
the most intimate contact for countless ages." 

It is now over nine years since the foregoing was written, and 
in the meantime the only changes in the views of the author on this 
subject have been to strengthen rather than to weaken the proposi- 
tion then advanced. 

Years of close observation as to the changes constantly occur- 
ring in a cement subsequent to its use in masonry or concrete leads 
to the inevitable conclusion that a cement which hardens too rapidly 
in its early stages, whether it may be a natural rock or an artificial 
cement, should be looked upon with suspicion rather than with 

It is patent to every observer who has had occasion to examine 
briquettes made from both classes, and broken at three to five years, 
that those which by the records are shown to have tested high in 
their early stages are at a later period extremely brittle and glassy, 
and are entirely devoid of that peculiar toughness which charac- 
terizes the slower setting varieties. 

A cement which attains its limit of tensile strength rapidly will, 
the moment that limit is reached, commence to become brittle, and 
from that time on there will be a continual loss in cohesive strength 
in direct ratio with its increasing brittleness. 

Brittleness and weakness are synonymous. 

Mr. C. H. Brinsmaid, city cement inspector. City Engineer De- 
partment, Minneapolis, Minn., has had twelve years' experience in 
cement testing in the department named, and has compiled some 
valuable tables of tests, some brands of Portland running as high as 
nine years. 

In a correspondence with the author, he remarks incidentally: — 
" Lacking experience, nothing would surprise me more than to see 
how very brittle these old Portland samples become, and how they 
snap arid fly into fragments by a blow of trowel or hammer. There 
is no question but that old Portlands are more brittle than rock 
cements of the same age, however difficult it may be to note the 
proper comparison." 

In Mr. Brinsmaid's tables of neat Portland te-sts, the figures 
disclose that three of the leading German and five of the English 
Portlands reach their limit of strength at one year, after which time 
they begin to deteriorate, at seven years the C7erman falling to 
476 lbs., and the English to 592 lbs. 

Referring to the table (A) continued, it is pertinent lo repeat the 
(juestion, " What are the conclusions to be drawn ? " 

Both No. I and No. 2 are produced from identically the same 
materials and in the same proportions, but No. i being a solid rock, 
and No. 2 a porous mass, they are not affected equally by the same 
amount of heat, and it is from this cause alone that one hardens 
much more rapidly than the other, and conse(|uently tests higher in 
its early stages. Hut that is no evidence of su]ieriority, notwith- 
standing pui)lic opinion to tiie contrary. 

There are certain classes of work wherein it may be necessarv 
to use the higher testing varieties, such, for example, as sidewalks and 
similar work, but for heavy foundations and massive masonry, to use 



the higher priced cement, simply because it tests higher in short time 
tests, is expensive folly, for the slower setting variety, or, in other 
words, the natural rock cements, have been successfully used in the 
heaviest masonry in the world. 

It is well understood that the process of hardening of a cement 
is simply the crystallization of the silicates, which commences shortly 
after they have Vjecome hydrated by the application of water. Some 
hydrated silicates crystallize much more rapidly than others. 

Rapid crystallization rrteans imperfect crystallization, uneven 
in size, shape, and texture. In fact, a mere jumble of irregular 
crystals, and the very rapidity of their formation insures subsequent 
brittleness and weakness, while silicates which crystallize 
slowly form crystals perfect in shape, size, and texture. 

Dana, in his " Manual of Geology,'* page 627, in speaking of the 
texture of rocks, says : •■ The grains are coarser the slower the 
crystallization, or, in other words, the slower the rate of cooling 
during crystallization : and with rapid cooling, they sometimes dis- 
appear altogether, and the material comes out glass instead of 

So in the crystallization of the silicates in a cement. If it tests 
high in its early stages, the breakings of the bricjuettes disclose the 
glassy texture, which is quite unlike the stone-like texture exhibited 
in the .slower varieties. 

It is possible, then, that the testing machine may yet be the means 
of convincing the public that a cement may test too high, as stated 
in the quotation of nine years ago. 

The author does not consider it wild or extravagant to assert it 
as his delil)erate opinion that the specifications diawn by the engi- 
neer of the future will stipulate that the cement to be u.sed shall not 
exceed nor fall below a given number of pounds in tensile strength 
per square inch in cross section at one, seven, thirty, and ninety days. 

When that day arrives there will cease this unseemly scramble 
for high short-time tests. Reason and common sense will prevail, 
guided by a practical knowledge of the chemistry of cements. 

It is not the purpose of the author to disparage or discredit 
Portland cements, but rather to point out their defects, in the hope 
that in so doing, more consideration may be given to the subject, 
and juster conclusions reached. 

Unquestionably an ideal hydraulic cement can be produced by 
what is known as the Portland process, and there is but little doubt 
it would have been much in use at the present time, had it not been 
for the unfortunate misinterpretation of the readings of the tensile 
strain-testing machine in the early stages of its existence. 

.\t the time of its first introduction into England, Portland 
cements were selling at one shilling per bushel, and rock cements 
were selling at eighteen pence per bushel. 

Such was the public opinion as to the relative values of the two 
classes of cements sixty-two years after Parker had brought out his 
Roman (rock) cement, and thirty-four years after Aspdin had jjro- 
duced his artificial (Portland) cement. 

liven at the difference in prices, the Roman cement had by far 
the larger share of the market, and the only means of ascertaining 
the relative values was by the behavior of the cements in actual work, 
and making such tests as placing balls of the cement under water. 

Then came the tensile strain-testing machine, and it was soon 
ascertained that the Portland brands tested higher than the Roman 

It must have been an important event, an epoch, in fact, in the 
lives of those engineers, to be confronted with the revelations dis- 
closed by the testing machine. 

They had been using both classes of cements, and the rock 
cements stood, if the price is any criterion, 50 per cent, higher in 
their estimation than the Portland cements. And yet the testing 
machine showed them that the Portland cements were the stronger, 
and -so, they reasoned, that if stronger, they must be better. Therefore 
ihey had been laboring under a hallucination for, lo, these many 

Judging by their experience in the use of both classes, the 

cement which had seemed to them to be the best, that had given 
them the least trouble, was not the best, after all. 

They never questioned the soundness, or rather unsoundness, of 
their new-found scheme for determining values. 

It did not occur to them that the higher testing cement was not 
necessarily the better cement, and they accepted the result as indis- 

With their former teachings and experience on the one hand, 
and the testing machine on the otlier, the question was not long in 
doubt. The machine was victorious, and thenceforward all judg- 
ment founded on experience was laid aside, and they became blind 
believers in the tensile strain tests. 

What matter though they were continually befogged by the 
frequent, unreasonable, and capricious pranks of the machine, they 
had found a god, and were determined to worship it. 

And so it came to be established as a fixed belief among 
engineers and architects that the best cement was the one which 
tested the highest, and the manufacturer had no alternative but to 
strive to make his product test as high as possible. 

The next step was in the direction of forcing higher tests by 
using an excess of carbonate of lime, or by adulterations. 
( To be continued.) 



PURE calcium oxide consists of 7i.4per cent, of calcium and 28.6 
per cent, of oxygen. Its ordinary form is that of a more or less 
porous earthy white solid which, in a pure condition, is very resistant 
to heat. It has, as has been shown, a great affinity for moisture and 
must be preserved out of contact with air from which it absorbs 
water and carbonic acid. 

Caustic lime, for building purposes, should have the following 
properties : — 

Except when made from coarsely crystalline marble, or from 
marl or shells, it should be in hard lumps. 

It should be white, or nearly .so, in color. Lime of a yellow or 
brownish color, with veins of silicious matter, is inferior. 

It should be free from semi-fused or fused stone, showing over- 
burning, and from unburnt ash of fuel or clinker. 

It should contain less than 10 per cent, of impurities, but often 
has more. 

It should slake rapidly, showing that it is rich and fresh. 

(iood lime in lumps should weigh, as packed, with about 40 per 
cent, of voids, 60 lbs. to the cubic foot, 75 lbs. to the bushel, and from 
220 to 230 lbs. to the barrel of 3 bu.shels. If ground or in powder 
it will weigh less when packed loosely, but when well shaken down it 
will weigh as much as 270 lbs. to the barrel. A lump of hard lime, 
I ft. cube, would weigh about 95 lbs., having a density of 1.52. 


Caustic lime combines with water with the evolution of heat to 
form calcium hydrate. Every 100 parts of caustic lime require 
32 parts of water for its conversion into hydrate. If one third of its 
weight of water is sprinkled on quicklime it becomes very much 
heated, cracks open, if of the massive variety, swells up and falls to 
powder. The heat developed is sufficient, at times, to ignite wood. 
The quicklime becomes .slaked lime. This con.sists of 75.7 per 
cent, of calcium oxide and 24 3 per cent, of water. It has a specific 
gravity, when pure, of 2.07. The increase of volume in the process 
of slaking is due to the formation of steam, which tears the particles 
of lime apart and expands the mass. If a current of dry steam is 
passed over heated caustic lime confined in a tube it becomes slaked 
without any increase of volume. 

The smaller the amount of impurities the more energetic is the 



act of slaking and the greater the increase of volume. In rich and 
pure limes the increase of volume under ordinary conditions will be 
over twice that of the unslaked material, including the voids, while 
with very poor limes it may be much less. The statement frequently 
made that lime increases three volumes in slaking is based upon the 
increase in volume due to the excess of water often used in slaking. 
In this case it may be as great as 3.4. The amount of increase of 
volume for the same lime may be very variable, depending on the 
conditions under which it is slaked. We have seen that it is a reac- 
tion between water and caustic lime where much heat is generated, 
and that to the steam evolved is largely due the expansion of the lime. 
It is evident, therefore, that the provisions for augmenting and 
retaining this heat are of importance. If water is added slowly but 
comparatively little heat is developed, while slaking in an open space 
will not give as much as when it occurs in a closed box. Cold water 
also will not accelerate the action as well as warm. The amount of 
water used has a marked effect on the volume of slaked lime pro- 
duced. With an equal volume of water the increase for a good, 
rich lime is from 2 to 2.4. An increase or reduction in the amount 
of water or in the volume weight of the lime may increase or diminish 

The following experiment shows the effect of different amounts 
of water on an ordinary lime. 

Volume of Water. Increase. 

Vz 1.6 

1 2.0 

2K 2.5 

With a poor dolomitic lime the volume increase was only 

2 1.7 

It appears, therefore, that the increase of volume to be expected 
of any lime is dependent on conditions which may be very variable. 
For example, a peck of lump lime with 44 per cent, of voids between 
the lumps gave, on slaking with its own volume of water, 2^ pecks 
of fine powder of slaked lime, which is a fair increase in volume for 
lump lime. From I peck of closely packed lime, however, 2.5 volumes 
of slaked lime were obtained. The difference in volume is of course 
due to the difference in weight of the lime as packed in the two ways. 

The proper comparison, therefore, is one of volume from weight. 
10 lbs. of caustic lime, for instance, should give 6.8 bushels of 
slaked lime, an increase of volume of 2.25. Gilmore found in some 
of his experiments increases as great as 2.46, 2.83, 3.21, 2.40, and 
2.14, but the weight of lime in his unit volumes was much greater 
than occurs in practise, and large amounts of water were used in 
slaking so that he was dealing with paste instead of dry slaked lime. 
His experimental results, as compared with our own, are as follows : — 

Rockland. Roundout. New York. 

Gilmore. Richardson. 

Weight of lime in lbs 5 5 5 

Volume of lime in c. c ISS7 1806 2350 

Volume of water to slake . . . 2983 3300 2000 

Increase of weight, per cent. . . 2.24 2.24 1.60 

Increase in volume 2.46 2.14 1. 91 

It will be seen that 5 lbs. of Gilmore's lime occupied a smaller 
original volume than ours, and an excess of water was used in slaking, 
which accounts for his results. The theoretical increase in weight 
should be 1.53 per cent. 

General Totten found in experiments on slaking limes no increase 
in volume greater than 2.27 when no more than an equal volume of 
water was used. The increase of volume is commonly used as a test 
of the quality of lime. 

Air Slaking. Slaked lime is also produced by exposure of 
caustic lime to the air, from which it absorbs sufficient water to 
become hydrated, as well as some carbonic acid. This is known as 
air-slaked lime. It is of little value for mortar making, because 
there has not been enough heat produced in its formation to tear 
apart and expand the particles which will alone enable it to form a 
rich paste. The larger particles have also to a certain extent 

become hardened on their surfaces by a kind of setting, and by the 
absorption of carbonic acid from the air. 

Practise in Lime Slaking. In practise, the slaking of lime 
for mortar is conducted in several ways. Either sufficient water is 
sprinkled over the lime to combine with it and resolve it to a powder, 
providing also an excess for that lost in the form of steam, or an 
excess is added at once, sufficient to make the finished mortar. 

The first method is in some ways the best, because a finer, looser 
powder is produced, in the manner already described, and because the 
poorer limes are much more easily and thoroughly slaked in this way 
with the aid of the greater heat evolved. When too large an amount 
of water is used the development of heat is prevented, and the opera- 
tion is much less complete. The particles of lime which are left 
unslaked go into the mortar in that condition and, being subsequently 
slowly hydrated by the moisture of the air, expand with injurious 
effect after it has been used. The popping of mortar, frequently 
noticed in the walls and ceilings of dwellings, is due to this cause. For 
the same rea.son, given above, all the water which 'is to be used should 
be added at once or nearly so. If it is added in small portions the 
effect is to cool down the whole mass and prevent thorough slaking. 

We have seen that a third of its weight of water is theoretically 
necessary for slaking lime. In practise, however, to allow for vapor- 
ization as steam, and for the slight excess necessary to bring all the 
particles in contact with moisture, this amount must be increased to 
at least an equal weight. It is difficult to say what volume of water 
should be used, as this depends on the volume weight of the lime, 
which is variable. It is ordinarily about that of the lime itself plus 
its voids. Practically it is convenient with fat lime to use two and a 
half volumes of water, which will suffice for slaking and for the pro- 
duction of a paste. Poor magnesian limes require less. 

As heat assists in the expansion of the lime, the operation is 
best carried on in a covered box. One half of the water is added 
at first, and as soon as the lime begins to fall to pieces the rest is 
poured in and thoroughly mixed with the slaking material. The 
entire mass will thus be raised to a high temperature. The opera- 
tion thus carried on takes place rapidly, but it can hardly be 
considered completed until the mass has become cool, or until even 
after a longer time. In cold weather it is advantageous to use warm 
water, especially with poor limes. 

Water for Slaking and Mixing. Water used for slaking 
lime and making mortar should be pure. When it contains salts, 
such as chlorides and sulphates, the mortar effloresces and gives 
rise to stains. For this reason sea water is unsuitable, although it 
has been used successfully with hydraulic cement. 


The lime paste made in the manner previously described may 
be too stiff for mortar if a very rich lime has been used, or if 
a very large volume of sand is to be employed in making the mortar. 
There is no difficulty in thinning it, however, to the proper consistency, 
depending on the character of the mortar to be made. If, however, 
more than two and a half volumes of water are added to the lime at 
first the resulting paste will have a tendency to be granular and to 
contain lumps which, in the thin cream, it is impossible to break up. 
In careless practise as much as three or four volumes of water are 
sometimes used in slaking lime, when it is intended to make a mortar 
with a large volume of sand. Stretching the cream in this manner 
to make a small amount of lime fill a large volume of sand voids 
makes the resulting mortar very porous when dry. 

Good paste of lime should not contain at the extreme more than 
three volumes of water as compared to the measured volume of the 

As there are generally some hard and unslaked particles even in 
the best limes, the cream should be run through a sieve if possible, 
after standing over night, before mixing it with the sand. It should 
be remembered that the longer the jiaste stands l)efore use the smoother 
it ])ecomes. As will be seen later, this im])rovement goes on after the 
mortar has been mixed. 



The Masons' Department. 




THE recent controversy between the mayor of Boston and the 
Master 15uilders' Association of the same city, regarding the 
award of the contract for building a public bath house, although 
carried so far as to become merely a war of words, has nevertheless 
raised several questions of importance to all persons interested directly 
or indirectly in the building business. The simple facts of the case 
are as follows : The city advertised for bids on a bath house, and the 
contract for the work stated that preference would be given to 
" union labor." The bids were opened and taken under advise- 
ment, as is customary, but after the usual time allowed for the ex- 
amination of the proposals had elapsed, instead of awarding the 
contract to the lowest bidder, it was given to the second lowest, whose 
figure was some three hundred dollars higher. This action at once 
aroused the indignation of the Master Builders' .Association, one of missions is to guard the interests of the lowest bidder, provid- 
ing his qualifications for the performance of the work are unques- 
tioned, and the mayor was at once asked to explain the reasons for 
such discrimination. The reply was made that as the labor unions 
had taken special interest in this particular scheme, it was thought 
desirable to have, so far as possible, only union labor employed on 
the work, and that the contract had been awarded to the concern 
which was known to employ this class of help. Subsequent corre- 
spondence, however, brought out the fact that the lowest bidders em- 
ployed union labor as well as those who had received the award, and 
the mayor's action in the end seemed to be justified only by the right 
which is always reserved to reject any or all bids, should it be for 
the interest of the city so to do, which doubtless justified the trans- 
action from the legal, but not necessarily from the moral point of 
view. As almost all of the labor unions of the city have since 
passed resolutions indorsing the mayor's action, the motive in this 
particular instance seems to be apparent. Although the incident in 
itself is of no great importance, there are several principles involved 
which justify a brief consideration. First, as to the advisability of 
awarding public work to any but the lowest bidder, providing he is 
responsible. While in many instances it would undoubtedly be for 
the interest, both of the pul)lic and the architect, to discriminate in 
the awarding of such work, nevertheless, where contracts are thrown 
open to general competition, as is usually retjuired by law, it is es- 
tablishing a dangerous precedent to permit the work to be given to 
any but the lowest bidder, unless he may be proved irresponsible, 
and the amount of difference between the bids should liave no bear- 
ing whatsoever in the case, as it was intimated was the fact in the 
instance above noted. The difference of a dollar, under these condi- 
tions, should be respected just as much as a difference of a thousand 
or more. 

If discrimination in the award of contracts for public work is to 
be permitted at all, it should be done by allowing the architect, or 
other qualified person or persons, to select a certain limited number 
of contractors to figure the work, thus preventing the work being 
placed upon the open market, and the consequent liability of being 
obliged to accept an inferior grade of work ; but where this method 
is employed the rights of the lowest bidder should always be re- 
spected, as well as under an open competition. 

The award of this bath-house contract, moreover, shows the 
labor unions in rather a new r61e. It is true they have for some 
time been asking for various forms of legislation in their behalf, and 
have appeared in politics to a considerable extent, but this is one of 
the first instances where they have requested or gained favoritism in 
the award of a building contract. But this step is only following some 
of the numerous examples which we have constantly before us, in the 
direction of asking the government to do something for somebody 

for no valid or particular reason, a policy which, if not checked and 
rooted out, will soon prove, if it is not already, a serious menace to 
our republican institutions. There is no ground on which a labor 
union can ask for preference in the awarding of contracts for public 
work, unless it may be for the same reason that such organizations 
as our largest trust and most extensive monopoly receive aid from 
the native government, which is, of course, no reason at all, and the 
.sooner such things are stopped the better. The evils of special 
legislation and class preference are in direct antagonism to the spirit 
of republican institutions, and admit of no argument. The example 
in such directions is set by those who ought to know better, but whose 
avarice and greed overcome their rather shallow ideas of justice and 
honesty. Who can wonder that such example is blindly followed by 
those who see the government being used to bolster and enrich pri- 
vate individuals and corporations, and from this spectacle gather the 
impression which soon becomes conviction, that legislation is the 
panacea for all ills ? 

It was intimated during the controversy regarding the award of 
this contract, that one of the reasons for giving a preference to union 
labor was that it would insure better work, which is at best a most 
doubtful statement, for the simple reason that most unions are run to 
help the poorest rather than the best men, a principle which, being 
in direct violation of one of the fundamental laws of nature, namely, 
" the survival of the fittest," is bound in the end to fail. The truth 
is that the management of the great majority of unions is in the hands 
of incompetent men, those who like to talk but not to work, and very 
often a man who is too poor a workman to earn a day's wages at his 
trade is found high up in the councils of the union, or an active 
member of the board of walking delegates. It is certainly a fact 
that at the present time union labor insures no better work than the 
average, and there is conse(|uentIy no just reason for discrimination 
in their favor under the impression that superior results will be 
thereby obtained. No one who has followed the work of the labor 
organizations can deny that in many ways their work has been bene- 
ficial and progressive but in this matter they have shown as they too 
often do their weakest side. The award of the contract for this 
building and the controversy which followed it have certainly raised 
several novel questions, and it will be interesting for all those who 
are concerned in such matters to watch the future developments, for 
the affair has raised several interesting points which will take time 
and further experience to decide. 


THE notion that the greater the height of a chimney for a 
boiler plant the greater will be its draught-producing power 
is responsible for the existence of many chimneys of imposing size, 
and, at the same time, unnecessary expense. A very tall chimney, 
well proportioned and gracefully outlined, may be a striking archi- 
tectural adjunct to a factory, but it is also one that costs considerable 
money without doing any measurable amount of good. Where 
chimneys are intended to carry off noxious fumes from chemical 
works, there is, of course, some method in providing for unusual 
height, since the aim in such a case is to insure as complete as pos- 
sible a diffusion of the vapors and prevent their mingling with the 
air of the lower strata; but for boilers simply unusual height, as 
stated, is rarely based upon a good reason. 

As a matter of fact, the draught-producing capacities of chimneys 
having flues of the same size are in proportion to the square roots of 
their heights, so that if one were to have double the power, if it may 
be so called, of the other, it would have to be four times as high, 
and not merely twice as high, as many would suppose. A height of 
150 feet may be considered, on good authority, as the maximum 
necessary in any case for producing the requisite draught, providing, 
of course, that the area of the flue has been properly proportioned. 
This latter should be made to bear a pretty nearly direct ratio to the 
combined areas of the boiler flues connecting with it. A chimney 
much beyond 150 feet is generally suggestive of misspent money. — 
Gassier' s Magazine for August. 





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Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 


Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK.— During the past month there has been a 
decrease in the number of plans for large and important 
buildings which have been filed with the building department, but 
there has been a decided increase in the number of contemplated 
dwellings and apartment houses, both city and suburban. This is 
the best possible indication of gradually restored confidence and the 
pa.ssing of "hard times." Business men will risk a great deal of 
money at almost any time when a large return seems assured to them, 
but the luxury of a new dwelling house cannot be indulged in when 
the future is uncertain. One unfortunate instance of misplaced 
confidence has been brought to our notice this week in the Syndicate 
Building, sold for the third time within two years, and at a great loss 
to its original owners, injured to a great extent by its name. 

A very interesting new building is the Telephone Building, on 
Dey Street, just completed. It has a very refined Italian Renais- 
sance facade, constructed entirely of blocks of terra-cotta, with a 
great deal of elaborate detail beautifully executed. This building is 
so successful that a great many are of the opinion that terra-cotta 
will be largely used in place of stone for facing in the future. 

Great changes will be made this month on lower Broadway to 

make room for the many new office buildings, as announced in our 
last number. Many old landmarks will have to go; one particularly 

ST. CHRISTOI'HICK'S hospital, FAIRHILI. square, I'mi-AIJELl'lllA, PA 
Frank Miles Kay & Brotlici, .Architccls. 


Made by Northwesleni Terra-Cotta l"(nnpany. 

interesting, as it is the last residence remaining on Broadway in 
what was once a fashionable section, the handsome building corner 
of 19th Street, known for generations as the Geolet Mansion. It 
will be destroyed to make way for an eight- 
story brick store and loft building, to be 
erected by Almy & Gallatin, from plans by 
J. B. Snook & Sons, architects. 

Another sky-scraper is to be erected 
overlooking Battery Park. R. A. and W. H. 
Cheseborough have filed plans for a fifteen- 
story brick office building, to cost ;?200,ooo. 
To be erected from plans by Clinton & Rus- 
sell, at the southeast corner of State and 
Pearl Streets, opposite the present six-story 
Cheseborough Building. 

J. C. Lyons has filed plans for a twelve- 
story brick store and loft building, to cost 
5800,000, to be erected at Nos. 294 and 296 
Broadw-ay, extending to Manhattan Place. 
Buchman & Diesler are the architects. This 
building will adjoin the fifteen-story R. G. 
Dun Building, for which excavations are now 
in progress, while the Astor estate will build 
to the north at the Duane Street corner. 

Barney & Chapman, architects, have 
designed a sixteen-story office building, to be 
erected at 684 Broadway, for the Rhinelander 

Harding & Gooch have filed plans for 
an eighteen-story hotel, to be erected on the 
Paran Stevens property, 44th Street and 
Fifth Avenue, at a cost of $1,500,000. 

VVm. Rankin has filed plans for four five- 
story brick stores and flats, costing #100,000, 
to be erected at the southwest corner of 
.Manhattan Avenue and io2d -Street. 

The city has filed plans for a five-story 
t)rick public school building, to be erected 
on the east side of Avenue A, between 77th 
and 78th Streets, at a cost of $260,000. 

The trustees of the Cathedral of St. John 






Henry J. Hardenbergli, Architect. 

Front brick furnislied by Raritan Hollow & Porous Brick Company. 

the Divine ave decided to complete tlie choir at once; $1,000,000 
has been appropriated for this purpose. A bishop's palace is to be com- 
menced as soon as the plans are approved, which will cost $100,000. 

CHICAGO. — The exhibition at the Art Institute, under the 
auspices of the Chicago Architectural Club, which closed 
April 1 1, eclipsed all former exhibits. Some eight hundred drawings 
filled the walls of four galleries. There were very few pen and ink 
renderings, most of the work being in water color, and many were 
exceedingly well done. There were no photographs, with perhaps 
one exception, and no regular working drawings which would show 
office methods. Very few products of the " allied arts " were 
admitted, one interesting instance being a bronze door for the new 
public library. 

The Illinois chapter of the American Institute of Architects 
had offered as a prize to members of the Chicago Architectural Club, 
who had not been in independent practise more than two years, a 
gold medal for the best individual exhibit. Instead of the gold 




James R. Ware, Arcliitect. 

Executed in terra-cotta by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 


Addison Hutton, Architect. 

l!rowi\ mottled terra-cntta bricks furnished by the Perth Ainboy Tcrra-Cotta (Company. 

medal, however, three silver medals were awarded, to Messrs. H. M. 
G. Garden, H. T. Ross, and Victor Traxler. 

The Art Institute has provided club rooms for the use of the 
Chicago Architectural Club in the Institute Building. This step is 
the first looking toward an affiliation of various kindred organizations 
at Chicago's art center. New York architects can appreciate the 
enthusiasm of the Chicago Club over the new departure by imagining 
the Metropolitan Museum located near their business center, and 



offering them not 
onl)- the use of 
private club 
rooms, but access 
to all the gallery, 
lecture, and 
schoolroom privi- 

One more 
matter in connec- 
tion with the Art 
Institute : it will 
soon have a new 
auditorium for its 
lecture courses. 

1) i r e c t o r 
French has a plan 
for distributing 
the work of the 
interior decora- 
tion which will 
greatly interest 
students and 
graduates. The 
work will be under 
one direction, to 
avoid as far as 
possible the criti- 
cism made even 
against the deco- 
ration of the new Congressional Library — a lack of unity 
Coolidge is the architect. 

The Institute of Architects is making some of their meetings 
interesting by devoting the greater part of a session to a very frank 
and free discussion and criticism of the buildings of a particular 

11. W. Jones, Architect. 

Mr. Chas. 

architect. Vi v i - 
section is good- 
indulged in to 
determine why a 
building is a fail- 
ure or success. 

The business 
depression and 
the large number 
of new office 
buildings in Chi- 
cago have com- 
bined to make 
offices a drug in 
the market. Good 
offices can be 
rented at a very 
low price. 

As to pro- 
spective work. 
K. Hruce Watson 
has completed the 
drawings for two 
pumping stations 
for the city. The 
designs, which 
are very agreea- 
ble, are to be ex- 
ecuted in brick. 
Architect S. A. Treat has designed a new lecture hall. 
N. S. Patton, architect to the Board of Education, has several 

new school buildings on hand. 

S. S. Beman has made plans for the Studebaker Hotel at South 

Bend, Indiana, to cost $125,000. 

The City Council has been juggling 

again with the limit of height of buildings. 

An ordinance was passed reducing it to 

go ft., but it has been raised again to i 50 


A matter exciting general interest on 

the streets, lately, has been the delivery and 

erection of the colonnade for the new Illi- 
nois Trust and Savings Bank. Each shaft 

is a monolith of Maine granite weighing 

some twelve or fourteen tons. 


i'Vank .Miles Oay & Hrother. .Arcliitecis. 
Executed in terra-cotla by the Conltling-.Arnistrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

ST. LOUIS.— The unusual activity 
among builders in the suburbs is 
regarded as an encouraging sign. There 
are rumors of numerous large schemes in 
contemplation, but few are taking definite 

The Union Club, which wasdestroyed 
by the cyclone, has been rebuilt by archi- 
tects Grable, Webber & Groves. It is an 
admiral)le piece of colonial work in rich 
red brick with white trimmings. A fine 
porch with large columns surmounted by a 
pediment marks the entrance. The build- 
ing has also been enlarged and arranged 
for stores on the Jefferson Avenue side. 

The original building, which was an 
interesting piece of Romanesc|ue in white 
stone, was designed by architect T. C. 
Link, and had only been completed a year 
or so when it was de.stroyed. 

The new St. Augustine Church on 

Willis C. Hale. Architect. 
.Made hy Standard Terra-Cotta 



Herbert Street is a good example of Gothic architecture. It is 
built of pink brick with terra-cotta trimmings. The interior is to be 
finished with groined ceilings which extend to a height not usually 
seen at the present day. It will cost about #175,000. 

The Lionberger Building, a noble example of Richardsonian 
work, which was destroyed in our million and a quarter dollar fire 



Willis G. Hale, Architect. 

Made by Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 

last month, is to be rebuilt by Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. It is 
their intention to reproduce the original building as nearly as possi- 

PITT.SIiURG. — Business in the architectural and building lines 
is brightening, and a considerable amount of work is promised 
during the coming season. 

Architect Wm. Kauffman is the successful competitor in the 
Greensburg Court House competition ; the building is to cost about 

The Carnegie Steel Company, of this city, has been awarded 
the contract for the first steel fire-proof building to be erected in the 
Orient. It is an office and mercantile building to be erected at Tokio, 

.Several prominent business men here are interested in the erec- 
tion of a new family hotel opposite Highland Park. Plans call for a 
fourteen-story, fire-proof structure, to cost $300,000. 

The Exposition Society have planned to expend about $100,000 
on improvements to their buildings this year. 

The Third Ward Allegheny School Board are contemplating 
the erection of a brick school building to cost $150,000. It will con- 
tain a manual training school and all departments for the education 
of children in various industrial lines. 

Architect Wm. Ross Proctor has cotnpleted plans for a new 
hospital which he will submit to the board of managers of the West 
Penn Institution. The complete plans call for fourteen buildings. 

Architect S. F. Heckert is receiving bids for the erection of the 
convent building at Millvale, which is to cost $250,000. 

The same architect is also preparing plans for a five-story brick 
Casino for the St. Michael's Roman Catholic congregation on the 
South Side. 

Architect J. L. Beatty was the successful competitor for the 

Woman's U. P. Hospital, which will be erected on .Sandusky Street, 
Allegheny, at a cost of $40,000. 

Architect Edward Stotz will prepare plans for the new South 
Side High School. 

Prof. H. L. Braun will build a four-story brick and stone busi- 
ness block, auditorium, and apartment house on S. Highland Avenue, 
to cost $50,000. 

Architect F. C. Sauer has been commissioned to prepare plans 
for a large brick and stone church and monastery for the Capuchin 
Fathers, to be erected at Canal Dover, Ohio. 

MINNEAPOLI.S. — An inquiry among the architects of the 
Northwest, conducted by the '• Improvement Bulletin " of 
Minneapolis, brings out the fact that few, if any, architects are antici- 
pating any very large undertakings this season. 

The architects of Wisconsin have secured the passage of a bill 
requiring all persons desiring to practise architecture to pay annual 
fee and be subject to an examination. Illinois architects are also 
agitating a similar bill. We sincerely hope this will spread until it is 
re(|uisite in every State. 

Our Governor covered himself with glory recently by vetoing a 
bill framed and engineered through the legislature, changing the site 
of proposed new hospital for the insane, from Aroka to Hastings. 
Inasmuch as the State had purchased a site at the former place in 
good faith, the citizens making a liberal donation to same, the matter 
was considered by him as closed, and any further agitation as un- 
worthy the dignity and honor of the State. He was upheld by a 
large majority of the legislature. 

Among the larger improvements under way at present may be 
mentioned: brick residence for Geo. H. Partridge, by Long & Kees, 
architects, to cost $20,000. Public Library at Rochester, Minn., by 
C. S. Sedgwick, architect, to cost $18,000, won in competition. 
School building at Kaukauna, Wis., by Orff & Joralemon, architects, 
to cost $21,500; and another at Jordan, Minn., same architects, to 
cost $15,000. 

There will evidently be large improvements in the smaller towns, 
but the cities will do no very great building. 



Wilson Brothers & Company, Architects. 

Executed in terra-cotta by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company.- 


THE recently published catalogue of the Fawcett Ventilated 
Fire-proof Building Company is before us. The particular 
system of fire-proof construction which is manufactured and put on 
the market by this company is in several respects quite different from 
the ordinary arch block construction. It assumes that fire will 
readily heat through thin terra-cotta, just as water can be made to 
boil in an earthen pot, and that if the flange of a beam be once 
heated sufficiently the beam will expand, deflect, and come down with 
the floor, causing damage to the building, as well as to the floor it- 
self ; and therefore, in order to afford insulation of the lower flange, 
the Fawcett l)locks are so devised as to interpose between the metal 
and the terra-cotta, a space through which air, when heated, may 
freely circulate. This is the principle of the Fawcett floor, and it is 
claimed that though a fire may heat through a plaster ceiling, or may 
heat the terra-cotta to even a white heat, before it can reach the one 
vulnerable point, the 1 beam it.self, it must heat through a layer of 
air which is not confined, and the more intense the heat the inore 
rapid the circulation of the air. 

Another claim of the Fawcett construction is that the fire-proof- 
ing blocks or sections can be laid without any centering whatever, 
and will form a ground for a perfectly level and even ceiling. The 
sections are made in the form of a horseshoe cylinder. These are 
cut with a bevel at each end of a length so as to just fit between the 
flanges of two beams, the ends being further rebated so that the 
lower portion of the terra-cotta section dips below the flange of 
the beam. As soon as these sections are in place the spaces above 
are filled in with concrete to receive the finished floor. This con- 
struction is doubtless familiar to all our readers, for the Fawcett con- 
struction is long past the experimental state, and has been used and 



recognized by many leading architects in tiiis country and abroad. 
It can be adapted to any building or any circumstance, and can be 
built to carry a superimposed load of anywhere from 50 to 1,500 
lbs. per square foot. The catalogue gives a list of the buildings 
in which this construction has been used, which includes many prom- 
inent buildinsjs in our large cities. 


The contract for front and inside brick for the Dover Street 
Hath House has been given to Waldo Brothers. 

Waldo Brothers have secured the order for front bricks for 
Paul Revere Schoolhouse, Boston. 

The WHiri-: Brick and Teura-Cotta Company have re- 
moved their New York office from 92 Liberty Street to the Presby- 
terian Building, 156 Fifth Avenue. 

The Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Construction Com- 
p.\NV have contracted for the structural steel work and fire-proofing 
for the new Probate Court Building, East Cambridge, Mass. 

Powhatan face bricks will be used on alteration of building 
on Beach Street, Mr. Hennessey, the owner, having placed the 
order with Waldo Brothers- 

The Ralston Brick Company has secured the contract for 
supplying the brick that will be used in the buildings of the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York. 

Waldo Brothers have sold Alsen Portland and Hoffman 
Rosendale cements to Richardson & Young for use on section 9, 
Boston Subway. 

Having completed the improvement in their plant, which con- 
sisted of putting in new machinery, the Ralston lirick Company is 
running to the limit of their capacity on orders that had [accumu- 

C. Everett Clarke & Co., builders of the new building on 
Congress Street, near Atlantic Avenue, have contracted with Waldo 
Brothers for Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland and Hoffman 
Rosendale cements. 

The Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company has closed 
contract for the fire-proofing of the new Baltimore Court House, John 
Gill & Sons and D. W. Thomas, general contractors. This contract 
amounted to about $65,000. 

The Nelsonville Sewer Pipe Company, of Nelsonville, 
have purchased an Eagle Re-press from the American Clay-Working 
Machinery Company. The Nelsonville people report the outlook 
for business much improved. 

Waldo Brothers have closed a contract with the city of 
Newton for the supply of Portland cement for the season of 1897. 
The city decided to use Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Anchor brand, 
although other brands were offered at lower figures. 

The Union Akron Cement Company, Buffalo, is furnishing 
their Akron Star Brand Cement on the following work : new building 
for the Buffalo Street Railway Company ; No. I School House ; also 
for the fire-proofing in the Leno.\ Flats, the Otto Building, and the 
Evans' Building. 

Contracts have been recently closed for placing the Bolles 
Sliding and Revolving Sash in the following buildings: United 
States Government Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; warehouse, Geo. 
Blome & Son, Baltimore ; Fourth Regiment Armory, Baltimore ; 
large apartment house, Washington, D. C. 

The Des Moines Brick Manufacturing Company, of 
Des Moines, Iowa, one of the most progressive firms in the West, 

are making some extensive improvements and will put in the Eagle 
Re-presses, and an automatic table of the American Clay-Working 
Machinery Company's make. 

The Standard Terra-Cotta Company have secured 
through their New England agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., the con- 
tract for the terra-cotta on the Registry of Deeds and Probate Court 
Buildings, East Cambridge, Mass., O. W. Cutter, architect, Thomas H. 
Connell, builder. 

The new brick plant of W. S. Ravenscroft & Co., at Dagusca- 
honda, Penn., has begun operations, and has already enough orders in 
hand for gray and buff brick to keep them going on full time for 
several months. The plant is equipped with Simpson Brick 

The American Clay-Working Machinery Co.mpany, of 
Bucyrus, has found it necessary to further increase Hs force both in 
the mechanical and clerical departments. 

The shops are working full time in every department, some 
branches putting in extra time in their effort to keep abreast of the 
orders. More traveling men have been put on the road. There is 
a general air of old-time business rush with this establishment. 

The Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Company 
have closed the following contracts: 250,000 plain buff brick, all 
the molded buff brick, for new passenger station, Boston & Maine 
Railroad, Manchester, N. H. Red face and molded brick for new 
high school at Great Barrington, Mass., Henry Vaughan, architect. 
Molded brick for Norwood Press Company Building, at Norwood, 
Mass. Molded brick for Phillips Building, at Washington, D. C. 
Molded brick for Pope Manufacturing Company Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Molded brick for Schiller Turn Verein Building, at 
Pittsburg, Penn. 

The New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Com- 
pany has just placed on the market a new style hollow bonding 
brick, an illustration f^ryp* 

of which we show 
herewith. These 
bricks differ from the 
regular make of hollow 
brick in that the holes 
run crosswise instead 
of longi t u d i n a 1 1 y . 
Their size is 8 by 2)i 

t>y 3'/2- The idea was suggested by Mr. Snyder, architect of public 
schools, New York, and they are now specified in the new school 

Chambers Brothers Company are about making shipment 
of some $15,000 worth of brick-making machinery to Nashville, 
Tenn., to be exhibited at the Tennes.see Centennial during the com- 
ing summer. They have erected a building especially for their own 
use, and will have a very interesting exhibit of machinery in practi- 
cal operation. It is the largest exhibit of the kind that they have 
ever made, and will embody both end-cut and side-cut auger 
machines, steam power re-press, disintegrators, dry pans, clay eleva- 
tors, and dryer equipment, etc. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Company, which has 
nearly completed its work on the Boston Subway, has closed several 
important contracts lately. It is remodeling the great stairway of 
Jordan, Marsh & Co., Boston, the iron edge left for the purpose of 
retaining rubber mats having proved a source of danger. Safety 
treads are to be placed upon the steps of the Administration Building 
of the Metropolitan Park Commission, at Revere Beach, Mass., 
Stickney & Austin, architects; the new Tufts Building, Boston, Rand 
& Taylor, Kendall &. Stevens, architects. 

The granite steps of the Lowell Post-ofiice are to be made safe 
with this material. The company is now putting out a non-slipping, 
unwearable sidewalk light, to be known as " The Mason Light." 



The Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Co., 


Will in the future be given up 
entirely to the manufacture of 

Cream White Bricks. 

Many leading architects and their buildings will testify that these bricks have no equal. 

Through our sales agency, located at TOWNSEND BUILDING 

25th ST. and BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY, F. H. S. MORRISON, Manager, 

we have arranged to handle the product of the 

Jarden Brick Co., for the dties of new york and Brooklyn, 

O. W. KETCHAM Hrcbitectutal XTctta^Cotta anb jfaience, 

fire Brick, dFire^proofino, IRoofino Zilc, 
AGEnxroR Builders' anb flDosaics. .«^^^- 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. ^^^=== 

Penn. Enameled Brick Co. C|| pr)l jpc 

Fiske. Homes & Co. — ^— FrOIlt aHCl y-^ • ^ 

Penn. Buff Brick and Tile Co. Builders' Exchange, 1^ -^^^ /^ It" 

Grueby Faience CO. PHILADELPHIA, PA. Enamelcd Jjl 1^JV« 

Telephone 2163. 

H. F. MAYLAND &. CO., 



Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 




Panels over Entrances, eleven leet diameter, 


Illustrations of Romanesque work, executed in brow^n terra-cotta, for store for Messrs. Abraham & Straus, Brooklyn. N. Y. 

Geo. L. Morse, Architect. 



Rocky Hill, N. J. 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co., 

lo^ East lid Street, N. Y. 




The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Co., 

Manufacturers of 

Terra- Cotta. 

K. MATHIASEN, President. 

Works : PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

Office: 108 Fulton Street, New York City, 


East 73o St., New York City. 

WILLIAM C. FROHME, Architect. 

Architectural Terra-Cotta furnished by the 


Sales Agents for New England, G* IV* 1 WichcU & CO*, 19 Federal Street, Boston. 



Patented in England, Belgiun:i, France, United States. 

Concrete. CiMPen 

[i w i n ' im i i i iii i Mi ii ri iiiii i i ; i [ iii:.i i ]i...iiHMiiiiii inimnin; 

LONGITUDINAL SECTION Showing the Tubular Terra-Cotta Lintel encasing the Beam, 
THE Air Passage under Beam, and the Admission of Colo Air into the End of Tubular Lintel. 


lintels with concrete 

rm_i.2«niMiiiiiMWM.Kii_Ml_llH m 

iifi i Hiim wi irf imi 


LONGITUDINAL SECTION Showing the Concrete Bearing on the Bottom Flange of 
THE Beam and Cold Air Passage under the Beam. 

TRANSVERSE SECTION Showing the Air — "' ' " - ' "' ■■-—■-■■■- 

Passage under the Beams and the Admission of TRANSVERSE SECTION Showing the Con- 

CcLD Air into the Side of the Lintel. NOTE.- crete Bearing on the Bottom Flange of the 

Onlt two AiB Bricks are absolutely necessary Beam A. NOTE. -There is no Room for the 

IN Each Room to obtain a Thorough Draught Concrete to work under the Beams at A. other- 


SAME Wall. 







Scale in Feet. 

Table showing the Weight of Materials used in Constructing the 
Fawcett Ventilated Fireproofing System. 



IN Floor. 

Wt. of floor material per sq. ft. of surface, for various size beams. 



IN Fluor. 


4 in. 



7 in. 


9 in. 

10 in. 

12 in. 

Steel Beams 
Wood Floor 

3.7 lbs 
15.0 „ 
2G.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

.5.1 lbs 
15.0 „ 
32.5 „ 
■ 3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

15.0 „ 
33.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 ,, 

8.9 lbs 
15.0 „ 
45.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
70 „ 

10.5 lbs 
l.i.O „ 
52.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

12.2 lbs 
15.0 „ 
58.5 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

15.5 lbs 
15.0 „ 
C5.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

19.1 lbs 
15.0 „ 
78.0 „ 
3.5 „ 
7.0 „ 

Steel r.eams 
Wood Floor 

Total Dead 1 
Weight { 

52.2 „ 

03.1 „ 

71.4 „ 

79.0 „ 

88.0 „ 

96.2 „ 

106.0 „ 

122.6 „ 

Total Dead 

NOTE.— The Dead 'Weight per sq. ft. of surface is calculated for Concrete 

2 inches above top of Beams. 

Table showing Size of Steel Beams used in the Construction of the 

Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof ing System. 





Sq. Ft. 

100 lbs. 

10 Feet. 

12 Feet. 1 14 Feet. 

16 Feet. 

18 Feet. 

20 Feet. 

22 Feet. 

24 Feet. 

26 Feet. 




Sq. Ft. 















7 1 


9 2 





11 9 6 1 





17 2 





7 5 








14 4' 7 I 

17 8 




20 3 

9124 4 

1.50 lbs. 


5 1 


5 1 





14 4 

71 'l7.8 8 1 



20 3 

10 I 25 5 


200 lbs. 

■2M lbs. 

5 1 

10 .-t 

6 I 


14 4 71 

15 5 

8 1 17 2 9 1 

20 3 


24 4 

10 I "0.0 

lOI.TS 1 

250 lbs. 


5 1 

11. 9 



15.5 8 1 

17.2^9 1 20 3 91 

25.1 101 


12 I 30.0 


300 lbs. 

NOTE.— The above sizes of beams are for the finished floor includine concrete 2 inches 1 



: tof 

of 1 


is, y 


•J pin 

e flo 


?. an 



ed ceiling. 



The Only System that provides an Absolutely Scientific Safeguard against Fire. 

Adopted by Architects and Hngineers on Account of 

1. Fireproof Quality. 4. Strength. 

2. Sanitary Value. 5. Ease and Quickness of 

3. Lightness. Construction. 

6. Cheapness. 

In these 6 Main Advantages The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Floor 
Excels all Other. 


448, 449, 450, and 451 

Philadelphia Bourse, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent forthe New England states, JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 TreiTiont BuildiMg, Bostop, Mass. 
sales Agent for New York, A. J. COFFIN, 412 Presbytcrian Building, Fifth Ave., New York. 






Central Fireproofing 













874 Broadway^ New York* 



....Established J856 . 


Manufacturers of 

Fire=Proof Building Materials. 

Floor Arches, 



Roofings Etc» 

Porous Tcrra-G)tta 

of all SizeS; 

Flue Linings, 

Etc«, Etc, 

Office and Depot, 


25 per cent. Stronger and Lighter than any other method. 


420 EAST 23d STREET, 

-New York. 



On C. R. R. of N. J. 

Philadelphia Office, 18 South 7th Street. 

The accompanying illustration is of 

TREMONT TEMPLE, Boston, Mass, 

L. P. SOULE & SON, . . 

. Builders. 

tatmh^ ■ ''lillilli 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 






Pioneer Fire- Proof Construction Company, 

1545 So. Clark Street, Chicago. 

The Only System 
Awarded a 
and Diploma 



g/ \«gi»saaKiaH?/ 

iffia!aag!B PiH8 , \ ^;pmg«Bsgp/ ^^ueasfissistmi sHfiKiggMH& atjwg^ 



Onr PaleDtei Traisverse System of Floor Arch Conslrnctlon, Made in 9, 10, 12. and 15 incli depllis. 

At the 

Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

Hollow, Solid and Porous Terra-Cotta 


R. C. PENHELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. J. A. GREEN, Treas. 




Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 
New York Office, J J J FIFTH AVENUE. 

Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta 
Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 


Also, Manufacturers of Plain and (under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural 

Btiildine Blocks. 


Hollow, Porous, Front, and Paving Brick. 


General Offices: Carnegie Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

"Western Office: Chamber of Commerce Building, Chicago. 

Eastern Office: Metropolitan Building, New York City. 








<< PQ 




"■5 2 — 




:5 ^ 

■3 c 

e «> 




3 — 

i 5 








The Mount Savage 

Enameled Brick 


Made by hand from the celebrated "Mount Savage" fire-clay— admittedly the best and most 
refractory clay — by a method incorporating the best English and Domestic systems. 

These bricks are UNRIVALED in their combination of beauty and DURABILITY, and 
are warranted not to scale, craze, or change color. 


No. I ^roadwa>5, WARREN DELANO, Jr., President. 


AVoant Ravage, Aar^land. 




We manufacture tempered clay 
or Mud Brick in a great variety 
of colors and shades, including 
Mottled Fire-Flashed and Gray, 
also Old Gold and Mottled Tile 
for Fireplaces. 




We make Glazed Brick (Faience 
Glazes) in any color and design 
desired. They are very effective 
for Mantels and interior decora- 
tion, and are especially adapted 
to the interiors of Churches, Hos- 
pitals, and Public Buildings. 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co*^ 

874 Broadway, New York. 

Cor. J8th Street. 




Secretary and Treasurer. 



, xt^^ 3Vt/:> avt^n^ 3efe^y xt/zy ^MfcO- jmfcg> sut^sr sutj^ 3»ifegy i>»ifcg>- xt^> jtAO- xty>^ jmfciTv -iMfc^r^ 'tk^jTv 

;3fPfr c^fV SPfT SfT SK^ SPlT 


Enameled Brick 

Manufacturers of a Superior Quality of^ 





Used in over 300 of the best Buildings in New York and other large cities. 

Works : 

P. O. Address. 

Oaks, Pa. 

Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 

Main Office: 

25th Street and Broadway, 

Townsend Building, 

New York City. 

' Arif M^ M? AtfP Afg M^ MP AfgP ArfP Ag Aif Afif Afg AiP >VjP ArfP M^- 

a!/<U </*\i AinV A*/J!U' -sLfAU A^f^U -viMU *i/iM <7*U ^4m. a*/*U, ••S/4>U -ii/XW -vi/^iU -vLfJEU' tlflSU A*!l9SUr 


" We have used large quantities of the ' Tiff- 
any ' Enameled Brick and believe them to be, 
in quality and finish, fully equal to the best 
English pioduct. We have found it an espe- 
cial convenience to be able to obtain special 
shapes without delay." 



Illinois Central Railroad Co. 
" Your Enameled Brick (English size) which 
1 used in this work (under-ground suburban 
station, Van Buren Street, Chicago) I have 
found are all you could possibly recommend 
them to be, and you deserve much credit from 
all, especially the architectural profession. Not 
only are your brick very evenly enameled and 
scarcely any ditTerence in shade, but they are 
exceedingly hard, and 1 found could be perfectly 
ground for high-grade arch work where 1 had 
to use some of them." 

" We take great pleasure in testifying to the 
general satisfaction that you have given our 
company in the large dealings which we have 
had with you in both pressed and enameled 
brick in the last few years. Your deliveries 
have always been prompt and satisfactory 
to us." 

write; for'catai.ogue. 



Wwa A lunMt iprnJafurft 




kW?™ '^P^,™ "k'T^rl"^ "llvrViT 






General Offices : 








" Having used about 120,000 of the 'Tiff- 
any ' Enameled Brick in the construction of the 
new Guaranty office building in Buffalo, N.Y., 
we are pleased to state that they have given 
the owners, as well as ourselves, perfect satis- 
faction, and we believe them to be equal, if 
not superior, to any enameled brick made in 
this country or elsewhere. Prompt delivery 
was an especial feature." 


Enameled Brick, 

in different colors^, are being 
adopted for fine fronts, avoid 
ing all unsightly WHITE 

Our brink can be enameled on both faces, 
when required, for thin partition walls. 

James L. Rank in e. 

Eastern Agent, 

Room 626. 1^6 Fifth Avenue, 






ptD .GRAY, BROWN,;- 

Sa^re Si Jfisbcr do. 





^^^ ^ a tt wt l g 


BitiiiinMiiB' ' 


We are the largest manufacturers of BRICK in the 

United States* 


AJljIfapes andSizes. 

-^OrBrOc^/a^ New York. 

Our brick are all made after the Clay Tempered or Mud Brick Process and are recognized by our 
best architects, engineers, and contractors to be superior to any brick in the market. Our process 
of manufacture produces a brick very dense and hard, absorbing very little or no moisture, and a 
brick guaranteed to keep its color. They have been used in the most prominent buildings in New- 
York City. 

Boston Agent, CHARLES BACON, Phillips Building, 3 Hamilton Place. 


J. V. V. BOORAEn, Vice-President. 

J. FRANCIS BOORAEM, Sec'y and Treas. 

American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 

14 East 23d Street, NEW YORK. 

flDanufacturers of 

iSnameleb JBrick. 

agentg . 

Works : 
South River, N. J. 

7S1 ISth Street, Hew York. 
5 A, South River, N. J. 


Binghamton State Hospital, Binghamton, N. Y. Miles 

Leonard, builder. 
St. Catherine's Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. Arch., Wm. 

Schickel & Co., New York. W. & T. Lamb, builders. 
Bellevue Hospital, New York. Arch., Withers & Dick- 
son. John F. Johnson, builder. 
Brooklyn Distilling Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mechanics National Bank, Brooklyn, N. Y. Arch., 

Johnson & Co. W. & T. Lamb, builders. 
Trenton Water Works, Trenton. N. J. Arch., Wm. A. 

Poland. John Barlow, builder. 
Mutual Life Building, Philadelphia, Pa. Arch., Philipp 

Rocs. E. L. Pennock, builder. 
Wadsworth Building, New York City. Arch., Youngs, 

Bergersen & Cornell. Robinson & Wallace, builders. 
The Bowling Green Building, New York City. Arch., 

W. & G. Audsley. Standard Structural Co., builders. 
Schenectady Water Works, Schenectady, N. Y. John 

McEnerge, builder. 

Stamford, Conn., Railroad Depot (N. Y., N. H. & H. 

R. R.),Wm. A. Thomas, builder. 
Hotel Manhattan, 42d St., New York City. Arch., Henry 

Hardenburg. Marc Eidlitz & Son, builders. 
Brooklyn Trolley Power House, Chas. Hart, builder. 
Altman's Dry Goods Establishment, i8th St., New York 

City. Arch., Kimball & Thompson. Chas. Sooysmith 

& Co., Marc Eidlitz & Son, builders. 
Waldorf Hotel Extension, New York City. Arch., 

Henry J. Hardenburg. Chas. Downey, builder. 
Private .Stable, 120 East 75th St., New York City. John 

J.Tucker, builder. (These were made to match Farn- 

ley imported Brick, in white and in colors. Made in 

our new one-fire process and were pronounced by the 

owner a great success.) 
Private Stable, Utica, N. Y. R. T. Proctor, owner. 

Arch., J. Constable. John F. Hughes, builder. 
Addition to same Stable. Arch., R. M. Hunt, Jr., and 

Maurice Fournachon. John F. Hughes, builder. 

Old Men's Home, Brooklyn (patent lile). Arch., John- 
son ^ Co. Thomas Dobbin, builder. 

Large Delicatessen Establishment and Restaurant, Har- 
lem, N. Y. Arch., J. P. Walthers. Scheidecker & 
Gender, builders. 

Trolley Power House, Woodside, L. L John D. Wood- 
ruff, builder. 

Private Stable, Portchester, N. Y. Arch., Nathan C 
Mellen. Wm. Ryan, builder. 

Fire Engine House, Newark, N. J. James Moran, 

In addition to these there are other large contracts and 
an innumerable amount of smaller ones. 

New \'ork Athletic Club House, New York City 

("olumbia College Gymnasium and University Hall, New 
\'()vk City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 
Norcross Bros., Builders. 


504 Law Building, 

Baltimore, Hd. 


Builders' Excliange, 

Washington, D. C. 


188 Devonshire St., 

Boston, Mass. 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 

14 East 23d Street, 

New Yorlc City. 


The Columbus,... 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., 


Manufacturers of 

Plain, Molded, 

and Ornamental 




Buff, Gray, and Terra-Cotta Colors. 

Works at Union Furnace, Ohio, 


Pretident and General Manager. Secretary and Treasurer. Superiotendent. 

F. W. Silkman, 



Cbemicale, /Bbinerale, 
Claipe, anb Colore. 

For Potters, Terra=Cotta, and Enameled Brick Manufacturers. 

correspondence Invited. 231 PC^Xl SttCCt, IHCW UJOVh. 



^be /DbOSaiC ^ile (LO.. ZanesvlUe, Ohio. 


Ceramic Mosaic Tile 
"Parian Vitreous Tile 

por floors and 


Samples, and 
Designs on 

(XLhc Strongest XTile in the flDatketO 

Grueby Faience Company, 

\ glazed and Enameled 


Jlrcbitectural Cerra^Cotta 

For Exteriors and Interiors, 

Faience Mantels and.,,. 

Kcclesiastical JVork, 


164 Devonshire Street, 
Boston, Mass, 


New York, O. D. PS^RSON, 160 Fifth Avenue. Philadelphia, O. W. KE^TCHAM, 24 S. Seventh Street. 

Chicago, CHARTS T. HARRIS & CO., 1001-1002 Marquette Bldg. St. l,onis, J. P. & 

A. H. ANNAN, Union Trust Bldg. 










(jj MAY 



vSTREET gji 
BOSTON >jj! 




Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2.50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $3 5° per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 


WE understand that Mr. Barnard R. Green, who has been in 
charge of the work of the Congressional Library in Wash- 
ington for a number of years, if not from its start, has been appointed 
by Congress permanent superintendent and custodian of the building. 
This appointment points a moral which is deserving of more frequent 
application tlian is unhappily the case in American cities. Our 
architects and builders may put up a building never so fine, may use 
the best of material and the utmost care in application, but unless 
the structure receives intelligent care after it is occupied, and the 
repairs, which, from time to time, are necessitated in even the best 
of structures are made judiciously and with consideration for the 
character of the construction, the building is bound to deteriorate 
quite rapidly. And the fact that Congress has seen fit to recognize 
this condition and has placed the magnificent building permanently 
under the care of a person who is thoroughly familiar with it, and is 
competent to keep it in its pristine excellence, is, we hope, at least the 
beginning of a new order in regard to our public buildings. 

The excellence, suitability, and permanent qualities of burnt clay 
as a building material, preeminently fitted for use in connection with 
modern structures, can hardly be questioned in view of the greatly in- 
creasing application of this material in our large cities. If properly 
taken care of, there is no reason why a brick and terra-cotta building 
should not last for centuries in perfectly good condition. On the other 
hand, any material is bound to suffer from neglect. It is not enough 
to build a brick wall and expect it to stand forever without any care, 
nor will the utmost skill in the use of concealed iron supports for 
terra-cotta avail to keep it in thoroughly good order indefinitely. It 

must be watched, and especially in our climate it must be repointed 
whenever the mortar shows signs of decay, and must be cleaned at 
sufficient intervals to prevent the formation of any of the fungous 
growths which attach themselves quite readily to building materials 
and speedily cause disintegration. For these reasons a custom 
ought to be adopted here, which has been for many years prevalent 
abroad, of assuming that the architect who builds a building is 
naturally the one in whose care as a structure it shall remain indefi- 
nitely, and that it is as much his function to guard his creation after 
it is turned over to the owners as it is to see that proper materials 
are used in the first place and laid up in the best manner. We 
believe that a great deal of the objection which has at times been 
urged against brick or terra-cotta has been suggested by observation 
of structures imperfectly cared for, which, with perhaps not the best 
of materials to start with, afford a too easy prey for the elements ; 
and the fact that there are so many buildings of brick which have 
endured in this immediate vicinity for over one hundred years, and 
are still in a perfectly good condition, shows that with even ordinary 
good care brick or terra-cotta are practicably indestructible. Any 
one has but to examine the Harvard and Massachusetts Halls at 
Cambridge, which were built in the last century, to see how well 
brick will endure under proper conditions. On the other hand, we 
have seen buildings in which was used thoroughly first-class brick 
laid in the best of cement, which had been allowed to go to pieces, 
the frost had worked into the joints, and ten years after the structure 
was handed over to the owners it looked older and of apparently 
poorer materials than the Cambridge examples just noted. The 
practise now seems to be for the architect to build his building, and 
as soon as the contract is completed, roll up his drawings, pack them 
away, and speedily forget the structure, to concentrate his energies 
on the next job he is hunting for. Even if he remonstrates with his 
former client against neglect of his building his warnings are seldom 
heeded, for few property owners appreciate that a building must be 
not only well constructed but well groomed. 

The points at which a building will suffer most are in the 
weatherings, where vertical joints are exposed on top of a horizontal 
course, such as top members of cornices, sills, copings, etc. Some 
constructors are unwilling to use terra-cotta for any of these pur- 
poses, knowing how seldom an owner will intelligently appreciate the 
necessity for attention to such features, though so much better effect 
can often be secured that it is well worth the price of a careful 
inspection each spring by a competent mechanic, and a few dollars 
expended in some good old-fashioned pointing with a mortar of lime 
and sugar, or of one of the cements which will not stain the terra- 
cotta. We recall at this moment a prominent commercial building 
all of the details of which are of terracotta, including a heavy, foli- 
ated band at line of upper floor which serves at intervals as a sill for 
the windows, and of necessity presents many vertical joints, protected 
only at top by the pointing. The annual bill for repointing, during 
the last five years, has not averaged twenty-five dollars. In .Septem- 
ber and in March it is gone over under the architect's direction, and 
possible repointing anticipated. If this supervision is continued, the 
terracotta ought to last for centuries. 

But pointing is not all. Conversing with a builder from a city 
where soft coal soot is painfully in evidence, we found he was not in 
favor of using enameled terra-cottas or brick for external treatment 



of city fronts, for the reason that even the best 
enameled surface will catch the dust and soot 
and in a short time will look like ordinary 
brick or terracotta. He seemed to think a 
suggestion of applied soap and water was 
impracticable. That is like saying, if one's 
hands are dirty, there is no use washing them, 
for they will soon become dirty again. We, 
in Boston, are fortunately spared the sooty 
atmospheric conditions which afflict our West- 
ern cities, but there is plenty of dirt here, 
nevertheless, and if a building is to be the 
joy forever which its possibilities will permit, 
its toilet must be regularly attended to. A 
terra-cotta front of 90 ft. by 125 ft. high can 
be thoroughly cleaned and repointed for less 
than $250, and this ought to be done at least 
once in three years, and in some localities 
once a year. And in the long run, it is be- 
lieved that ijroperty owners would find such 
care bestowed upon a building would be well 
worth all it would cost in money, while the 
esthetic gain to the community would be no 
less real, if less easy to reckon in dollars. 


THE Palazzo Polliniisone of the smaller 
brick palaces of Sienna, but it at once attracts attention by 
the beauty and correctness of its proportions. The facade is divided 

lUvK K, I1:KK.\ I 01 l.\, .\.\1) MUb.\U .M.V.MliL, BANQUET ROO.M, ST. NICHOLAS HOTEL, 

Louis H. Sullivan, ,\rc!iitect. 

into three stories, of which the first has a very decided batter. 
There is no ornament of any kind about this story. The principal 
story has marble architraves, and caps to the windows, and the third 
story has also marble architraves. 

Some of the belts are of marble, and some of molded brick. 
The wall is capped with a very rich terra cotta cornice, and wide pro- 
jecting eaves. The interior presents nothing of interest ; the design 
is attributed to Baldassan Peruzzi. A measured detail of the build- 
ing is shown on plate 48. 

Commerce Building, .'\rbuckle Building, Joseph Home Building, and 
the Sixth U. P. Church, all of Pittsburj;. 


1 N the advertisement of the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, page 
iv, is shown an interesting series of terra-cotta details of the Roman- 
esque style, employed by Architect George L. Morse in the new store 
building for Abraham & Straus, Brooklyn. 

Bohemian National Hall, New York City, the architectural 
terracotta for which was made by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, is illustrated in the advertisement of that company on page ix. 

A VERY interesting illustration of fire-proof floors is shown in the 
advertisement of R. Guastavino Company, page xiv. It shows to 
good advantage their system of fire-proof construction, the first 
floor being of tlie dome type carried on tile ribs with tension angle 


Mr. W. S. Eraser, architect, of Pittsburg, Pa., after an illness 
of nine months, died at his home, April 27, at the age of forty-five 

Mr. Eraser studied architecture at the Royal Academy, London, 
and with William Burgess, one of the best known of English archi- 
tects. In 1879, he opened an office at Pittsburg for the practise of 
architecture. Among the buildings designed by him are the Bank of 

WINDOW pediment. 

Executed in tciT,i-cotla by the New York Arcliilecturai Terra-Oitia Company. 

irons built inside of same, and the upper floors of barrel arches with 
tile bracing ribs. The same dome floor construction is to be used 
for the first floor of the adjoining building and its duct system for 
hot air. This system of floor construction was selected because 
of the very heavy loads required. Rand & Taylor and Kendall & 
Stevens, architects. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



IN responding to numerous requests for reliable data on cornice 
construction, it may be advisable to start with one of rather 
commonplace character. Where the projection of a modillion cor- 
nice does not exceed 2 ft. 6 ins., it may be supported in the sim- 
ple and inexpensive, but very effectual, manner shown at Fig. 22. 
Provision is made for a piece of i in. galvanized iron pipe, which is 
passed through the partitions of every modillion, the chambers of 
which are then filled from the top bed before setting. The wall 
would not be less than 12 ins., or more than i ft. 4 ins., and in either 
case the bond could be made the full thickness. If not, the end of 
the pipe would be allowed to extend to the inside face of wall. 
The introduction of the pipe serves a twofold purpose. It increases 
the strength of the bracket per se, and it affords a ready means of 
anchoring it down. Placing the anchor bolts on inside face of wall, 
instead of building them into the wall, has likewise some important 
advantages. It gives additional leverage, saves the trouble of exact 
spacing, and the rods do not stand up in the way of the masons 
while the wall is being built. The anchor plates are built in joint of 
brick piers, say, 4 ft. below cornice, and when over the window 
openings, as near the lintel as possible, in which case shorter bolts 
would be used. One end of the bolt being forged so as to fit tightly 
into end of pipe, the other end, passing through the hole in anchor 
plate, is screwed down to required tension by nut on the under 
side. The spaces between brackets being then built up level, the 
top member of cornice is set to line, and in most cases it may be 
anchored back to roof beams, after the manner indicated in section 
(Fig. 22). 

Where a parapet wall is intended, its weight when built would 
help to counterbalance the projection of cornice. That is a factor 
worth taking into account in fixing the length and size of the 
anchors, but must not be used as an excuse for abandoning them. 
There have, however, been instances known to the writer where they 
were omitted by the contractor, although provided for in making 
the terra-cotta, and specifically called for on the setting drawings 
that accompanied it to the building. This kind of "economy "is 
usually shortsighted, and in one or two cases it has proved criminal. 


FIG. 23. 


A portion of the cornice toppled over onto the scaffold, which also 
gave way, and in each case with disastrous consequences, resulting 
in a loss of life, which was directly due to the omission of a few in- 
expensive and easily applied anchors. In all work of this kind it is 
certainly " better to be sure than sorry." 

Within the limits stated, viz., 2 ft. 6 ins. projection, this arrange- 
ment possesses a wide mar- 
gin of safety. A glance at 
the diagram will show that 
if this cornice, when set, be 
tested by loading it beyond 
the verge of stability, it 
would not be the modillions, 
nor yet the anchors that 
must fail, but the wall itself, 
which would break at x x, — 
obviously its weakest part. 
To do this, however, would 
require a much greater 
weight than is at any time 
likely to be placed upon a 
cornice, and the tendency in 
that direction is fully coun- 
teracted by the anchors at- 
taching it to the roof timbers. 
A scheme substantially the 
same as this was submitted 
some years ago, by the 
writer, to a leading firm of 
architects, and having re- 
ceived their approval, was 
carried out. It has again 
been adopted_by them, and 


by other architects on several occasions, from which circumstance 
its efficiency may reasonably be inferred. 

In cornices of greater projection, other schemes of iron support 
become'necessary. One of these — and an excellent one it is — we 

Jill A 

1--IG. -4. 

give at Fig. 23. For this device we are indebted to Mr. J. E. Sperry, 
Baltimore ; and considering the number of times he has used it on 
important buildings without much modification, there can be no 
doubt as to its practicability. The first special feature to be noticed 
is that the cantilevers, as well as the inverted tee running parallel 
with the building, are cast iron. In this he claims two advantages: 
one being that they are less liable to rust; the other, that a flange 
such as shown in drawing cannot be obtained in rolled sections. In 
so far as the cantilevers are concerned, the value of this particular 
section is not apparent, but in the longitudinal tee its advantage is 
very decided. The pieces of terra-cotta forming fascia fit into the 
dovetail angle in such way that when the crown molding has been 
set they are securely locked, and do not require any additional 

We think, however, that the same thing could be accomplished 
by using an ordinary rolled section, on one flange of which a small 
angle of, say, i by i >< ins. may be riveted, as shown in the enlarged 
.section. Or, a special tee, known as No. 156, may be obtained from 
the Carnegie works which approximates sufficiently close to the 
casting to change places with it. This would not be required in the 
soffit blocks, where eight pieces are fitted into each compartment, with 
an iron frame on three sides, and a brick backing on the fourth. 

Seven of pieces being set in place separately, it but remains to 
drop in the center panel as a key, and the whole thing is then 
rendered immovable. There can be no doubt as to the stability of a 
cornice made and erected in this manner. The only serious oiijec- 
tion to any part of it is the exposure of the longitudinal tee, in soffit 
between the niodillions, which would have to be painted to match 
the terra-cotta. How that may be avoided will be shown in subse- 
quent illustrations, where cornices of much greater projection are 
carried without exposing any of the iron construction. In view of 
what has just been said in connection with this one, however, we 
have taken the liberty of reproducing another of Mr. .Sperry's cornice 
designs, applying to it a style of construction and support which 
would be less expensive, and, we think, preferable in other respects. 
The Maryland Life Huilding, Baltimore (Fig. 24) has a cornice, 
the construction of which is substantially the same as that discussed 
in the two preceding paragraphs, and shown in detail at Fig. 23. In 
the revised method now proposed (Fig. 25) two radical changes are 
introduced, which, being made, would involve a third. Instead of 
the cast-iron cantilevers, which have been shown to possess no special 
merit, we would a 4 by 4 inverted tee of rolled iron, tailed down 
by similar anchor bolts; and as these pass through a continuous 
channel, they need not be less than, .say, 5 ft. apart. The longitud- 
inal tee bolted to the cantilevers is omitted altogether, it, as we shall 
see, being rendered quite unnecessary. two changes compel, 
or rather permit us to make each piece of cornice in one piece from 
center to center of niodillions, with coffer panel and rosette in soffit 
solid and complete. The blocks so made rest directly on the flanges 
of the cantilevers, the web in each case being provided for by a 
slight rebate in the joint. The modillions have little more than 
their own weight to carry, and being deep in proportion to their 
projection, might well be considered self-supporting. Yet, in view 
of possible fracture in transit, or of chance knocks during setting, we 
would insert a pipe in each of them, filling the chambers with con- 
crete, as in Fig. 22. The terra-cotta maker would not charge any- 


^(^ ^^j LiaLjffiLw-av MMMjKJiUi ^^s^^S3f "^og 


11- — ZZ as 


~ ^ ■ ° ■' PARAPET WALL 




"• r I ^"'! 

laaafyrfraayd i 

FIG. 25. 



thing for the hole ; and the use of a few feet of pipe and a little 
cement, while enabling the contractor to sleep soundly in his bed, 
would never drive him into bankruptcy. 

In saying that this arrangement would /^r;«// these blocks to be 
made in one piece, instead of in ten pieces, we use the word advis- 
edly, for in that there are certain advantages that do not appear on 
the surface. To joint work into pieces unnecessarily small is hardly 
less objectionable than to insist upon having them made too large. 
Excessively small blocks were often resorted to in past years by men 
who had not learned how to make large ones. The alleged intracta- 
bility of the clay was often enough made a convenient scapegoat for 
their own shortcomings in the use of it. While it is gratifying to 
know that some of these men are gravitating towards the rear of the 
procession, there is reason to fear that the class still survives. A 
few instances of recently executed work show but too plainly that it 
is not yet wholly extinct. Architects have at times been talked into 
acquiescence, accepting in half a dozen small pieces a single member 
that any really competent clay-worker would have elected to make in 
one, and that, too, without doubt or misadventure. We see in Mr. 
Sperry's scheme a well-considered and altogether praiseworthy 
effort to overcome a supposed deficiency in the material, but one 
which, we are glad to assure him, can be overcome to a much greater 
extent than he has been led to suppose. 

The particular block which we propose to make in the present 
instance is 3-0x2-9x10 and would weigh, when burned, about 
500 lbs., or less than one third the weight of blocks which have 
been made with unqualified success. This, indeed, would be con- 
sidered an almost ideal block in point of shape, as well as in that 
of size, and, what is of equal importance, its situation is such that 
true alignment is imperative only on face and soffit. It, as the draw- 
ing shows, may be pressed open on the top bed, which would com- 
pel the mason to fill the chambers, in itself a thing to be commended. 
In this and in many other respects, not only would it be better in one 
piece than if made in ten pieces, but it would likewise be produced 
at considerably less cost. 

One mold of medium size would certainly cost less to make than 
eight separate molds, required under the previous system of jointing. 
In like manner, we have but one block to press against the ten dis- 
tinct pieces otherwise necessary to make up its equivalent in cubic 
inches of work. The comparison begins, but it does not end heie. 
Instead of one piece, we have ten pieces to handle in all subsequent 
stages. Even when burned, we have them to assemble, to fit, mark, 
ship, and finally to set when they reach the building. Whether 
viewed as a question of good construction, or as one of profit and 
I0S.S, the balance is decidedly in favor of the solid block, as against 
the ten pieces. It will therefore be seen that even in terra-cotta 
making " the first false step " is fraught with and followed by a train 
of evil consequences — ^a sufficient reason why it should be eschewed 
at the outset. 

( To be continued. ) 

WE haven't been very busy in the office lately. In fact the 
hard times have left us almost stranded, a condition which 
we feel we share with a great many others. It has some compensa- 
tions, however. I have been amusing myself lately with a design 
for an office building, and as it costs no more to build one way or 
another on paper, I ran to the limit, and piled on some fifty odd 
.stories, with a total height of about 750 ft. Of course it is a beast, 
and no client in his senses would ever allow an architect to indulge 
in such vagaries except on paper, but it is good fun, all the same, and 
some of the problems which have cropped up have been very inter- 
esting. Of I am building the whole thing of brick. That 
goes without saying. Hut of course, also, the brick is only 16 ins. 
thick with the steel skeleton inside of it. To carry out the delusion 
of persuading myself that this was .serious fun, I figured up the wind 
strains and found that with a pressure of 30 lbs. per square foot 
on the off side of the building, which measures, by the way, 100 ft. 
wide and 600 ft. high, the added strains on the opposite columns at 

the maximum would only amount to about 54 tons, which is pretty 
inconsiderable when we reflect that each column has about 2,500 
tons load upon it. It looms up in great shape and is an example of 
brick construction which would delight your editorial heart and 
would strike terror to the souls of our legislators who are trying so 
hard to slice off all our buildings horizontally to a ridiculously mini- 
mum height. — Subscriber. 


At the annual meeting of the T Square Club the following 
officers were elected for the ensuing year : president, David Knicker- 
backer Boyd; vice-president, Edgar V. Seeler; secretary, George B. 
Page; treasurer, Horace H. Burrell. 

These officers, together with the following, also elected, comprise 
the executive committee: Walter Cope, Louis C. Hickman, and 
Chas. Z. Klauder; house committee: Adin B. Lacey, chairman, Chas. 
E. Oelschlager, and Percy Ash. 

In the regular monthly competition entitled '• Farmstead," first 
mention was awarded Lloyd Titus. 

The St. Louis Architectural Club held its regular monthly 
meeting on Saturday evening. May I. The club decided to hold an 
exhibition at the club rooms on May 17 to 22. An interesting 
talk was given by Mr. Frank A. P. Burford, about Mexico, where he 
has spent the past year. 

The semiannual meeting of the Detroit Architectural Sketch 
Club was held April 26, and elected the following officers : Alexander 
Blumberg, secretary ; vice, Edward A. Schilling ; directors, Augustus 
O'Dell and John A. Gillard ; vice, Alex. Blumberg and M. S. Willcox. 

The Pittsburg Architectural Club gave its first reception in 
honor of Prof. Wm. H. Goodyear, April 23, 1897. The club rooms in 
the Ferguison Block were artistically decorated to suit the occasion, 
and many architects, artists, and their friends were present. A table 
covered with hundreds of photographs of medieval Italian churches, 
taken by Professor Goodyear while abroad, was the center of attrac- 
tion. He spoke of his discoveries of curves in these churches in a 
very interesting manner. Save a Bohemian night that was indulged 
in a short time ago, this was the club's first entertainment. 


Mr. Russell Sturgis has rendered a service to the student of 
art by forming, in a very handy, compact volume, an annotated bibliog- 
raphy of the subject, ' to which is added a similar annotated list of 
works on music. It does not claim to be exhaustive; in fact, many of 
the works, which are chiefly illustrative, are not included in the list, 
but it mentions all of the well-known works and has a brief descrip- 
tion, with price, etc., for each. It forms a very valuable aid to reference. 

" Hydraulic Cement, its Proi'Eriies, Testing, and Use," 
is the title of a new work by Frederick P. Spalding, Assistant 
Professor of Civil Engineering at Cornell University, member of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers. 

The pages contain the results of a careful study of the nature 
and properties of hydraulic cement, and the various methods which 
have been proposed, or are in use, for testing cement. 

The views of the author, as derived from his own observation of 
the behavior of cement in use or in the laboratory, have been stated 
without reserve, and free use has been made of the results of avail- 
able European investigations. The recommendations of the recent 
commissions appointed in Europe for the study of the methods of 
testing materials are fully given in so far as they relate to cement. 
New York, John Wiley & Sons. 

^ *' Annotated Bibliography of Fine Art : Painting, .Sculpture, Architecture, Arts of Deco- 
ration and Illustration." By Russell Sturgis. " Music." By Henry Edward Krehbiel. 
Edited by George lies. Boston, 146 Franklin Street. Published for the American Library 
Association Publishing Section by The Library Bureau, 1S97. Price, so cents in paper ; 
$1.00 in cloth. 



Color in its Relation to Architecture. 


THE importance of color in its relation to architecture has not 
been sufficiently recognized or emphasized among those who 
teach or practise architectural design: and it is difficult to under- 
stand why one of the universal sources of esthetic pleasure, one of 
the most compliant and resourceful aids to artistic expression, should 
be so neglected in our day. 

It is no new thing, for the best architectural tradition exhibits 
an intense appreciation of and love for color from the Egyptian to the 
Renaissance periods, and we find it employed both within and with- 
out all sorts of buildings, in all sorts of materials, constructive and 

The love of color is a natural instinct ; the children of civiliza- 
tion no less than the children of nature are sensitive to the brilliant 
hues of "bird and flower, of sky and sea, and they are equally in- 
fluenced by the gaiety and joyousness of certain colors, and the sad- 
dening hues of others. 

Civilization and its refinements have given us a higher apprecia- 
tion of color, as well as other things, and we crave harmony in its 
use, just as we demand harmony as well as melody and rhythm in 

So we need not, and indeed ought not to think of architectural 
color as a violent laying on or building up of masses of crude and 
glaring hues, but rather as a skillful blending and refining of surfaces 
to a more harmonious ensemble. 

Upon the walls of Egyptian temples were emblazoned the 
triumphs of kings and the every-day occupations of the people ; and 
the Assyrian palaces bore long processions of men and beasts endur- 
ingly pictured on vitrified bricks ; the Greek temples were made 
splendid by painted and gilded sculpture: and all of these, even in 
their decay, are evidences that the ancient architects considered the 
color of their buildings as the crowning finish of their work, and 
perfected this, as other details, as far as their abilities permitted. 

It cannot be denied that to our modern ideas the lavish use of 
strong and even very brilliant color on the exterior walls of buildings 
and statuary seems barbaric and in questionable taste ; yet we are 
not obliged to go farther in this matter than to experiment with small 
quantities of color, used with that reserve and caution which should 
characterize ornamentation of any sort. 

We need emancipation in our art and architecture, not that each 
may follow some original and bizarre method of design, but emanci- 
pation from a state of mind which prejudices us against any legitimate 
means of increasing the efficiency of our artistic expression. 

We are not to become archa-ologists, but we may begin by 
trying our experiments along the lines which have been followed by 
others before our time, that we may benefit by their experience. 

It will be found that the Greeks used color with a fine apprecia- 
tion of its value as a means of expression, that they employed cold 
and warm, light and dark colors to express depth and retreating sur- 
faces, or brilliancy and advancing lines and spaces. The grounds of 
marble friezes were colored, that the figures of men and horses might 
receive the greatest distinctness and relief ; capitals of columns and 
moldings were emphasized by strong colors, while shafts of columns 
and large wall surfaces received simpler and broader treatment in 
quieter colors. 

Recent investigations have shown that these master artists em- 
ployed polychrome decoration in architecture and sculpture much 
more generally and liberally than a superficial acquaintance with 
their ruined monuments and buildings would suggest; certainly to 
a degree absolutely unknown in modern work. 

They sought to express the beautiful in all they attempted, and 
they touched nothing which they did not beautify. We may there- 
fore be assured that polychromy, as practised by the Greeks, cannot 
fail to have been as carefully considered, and the results of as great 

value to us, comparatively, as their other accomplishments in archi- 
tectural design. 

Heneath the deep blue sky of Greece, the association of superb 
marble and glowing polychrome decoration suggests a most inviting 
mental picture ; one which we may hardly expect to realize, with less 
responsive materials, beneath a gray and smoke-beclouded canopy. 
We may add greatly to the charm of our architecture, however, 
by considering more carefully the colors and textures of the materials 
of which it is constructed, and seek to combine " ideal color with 
perfect design." 

Students of architecture are taught to think in gray, because, 
the professors say, the " mass and void " may be best studied and 
expressed in monochrome, and this seems to be sound doctrine. In 
the same way the young painter studies from casts in charcoal or 
crayon : but when the latter has mastered the rudiments of his art, 
drawing from the round, he is no longer held absolutely to a single 
gamut of grays and black, he begins to paint in color. 

Why should not the student of architecture be taught in the 
same manner? Study the plan and elevation in gray monotone, but 
do not stop here : let the color of the composition be considered, and 
make a separate color study for each problem. 

Surely if such a system were carefully followed up, we should not 
see so many " queer-colored " buildings along our city streets, many 
of which cause us to wonder if they are brick buildings with stone 
trimmings, or stone buildings with brick enrichment! 

There is no dearth of fine materials at hand in America, (juarries 
are giving up their treasures, and great establishments supply all sorts 
of brick and terracotta, varied in form, texture, and color ; but there 
is a lack of taste on some one's part, or our buildings would be more 
interesting and creditable examples of architecture. 

Our manufacturers of building materials deserve high praise for 
what they have accomplished, and no age has had so much reason to 
congratulate itself on intelligent labor successfully applied : and if 
American architecture does not reflect credit on its creators, no 
blame can be attached to those who supply the materials from which 
it takes its form. 

The manufacturer supplies the demands made upon him ; he 
does not create the demand; and when architects require brick or 
terra-cotta of a certain quality or color, a host of skilled men stand 
ready to execute their wishes. Science becomes the magician, and 
the whole world of nature is transformed into material ready for the 
artist's hand. 

Color, like taste, is not a matter of simple individual preference 
or fashion ; it is good or bad according to its suitability for given 
purposes or conditions. It is not for us to say this or that color 
must be the general tone of your building, for the wishes of the 
client must be considered, the site and its surroundings must affect 
our choice ; but when the indicated material has been decided upon, 
and its color fixed, we may so combine it with other materials that it 
may become harmonious, not only as to its surroundings but to the 
best artistic traditions as well. 

How to study color in its relations to architecture is to study 
the theory of colors and their relations to each other; and no one 
has made a more careful and complete analysis of phenomena 
than the great Chevreul, a man who died, full of years and honors, a 
few years ago. 

His book on color has been translated into English, and may 
be had in any of our libraries ; but no architect or worker in the 
allied arts should lack a copy in his own studio. His theory of the 
harmony of the contrast of complementary colors may be considered 
the foundation of the study of color harmony; and while it is the 
most intense and powerful of color combinations, it is as well the 
simplest and widest in application. 

Upon the hypothesis that there are three primary colors, red, 
blue, and yellow, combinations of any two of these producing the 
secondaries, violet, green, and orange, he arranges a diagram i^n 
which two concentric circles, divided into three segments, display the 
primaries in the inner and the secondaries in the outer circle. 



Thus, red is opposite green, 1)1 ue is opposed to orange, and 
yellow is opposite violet. These, then, are the complementary colors, 
and their opposition forces each to exhibit its greatest brilliancy ; 
and when any two complementaries are employed together or in close 
proximity, they heighten each other to the maximum degree. 

A neutral gray, when placed beside a positive color, apparently 
gains some of the complementary of that color; and the practical 
application of this simple demonstration is to be found in the em- 
ployment of small quantities of positive, primary, or secondary color 
in conjunction with materials which either lack tone, or whose tone 
should be modified to some extent. 

Interior stonework may be forced to assume a warmth which it 
does not really possess, by placing near it a mass of colder color, 
compelling it to partake in some degree of the warm comi)lementary 
which is opposed to the cold color near it. 

Corot's landscapes display a knowledge ef this principle, where 
in a silvery-gray picture one little brilliant spot of red, possibly ver- 
milion, is introduced in a peasant's cap or gown, and instantly the 
grays become greener by contrast, and the canvas fairly glistens and 
sparkles. Hide the spot of vermilion and you rob the entire picture 
of its life and brilliancy. 

r-)elacroix, and, indeed, all the great colorists, play upon this 
theme, as a musician upon his keys, — from major to minor, and vice 
versa. And why should not the architect borrow color as well as 
harmony from those sister arts which so beautifully translate his own.? 

The employment of complementary contrasts in architectural 
work is so eminently valuable that it cannot fail to repay the inost 
timid experiment; for we need great masses of quiet color, for grandeur 
is only possible through massive constructions; yet in and through the 
gray we may add the touch of color which shall " leaven the whole." 

Puvis de Chavannes plays upon the complementaries in the 
Boston I^ublic Library decorations, and sometimes the individual 
colors are separated by quite a space of gray. The rich yellow of 
the Sienna marble demands violet and blue for its completion as a 
satisfactory color impression, and the painter has carried out a 
scheme of this character in a wonderful way. 

In one panel the pale blue sky at the top forms one point of a 
triangle, a dull red robe the second, and the yellow marble the third, 
while the eye of the beholder fuses these three into one harmonious 

As an illustration of this principle, certain stone, as Indiana 
limestone, acquires a decidedly greenish tone when associated with 
red brick, and the redder the brick, the greener the stone ; but if a 
yellow brick be used in conjunction with the same stone, the latter 
becomes more purplish in tone. Again, if a purplish-red brick is 
employed, the yellow tone of the stone is strengthened in like degree. 

Where brick is the only material used, it may be varied to any 
extent by using small quantities of an opposing tone, the kilns 
furnishing a wide range of yellows, reds, greens, and browns. In 
constructive color it will be found that large areas demand compara- 
tively low tones of color, but as the areas decrease in size, the strength 
and brilliancy of color may he increased. 

The Same rule applies to interior work in marble, wood, or other 
materials, and the effect of any material may be enhanced or dimin- 
ished by the judicious association with it of its complementary, or a 
stronger note of its own color. 

A green bronze would l)e suggested as enrichment for a red 
marble like Numidian, but we should probably find a bluish patina 
preferable with the yellowish-red Verona. 

The old brownish-red mahogany may be enriched by association 
with soft green carpets or hangings, but the lighter and yellower 
mahogany of to-day finds certain blues more agreeable and exciting 

Once the habit of thinking in color is formed, we find ourselves 
solving color problems instinctively; and if the attention of students 
is directed along this line of thought, their later work will show fewer 
examples of architectural aberration, for how rare are the entirely 
satisfactory efforts of our architects and painters. 

In interiors of public buildings we find motives and orders 
which were always rendered in color during the best periods of 
arcliitecture left in a sickly white, with a few lines of gilding as the 
only relief from inanity. Fancy St. Mark's or the Capella I'nlatitia 
done in white stucco, with a few hair lines of gold carefully picked 
out in cornice or capital ! 

Their glory is in the color which bathes dome, wall, and column 
in golden light. They possess the tone which most of our buildings 
lack entirely, and which cannot be acquired by one or two tints 
ostentatiously covering the stucco with an even and wearisome 

If mosaic was employed more generally in our buildings, we 
should the sooner achieve distinction therein, for it is one of the most 
satisfactory- wall coverings obtainable. Mosaic is never monotonous ; 
it is durable and fadeless, and, besides, it need not be inordinately 
expensive. There are two columns in the museum at Naples which 
are beautifully executed in mosaic, and it might be considered 
appropriate to thus sheathe the steel columns in our modern construc- 
tions, making beautiful and suitable enrichment rather than the usual 
painted plaster covering. 

Referring to the use of applied color, we must consider that, as 
the greater part of our decorative painting must be executed on the 
wall, the questions of durability and permanence of color become all- 
important, and as dampness is probably the deadliest enemy of mural 
painting, it should be carefully excluded. 

There is no preventive which compares with an air space be- 
tween outer and inner walls ; and as this means neither more nor less 
than ordinary furring of all walls and ceilings, it ought not to be as 
unusual as it now is to find absolutely dry and damp-proof walls, on 
which the mural painter may place his compositions. 

Vitruvius gives an interesting account of the methods in vogue 
at Rome for the preparation of stucco wall surfaces for painting. 
Three coats of old slaked lime and sand were to be laid, and then 
three more coats with pounded white marble instead of the sand, 
each of these last more finely powdered than its predecessor, and 
the final coat to be polished until it reflected as a mirror! 

Wax was then rubbed over the wall, and a brazier of coals was 
passed Ijefore it, warming the surface of the wall, and causing it to 
absorb the melted wax. Pigments, either ground in wax or some 
sort of mineral spirit were used upon this ground, and finally more 
wax was applied and absorbed, and the surface brought to a high 
polish. Many experiments have been made to discover some Ijetter 
or rather easier method of mural painting than the old fresco, 
which has so many disadvantages that it has been practically 
abandoned by all modern masters; and a modification of the Roman 
encaustic or hot wax method has been generally adopted by our 
most experienced men. The wall is prepared with dissolved wax, 
applied hot or cold, and the pigments are ground in a vehicle con- 
sisting of wax, spirits of turpentine, and either a resinous or balsamic 
" binder": and as the colors dry quickly, thus permitting the painter 
to work over or change his composition within a few hours. The 
method is quite satisfactory for all general work of this character. 
It is hardly surpassed by the true fresco in brilliancy and not by it in 
durability, as portraits on wood from the Fayoum and the Fompeian 
wall paintings attest. 

The latter may have been executed in fresco in part, but were 
usually finished with wax, and it is possible to detect the odor of the 
wax to this day, on rubbing the surface of the wall with the 

In concluding th's brief survey of color in its application to 
architecture, it may net be considered inopportune to refer to the 
increased interest in mural painting in America, and to prophesy 
even a greater demand for this form of monumental art among us. 

Our painters display, year by year, a higher appreciation of its 
possibilities, and our architects are giving more attention to its 
employment, and if the architects could be induced to study color, 
and the ])ainters to study architecture, we might more confidently 
predict the triumph of American art. 





HOW the drawing shall be treated as a whole is a question 
that should be settled before an ink line is drawn upon an 
outline submitted for rendering. It is considerable of an item to 
know how to give proper touch or technique to the work, to know a 
good line or method for doing the ground, sky. windows, walls, roofs; 
but failure may, after all, occur with all this skill, for want of knowing 
how to treat the work as a unit. 

A rendering must be designed, studied out in a way, not unlike 
the designing of a building. As an architect often, by the shape of 
the lot, has the plan of the proposed building settled and fixed, from 
which he must erect the e.vterior design, so a draughtsman simi- 
larly has before him a perspective outline upon which he must build 
his scheme of rendering, which scheme of rendering may be called 
the general design ; the technicjue of his work being, as it were, the 

The design as a whole, in pictorial effect, is of first importance ; 
the detailing secondary, but good (juality in each are necessary for 
final success. 

The rendering scheme is a matter of arrangement of values of 
black and white ; and as every subject is unlike every other, only 
general principles can be given that will be of any practical use. It 
is useless to advise any special method for doing the various parts of 
the work, for what is best in this drawing may not do at all for 
another. Methods must vary, and effects or values must be moved 
about as the general scheme may demand. 

A drawing may permit several good methods, but usually there 
is a best way for each ])articular piece of work. 

1! illustrates this broad treatment. \'iewed at a distance, it is 
like one dab of a brush upon a sheet of white paper. Just one 
large dark from end to end, from top to bottom. Compare it with 
E, where starting on the left is a dark, then follows a light, finish- 
ing with another dark, — three values instead of the one in H. 

F is perhaps as broadly treated as li, as a large light effect. It 
would be fully as broadly treated if it were not for the value of the 
fence and the shadow near it. But this dark value is helpful, 
which goes to show that there are other things to be considered 
along with breadth, and no principle, however good, can always be 
carried out unaffected by other important demands. 

This princii)le of breadth is modified and affected by the color 
of the material of which the building is made. For instance, a 
white marble building must ajipear white. Also to get color and 
contrast in such a drawing, dark buildings at the side are necessary, 
which introduce a second or third effect, instead of allowing it to 
remain as one. 

Again, if we put one side of the building in shade, as in 1), we 
have a light front and a dark side, — two values, or three, if we count 
the dark on the left. If foliage is to be shown, and usually it has a dark 
value, this will most likely make less simple the scheme of the drawing. 

It is rarely, therefore, that a subject for rendering, especially if 
it be a large one, will allow so simple a treatment as 15. For small 
work it is more often possible. 

Nor is it necessary that every drawing should be as one dab of 
the brush. It should only be our aim to comply with its underlying 
principle of breadth as nearly as the conditions will permit. 

All subjects should be treated in the largest possible way, 
broadly, as simply as possible, few effects, the fewer the better, just 
one if it will permit. 

A simple treatment is restful. We take it in without mental 
effort. Large effects are also impressive. 

.Allied \fith this broad treatment are certain minor advantages. 
Illustrators of architecture may assume the right to make their 
special building as interesting as possible. To make a view of a 
street is one thing, to make a view of one of the buildings on that 
street is another. 

A may be rightfully called " A View on Steep Hill, Lincoln, Eng." 
Everything on the street is shown, sidewalks and the ground with its 

B should have another title. "Old Houses on Steep Hill, Lincoln, 
Eng." In this one you are bound to look at the houses, for that is 
all there is to be seen, e.xcept the distant towers of the Cathedral. 
By thus omitting needless accessory the interest is centered in the 
principal object. In A you cannot but observe that the houses are 
slightly less attractive, because of the detracting interest of even the 
small amount of sidewalk and ground with ts shadows. 

Such a wholesale cutting off of accessory is, of course, not always 
best. In many instances the trees, terraces, and adjoining buildings 
add to the interest of the picture, in giv ng variety of form and con- 
trast of color, and if they be rendered with a little strength than 
the principal object the effect will be altogether helpful. 

There are accessories important, and accessories not important, 
and this latter kind are best omitted. 

Another advantage associated with the .simple treatment in B is 



one of black and white values. The white sky and ground produce 
a lively, snappy contrast with the dark of the buildings. The render- 
ing of the buildings, having no competition in sky or ground, show 
off to their best advantage and fullest value. 

The simplest thing to do, and it is sometimes the best, and surely 
always the easiest, is to omit texture entirely, and show shadows 
only, as in F. The only rendering here that is not a direct shadow 
is in the windows, but that is, after all, a shadow inside the building 
on the walls of a room. The necessary drawing of the fence has 
also the effect or value of a shadow. 

This method of shadows only suits some subjects far better than 
it docs this one, in which there is so little of projection or recess that 
can produce a shadow. Occasionally a building comes in hand for 
rendering that brings into itself so much color by shadow that more 
rendering in the way of showing texture or material is quite unneces- 
sary. Hut it is rarely the case that texture can be altogether omitted. 
A little, at least, must be shown to properly tell the story. 

F with texture omitted perhaps should be called a sketch only. 
It certainly could hardly be considered a thoroughly finished drawing. 
But sketches are sometimes as desirable as anything more thorough. 

B shows a combined use of shadows and material color — mainly 
the latter. It is nearly an example of color of material only. 

There is a danger connected with the making of a drawing like 
B which can be dodged somewhat by treating it as in C. The danger 
is, especially in larger work, of getting a heavy monotonous result 
through liaving too much rendering unbroken by fields of light. To 
show the roof white at once introduces light into the work. In the 
present instance it seems like using violence to do it, as the rough 
texture of the roof never would in sunlight permit a white reflection ; 
but in many other instances where the roof is slated or shingled this 
white reflection is as often seen as not. 

At another time of day, with the sun shining upon the roof at 
another angle, that same roof will appear almost black. 

Another scheme which can easily be understood without illustra- 
tion would be the reverse of C, the roofs dark and walls light, which 
is a very possible effect when the sun is low, reflecting from the 
walls, and not from the roofs. 

In either case the rendering is simplified — a smaller field of half 
tone and a larger amount of light. The larger the amount of solid 
rendering, the more difficult becomes the work". 

A drawing must not appear dull and heavy. A sunny, sparkling 
result should always be sought for. 

When the area of rendering is large and close, so much the 
more need of a sweeping omission of accessory, that the white of sky 
and ground may relieve the monotony of gray or half tone. There- 
fore, scheme C or its reverse is a safer one, so far as values go, than 
B, because of less amount of half tone. 

D is simply putting one side of the building in shade. It is not 
usually best to do this when the shade side is so conspicuously large. 
If we stood facing the front with a small, sharply vanishing side 
showing, such a scheme would be the most natural one. As a matter 
of values it is all right in this instance. But in the rendering of a 
building where both sides are equally valuable in design both sides 
should be about equally lighted. A sunlighted surface is always 
more interesting than one in shade. 

E has about as much light in its make-up as D,but it is disposed 
in a different way. Both sides of the building are supposed to be 
in light, but the larger and clearest area of light is placed in the 
middle of the building. It is a possible natural effect, though a rare 
one. Such a treatment is not the one a camera would discover very 



\ m 

If you will observe on a sunny day the roofs of buildings and 
compare their color value with the blue sky, it may be surprising to 
observe that usually the roof appears the lighter of the two. 

often, but it might occur when the sunlight happened to get right of 
way through a rift in the clouds or the smoke of chimneys. Any- 
way, it is a method capable of beautiful, artistic effect, and is very 
often the best one to adopt. 

Attention has thus been briefly called to the different treatments 
which this one subject could bear, which suggestions may be found 
useful to some of the readers of The Brickbuilder, in work that 
may come under their hand. They are all based on possible natural 
effects of light, and shade, and color. 

It should be clearly understood that all successful pictorial work 
is so because it appears natural. The architectural rendering that is 
the most like to a possible natural appearance is the best one. As 
all moral teachings can be tested by the standard of the Good 
Book, so all artistic attempts may be tried by their harmony or lack 
of it with nature's work in shade, shadow, and color, and correct 

There need be no poverty in expression witii such a varied and 
abundant store to draw from. 

It is best not to heed too much what another learner has to say 
about these things, and so get them second hand, but go to the 
original source and learn for one's self. Nevertheless, hints like 
these I have given may do no harm if their worth is tested by 
thoughtful experiment. 



Fire-proofing Department. 




[In the April i.ssue of The Hrickhuii.der the last illustration, 
marked Fig. 1 7, was used by mistake, and will appear in the present 
number in its proper place as Fig. 19. The illustration of the first 
holIow-tile floor arch made by the Wight Fire-proofing Company, and 
used in the Alontauk Block, Chicago, should be Fig. i 7, and is here 


fi^p.oot . r.o ^o 

Wi^Kl FiR£:iproof;n^C'-.mpAiT.vj. CKicAdo . ISBi. 
Fif;. 17. 


IT is necessary now to retrace our steps over a short space of time 
to the introduction of a feature which made the flat arch a com- 
plete fulfilment of the demand 
for a continuous fire-proof ceiling 
and protection for the iron beams 
as well as a support for the floor, 
independent of any construction 
over the beams. L'p to 1SS41 
all the flat arches that had been 
built were practically in the Roux 
i^-stem, and varied from it only in 

matters of detail. The beams had no protection to the 
bottom flanges except a plate of cement or common 
mortar not more than three quarters of an inch thick, 
gaining support from the slightly dovetailed form of the 
skew-back tiles. After they were plastered over, in 
course of time, whether the ceilings were painted or not, 
the location of the beams could be seen by streaks on 
the ceilings, and this was especially the case in locations 
where bituminous cotil was used. In 1S83, I conceived 
the idea that the beams could be 
covered with a shoe of tile on the 
bottom before setting the arches, and 
that this shoe could be held tempo- 
rarily in place by giving the upper side 
the form of a female dovetail, and 
filling the joint between the beam and 

tile with mortar. The whole thing F' 

would thus form an extension to the 

bottom flange of the beam, and the skew-back tile could be made 
of such form as to surround its edges so that the bottom of the 
arch would be flush with the bottom of the shoe tile. I patented 
this invention in 1883, showing its connection with a 9 in. flat webbed 
arch, an illustration of which is here given (Fig. 18) showing its 
connection with a 12 in. arch. 

These soffit tiles were first used in the main building of the 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, of New York, on Nassau Street, 
and that is the first time I believe they were ever used in any build- 
ing. From then to the close of operations of the Wight Fire-proof- 
ing Company, in 1891, they were used with every floor arch built 
by that company, with only one exception. The holder of the John- 
son and Kreischer patent, above described (Fig. 13), brought suit 


OrcUnav/ Me-ihocL 
of Covsv\n6 \3e,aMab. 

against the Mutual Life Insurance Company for infringement of 
patent. The judgment was given in his favor except in so far as the 
use of mortar was concerned, his patent having claimed that the 
strip was " removable," and not specifying the use of mortar to hold 
it firmly. It was shown that such a tile had never been actually used 
in floor construction, in fact, was impracticable under the former 
patent ; consequently the court refused to award damages. I have, 
therefore, only the satisfaction of knowing that I demonstrated what 
is practicable in it and have given it to the world. The same plain- 
tiff had previously brought suit against Henry Maurer for infringe- 
ment of the Balthazar Kreischer patent (Fig. 14), but a verdict was 
given for the defendant, the main references being the Garcin and 
Roux patents. In practise it was soon found that it was not neces- 
sary to cement the soflit tiles to the beams, but that they could be 
held in place by the centering until the skew-backs were set in place, 
and that the bedding of the skew-back filled not only the joint be- 
tween itself and the soffit tile, but also the joint between the sofl^t 
tile and the beam. In places where the arches are removed it is 
found that the soffit tiles adhere to the beams. 

The work on the Mutual Insurance Building was hardlv done 
when others began to use a similar tile under the beam. The first 
instance that I know of was in the Stillman Apartment at 
Cleveland, Ohio, built in 1884-85. There, as in all other cases of 
work done by imitators, the cheaper method of putting a tile under 
the beam only the width of its bottom flange was used (Fig. 19.) 
Here it will be seen that the support from the skew-back is only half 
as great as where the soffit tile is also dovetailed at the top. The 
only variation I ever made from this method was in the case of the 

I'hcenix (now Western Union) 
Building, Chicago, where the bot- 
toms of the arches were 3 ins. 
below the beams; and the soffit 
tiles were made as complete 
hollow tiles. The arches were 
10 ins., having 7 ins. rise above 
the bottoms of the beams. The 
flat soflit tile, with a slight recess 
on the top to afford an air space, is still generally em- 
ployed by all contractors for beam protection, with vari- 
ous kinds of arches. Some other methods were tried, 
but have gone out of use. Henry Maurer, of New York, 
still makes a skew-back with an arm extending half way 
across the bottom of the beam, having a small hollow 
space. Fig. 20 shows the ordinary method of protecting 
the bottoms of the beams as used by the Pioneer Fire- 
proof Construction Company, of Chicago, when side 
pressure hard tiles are employed. 
The arch tiles are 10 ins. deep. 


It was not until 1890 that any ad- 
vance had been made in the construc- 
tion of hollow-tile floor arches over 
the methods used in New York, of 
which Maurer's was a good example, and those of the Wight Fire- 
proofing Company and Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Company, of 
Chicago. A great deal of work had been done by others which re- 
sembled these methods, and side-pressure porous tile arches had 
been made and used in several buildings in Kansas City as well as 
Chicago. Those used in Chicago were made of a light brick clay 
from Lake Calumet, with an admixture of a small quantity of fire- 
clay from Brazil, Ind. The Kansas City material was made of the 
very inferior loamy red clay of which the hills of that city are com- 
posed, and was about the worst material from which porous terra- 
cotta could be made, both for constructive and fire-resisting purposes. 
Its use also involved the manufacturers in great loss from breakage 
in the course of handling and setting. Mr. Thomas A. Lee was 






then the superintendent and engineer of the Kansas City Company. 
When he obtained the contract for fire-proofing the United States 
Government Building at Denver, he determined to use a white semi- 
fire-clay from Hobart, Ind., not far from Chicago, for the manufac- 
ture of his porous terracotta, this having been used successfully for 
side-pressure floor arch blocks at Chicago in the Metropole Hotel. 
But instead of using side-pressure voussoirs, he made all the tiles 
from one die, the section being a square of 9 by 9 ins. with cross 
webs in both directions. The tiles had four square holes, and the 
thickness of all the walls and webs was about 1 in. These were 
cut, before drying and burning, into skew-backs and voussoirs, and 
were set in courses from beam to beam, so that no joints were 
broken ; but in all cases four joints would come together at one point. 
These, I believe, were the first end-pressure arches ever set in a build- 
ing, and the same method, but with tiles of a different cross section, 
was used by him in the Broadway Theater Building at Denver. I 
have always thought, though I am not certain, that Mr. Lee deter- 
mined to set his porous tile arches in this way at Denver on account 
of the difficulties that he encountered with the use of inferior porous 
terracotta at Kansas City. In any case, I think that he is entitled 
to the credit of having first used end-pressure arches successfully in 
an entire building. But the Kansas City Company had been working 
under patents of the International 
Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 
which had already experimented 
with arches made by taking a long 
piece of rectangular porous terra- 
cotta, cutting it into voussoirs and 
setting them together in a flat 

The principle of the end-pres- 
sure arch had, however, been pat- 
ented long before this. In addition 
to the use of end-pressure tiles for 
segment arches, as heretofore de- 
scribed as invented by Joseph 
Bunnett in 1858, a patent was 
issued in this country to Leonard 
F. Beckwith, of New York, for an 
end-pressure flat hollow arch in 
two pieces, in 1879. 

I reproduce an illustration of 
this system from the Patent Office 
Gazette (Fig. 21). 

Mr. Beckwith made his arch 
in two pieces, using one long hollow 
tile and one solid skew-back. The 
end of the hollow tile resting on 
the beam was cut to fit it, and the 

other end was beveled to fit the skew-back, which also had the 
shape of the beam on its bearing side. He alternated the position of 
the skew-back at every other course, but each course was an inde- 
pendent structure as now used in all end-pressure arches. 

I have never seen these arches put into practical use. This 
was not even the earliest patent touching the principle of the end- 
pressure arch. In 1875, a patent was issued to Levi T. Scofield, 
of Cleveland, O., for hollow floor arch tiles between I beams all in 
one piece. They were shown to be either flat or in segment form, 
and of many different sections, but in all, the holes ran from beam 
to beam. 

On account of the difficulty in burning long tiles this system 
was never used to any extent for floors, but where J. irons were used 
not more than two feet from centers, a similar tile came in use, 
which was called " book tile," on account of its having the outer 
section of a book, so as to lock the tiles together. Mr. Scofield's 
patent did not cover tlie tongue and groove shape at the edges, and 
book tiles were never patented, but were extensively used long before 
end-pressure arches made of voussoirs. 

F J3eckwiiH s Paient End Pressure ArcK. 


Cross anJ. Lonoitudiiial Seciioua of TKo mas A. Lee's 

End Pras&uve Porous Ff vra-CoUa Arc-k ,Te&ieclai DenueT, 

Decembtr 1800. 


The general adoption of end-pressure arches is very recent, and 
followed soon after the extensive tests made by Andrews, Jaques 
& Rantoul, architects, before the erection of the Equitable Building 
at Denver. These tests have been described and commented upon in 
The Brickbuilder (January and February, 1895,) by Mr. George 
Hill. They were suggested by Mr. Thomas A. Lee, who had bid 
for the fire-proof work on the building in competition with the 
two best-known fire-proofing companies of Chicago, and was the 
highest bidder. His tender was for porous terra-cotta floor arches, 
and his samples were made at Hobart, Ind., where, I believe, 
most of the material for the building was subsequently manufac- 
tured. He challenged the other two bidders, both of whom made 
side-pressure arches of dense fire-clay for strength of material, and 
fire-proof qualities. A section of his sample arch which was sub- 
jected to all the tests is here given (Y\g. 22). 

The tests for strength on all the arches were for dead weight 
and smashing. Those for fire resistance were for a continuous fire 
until destroyed, and for fire alternating wilh water until destroyed. 
It is needless to say that these were crucial tests, and it should be 
added that they were conducted with perfect fairness to all parties. 

They demonstrated the superiority 
of Mr. Lee's material and con- 
struction to the others in every 
case, and yet the published results 
were calculated to be very mislead- 
'ng to architects and the users of 
hollow tile floor construction who 
did not study the reports carefully. 
I entirely agree with the criticisms 
of Mr. Hill. But it should be 
added that the publication of such 
tests without comments, especially 
when they were tests to the point 
of destruction in all cases, is calcu- 
lated to convey the erroneous im- 
pression that the two systems most 
easily destroyed were worthless, 
and the survivor the only good one. 
As a matter of fact, the only tests 
that demonstrated anything useful 
were the still-load tests for strength 
and the heat tests during the first 
three hours. In the still-load test 
the arch of the Wight Fire-proof- 
ing Company broke at exactly 
1,000 lbs. per superficial foot, add- 
ing the weight of sand and box to 
that of the pig iron, while the report was so drawn as to imply that 
the weight was only from the pig iron. This is exactly the extreme 
weight they were guaranteed to carry, and to which they had been 
repeatedly tested in floors of buildings. The Pioneer Arch broke at 
651 lbs. per superficial foot, but it was admitted that the sample was 
defective and not up to the standard of their work. So, also, with the 
heat tests. That for continuous fire lasted twenty-four hours in each 
case, and there was no way of making a record of the condition of the 
samples after three hours, which is about as long as they would ever 
have to last in any building. As for smashing tests, all kinds of 
material are continuously being tested by falling bodies in new build- 
ings, and it is well known how they are affected. 

The tests demonstrated that porous tiles were more fire-proof 
than hollow tiles, and that end-pressure arches are stronger under 
the same conditions than side-pressure arches, but did not demon- 
strate that hollow fire-clay tiles would not stop the progress of an actual 
fire, nor that side-pressure arches, as usually made, were not strong 
enough for practical use in all classes of floors. 
{To be continued) 



Mortar and Concrete. 



CHAPTER WU.~{C(»iti)iued.) 

HENRY RE ID, in his work on " Portland Cement," London, 
1877, page 315, says: "The presence of free lime thus un- 
converted is now frequently due to an over-dose of carbonate of 
lime in the cement mixture to enable it to pass successfully the 
modern onerous tests." 

From that time until to-day the demand for higher tests has 
been continuous and more burden.some, and the manufacturer has not 
scrupled to employ any and every means within his power to accom- 
plish the required results. He has to do it or retire from the field. 

.And thus, by an unfortunate misinterpretation of the readings of 
the tensile strain-testing machine, in the early days of its existence, 
the opinions then formed have passed current as sound and unques- 
tioned through all the sub.sequent years. 

So strong and deep seated is the belief to-day in the reliability 
of the testing machine, that a person who cares to be considered as 
" up to date " must express no doubt as to its infallibility. 

An ideal hydraulic cement, as already stated, can be produced 
by what is known as the Portland process. 

It would consist in a selection of the raw materials which were 
found to be best adapted for the purpose (special care l)eing taken, 
at least, as to the quality of the clay), and these to be thoroughly and 
finely commingled in correct proportions, then calcined to a mild 
clinker, sutificiently vitrified to produce the desired weight, and then 
ground exceedingly fine. 

Such a cement would test only about half as high as the present 
so-called Portlands, yet it would be an ideal cement. 

It could not be excelled, and could be equaled only by a rock 
cement having its constituent parts present in exact chemical pro- 

It is only through the engineer that any imjjrovement may be 
expected. He alone is entitled to the doubtful distinction of bringing 
about the change from the slow-setting pasty Portlands of twenty- 
five or thirty years ago to the harsh, high short-time testing Port- 
lands of to-day. 

It is neither pertinent nor sound to reason that, because the 
Portlands used twenty-five or more years ago may be in good condi- 
tion to-day, the Portlands of the present are worthy of the utmost 
confidence, for every person at all conversant with the facts knows 
that those earlier Portland cements tested but about half as high in 
one, seven, thirty, and ninety day tests as do the Portlands now on 
the market. 

If an artificial cement of a pasty consistency should test 80 lbs. 
in one day, and 1 75 lbs. at seven days, 300 lbs. at six months, 600 lbs. 
at one year, 1,000 lbs. at two years, and 1,200 lbs. at five years, and 
should be found at that age to be tough and stone-like in its char- 
acter, can any one for a moment doubt that such a cement would 
be infinitely superior to the harsh, high short-time testing cements of 
to-day ? 

Is it not worth while to reflect that for every one year that harsh 
cements have been in use, those of a pasty character have been in 
use fifty years ? 

Is it difficult to understand that it is only the pasty cements 
that eventually assume a stone-like character, while those that are 
harsh inevitably become glassy ? 

It is well known to every manufacturer that the latter class is 
much more expensive to produce, but the manufacturer has no alter- 

native. He must produce such grades of cement as the engineers 

It is to the engineers, therefore, as has already been stated, that 
any improvement may be looked for, and the only improvement 
needed, with respect to artificial cements, is to get back to the 
sensible Portlands of thirty years ago. 

Let the engineer stipulate that cements shall not test below or 
above certain fixed limits, and there will be an end to this doctoring 
and drugging of the artificial cements, which is resorted to simply 
and solely for the purpose of meeting arbitrary and unreasonable 

The following table of tests of English Portland Cements by 
Reginald Empson Middleton, M. Inst. C. E., was printed in Ent!;i- 
neer, London, Vol. 65, p. 279, April 6, 1 888. 

The figures given represent the average strength in pounds per 
square inch, in tensile strain, and the ages in days of the briquettes 
when broken. 








Per cent, of 
Loss or Gain. 

















































This table discloses the fact that artificial cements which at 
seven days test from 250 to 350 lbs. show higher ultimate results 
than those which at seven days 400 to 600 lbs. 

The following quotation from the " Transactions of the German 
A.ssociation of Cement .Makers '" discloses either a deplorable lack of 
common honesty or a desperate attempt at fulfilling the .severe re- 
quirements of engineers. " In order to obtain the best results (i*) 
the amount of plaster of Paris used must be proportionately in- 
creased in accordance with the quantity of ground slag employed." 
Presuming it to be a case of necessity rather than a lack of common 
honesty, what a commentary on the straits to which the producers are 
reduced to meet the re(|uirements of engineers, knowing, as all manu- 
facturers do know, that plaster of Paris is in no sense hydraulic, 
although it tests neat as high as 250 lbs. per square inch in tensile 
strain in twenty-four hours. 

The time must surely come when it will be well understood that 
any and all schemes of hot-house forcing, for the purpose of obtain- 
ing high seven-day tests, constitute an unnatural interference with 
the crystallization of true silicates, and are therefore a .serious dam- 
age to their most desirable qualities of endurance. 

Verily it is the pace that kills, and even when applied to hy- 
draulic cements, there is, if we may be permitted to employ it, no 
truer saying than " Soon ripe, soon rotten." 

For hydraulic purposes there is no known substance that can in 
any way aid or improve the quality of pure unadulterated hydraulic 
silicates, when left to crystallize in their own natural way. 


During the past few years it has become quite the fashion to 
boil samples of cement in order to test their qualities. 

If one brand sustains the test without serious results it is con- 
sidered superior to others which fall down during the boiling. This 
is about as wise and logical a conclusion as that arrived at by some 
of our good old Puritan fathers during the witchcraft craze. 

The witch, being thrown into a pond, if she went to the bottom 
and stayed there, was considered innocent. But if she managed to 
float, she was deemed to be possessed of the devil, and was then 
forced to the bottom on general principles. 

I3y the boiling test, many of our very best brands of cement are 

It is safe to assert that of the more than one hundred and fifty 
million barrels of American Rock cements used in all the great en- 



gineering works throughout the country during the past fifty years, 
and with no evidences of failure, not i per cent, would have sus- 
tained the boiling test. 

A cement, whether natural or artificial, that will crystallize so 
rapidly as to sustain the boiling test, ought to be looked upon with 
suspicion, as it is either naturally too quick setting, or is too fresh 
and lacking in proper seasoning. 


The many experiments that have been made by different 
authorities in the freezing of green cement samples would seem to 
indicate that Portland cement mortar will sustain severe freezing 
without appreciable disturbance of the exposed surfaces, but it 
suffers in loss of strength in some cases as much as 50 per cent. 

While the Rock cement mortars will show disintegration to the 
extent of }( to j^ in. on the exposed surfaces, yet the portions not 
disintegrated are shown to have sustained no loss in strength, and 
in some instances the strength is above the normal. 

A series of tests made by the author, the results of which are 
herewith tabulated, differ somewhat from those of other writers, re- 
sulting, no doubt, from having experimented with different brands 
of cement. 

All of the britjuettes were given one day in air and six days in 
water, those in the second column being placed in water and set 
outside, where they were soon frozen, and so remained in solid ice, 
until thawed out and broken at the end of the seventh day. 

All of the briquettes represented in the second column, after 
being thawed out, were shown to have lost equally in area, by scale 
and disintegration to the depth of yi in. on all sides. 

There was no appreciable difference in the losses, the Portlands 
having suffered equally, in that respect, with the Rock cements. 

The figures in the second column show the actual breaking 
strain of the frozen briquettes, but it will be borne in mind that the 
areas of these briquettes were greatly lessened by freezing ; there- 
fore the percentage of loss in strength, as shown in the third column, 
represents the loss without regard to actual areas. 

The fourth column represents the strength of the samples in 
the second column when calculated at i full square inch, or equal in 
area to the samples in the first colunm. 

The fifth column represents gain or loss in strength of the 
frozen samples, with equal areas of the unfrozen ones. 

All of the briquettes were gauged neat by the same person, and 
were treated alike as to plasticity and temperature. 


No. of Column. 






. Kinds of 



Per cent, of 
loss by 

Per square 

inch of 
the frozen 

Per cent, of loss or 

gain by freezing, 

of equal areas. 

Medium Burned 
Rock Cement. 







Hard Burned 
Rock Cement. 







Slow Setting 







Setting Portland. 







Quick Setting 



41. II 




There is a surprising gain in strength of the Rock cements by 

With the Portlands, the slow and medium setting samples held 
their own, while the higher testing Portland, under ordinary rules, 
lost 15 per cent, in strength of equal areas by freezing. 

It is not good practise to use any kind of cement in cold 
weather, especially when it freezes during the night and thaws dur- 
ing the day, and should be avoided whenever possible. 

Note. — Mr. Cummings's series on American Cements 
number of The Brickbuilder. 

be concluded in tlic July 



Mortar is a mixture of some cementing material with sand. 
Lime mortar is composed of lime paste and sand, with the addition, 
for certain parts of plastering, of hair and similar bonding material. 

Necessity of Sand in Mortar. — Good cream of lime might 
be used alone as cement, as it hardens on exposure to the air by 
drying, were it not that, under these conditions, it shrinks and cracks 
very badly. It is, therefore, customary, both on this account and for 
economy, to temper it with sand. This should be clean, sharp, and 
rather coarse for masonry, finer for plastering. When discussing 
hydraulic mortars and concretes there will be occasion for a further 
consideration of sand and its qualities and proper use. 

Proportion of Sand to Lime. ^ A mortar made of lime 
paste should, theoretically, contain so much sand that the cream of 
lime will more than fill the voids, that is to say, the volume of the 
mortar should be greater than that of the sand. In fact it is necessary 
that it should considerably more than fill them in order to thoroughly 
coat each particle and provide for shrinkage. If too much sand is 
present there is not sufficient cementing material to make a firm bond, 
while on the other hand, if there is too little the mortar will tend to 
shrink and crack on drying. If too little lime is used the deficiency 
must be made up with water, that is to say, the paste is made very thin. 

In ordinary sands the voids are from 30 to 40 per cent, of the 
volume of the sand. With sand, having 40 per cent., such as that 
which is used for the best lime mortar, i volume of paste would fill 
the voids in 2.5 volumes of sand with no excess. As a matter of 
fact, practice leads to the addition of only from 1.25 to 2 volumes of 
sand to i of paste which, when the caustic lime yields 2.5 volumes 
of paste, means 3 to 5 volumes of sand to i measured volume of 
caustic lime. In this way a plastic mortar and one that will not 
crack in drying is made. With fat lime and sharp sand 3 volumes 
of sand to i of lime forms a rich mortar and these proportions are 
often required in the best specifications. The greater part of the 
mortar used in ordinary brickwork is, however, made with 5 volumes 
of sand, or more, and is probably satisfactory. 

Illustrating the results of the variation in the proportions of lime, 
water, and sand in mortars, the following original experiments have 
been made : — 

mortar experiments. 

Composition and Physical Properties of the Caustic Lime. 

Loss on ignition, water, etc i .0 

Insoluble silica and silicates 1.2 

Alumina and iron oxide .8 

Magnesia .6 

Lime ■ 95.6 

Volume weight of a cubic foot including voids 60 lbs. 

Voids 44% 

Density of lump 1.52 

No. of Experiment. i 

Weight of lime used i,ooo 

Weight of water to slake .... i,ooo 

Weight of water for paste .... 1,000 

Volume of water to one of lime . . 2. 

Volume of paste 2,000 

Weight of paste 2,720 

Density of p,iste 1.36 

Characteristics of Paste .... Thick 

\olunie of sand, moist .... 2,000 

Weight of sand 3,000 

Volume of sand to lime 2. 

Volume of sand to paste .... i. 

Volume of mortar 3i32o 

Weight of mortar 5,740 

Density of mortar 1.73 

Consistency of mortar Thick 

Dries Cracks Dries without shrinking. 























3. '20 

4, 120 












Very thin 















2 6 











I. .82 






Very sloppy 




Water 30.0 29.3 22.5 20.7 15. 1 

Sand 5!.6 fty.q 6S.1 72.2 82.0 

Lime 17.4 12.8 9.4 7.1 i-i) 

100 o 100.0 loo.o 100.0 lOO.O 

Relation of w.iter to lime .... 1.7 2.3 24 2.9 3.9 

No. of experiment. 12345 

Water of hydration ... 7.4 4.S 3.7 2.8 1.5 

Sand 70.0 Si. I S4.6 88.5 95.0 

Lime 22.6 15.1 11.7 8.7 4.5 

Weight per cubic foot dry, 

lbs 98. 99. 101. 108. III. 

Tensile strength, lbs. per 

sq. in. when dry . 40-16. 36. 38. 40. 30. 
Crushing strength, lbs. per 

sq. in. when dry ... 95 97 85 

The experiments, it will be noticed, were carried out with a 
pure and fat lime. The sand in use was not very coarse, and had 
40 per cent, of voids. From the results the following conclusions 
may be drawn : — 

Slaking. — Slaking with a volume of water equal to the 
measured volume of the lime, with 44 per cent, of voids, or with a 
weight of water equal to the weight of the lime, gives a volume of 
paste, after the addition of another volume of water, equal to that of 
the water used, only. This paste is very thick. 

Slaking with two volumes of water, with the addition of half a 
volume, after slaking is finished, making 2.5 volumes of water in the 
paste, gives 2.56 volumes of paste which is thick and rich. 

Slaking with 2.5 volumes of water adtled all at once gives 2.71 
volumes of thick paste suitable for good mortar. 

Slaking with 3. volumes of water added at once gives 3.12 
volumes q/'th'm paste. 

Slaking with 4. volumes in the same way yields 4.12 volumes 
which is too thin to be of value. 

It appears, then, that slaking with 2.5 volumes of water added at 
once is the most advantageous method of procedure, and that but a 
small departure from these proportions on either side will result in 
forming a less satisfactory paste. 

Of course with poorer limes much smaller volumes of water 
should be used. 

Density. — The density of the paste naturally decreases with 
the increase of water it contains. 

Volume of Sand for Mortar. — If but twice the volume of 
the lime is added to the paste in the form of sand, the resulting 
mortar is too rich. It contracts and cracks on drying. Three 
volumes of sand make a very rich and satisfactory mortar such as 
should be used for laying up fronts and pointing. Five volumes 
form a mortar good enough for ordinary brick masonry where not 
exposed to moisture, while greater amounts of sand furnish mortars 
which are very porous, but serve for cheap work in absolutely dry 

Density of the Mortars. — -The density of mortars 
is, of course, proportionate to the amount of sand they contain. 
Their porosity is larger the more water the paste contains. 

Volume of Mortars. — With a small amount of sand the 
volume of the mortar is, where twice the volume of the lime is sand, 
66 per cent, more than the volume of the sand ; where the volumes 
of the sand is three times the lime, 46 per cent, more; where 5 
volumes, 1 7 per cent. ; with 7 volumes the mortar is less in volume 
than that of the damp sand owing to its closer compaction. 

The amount of water in the paste plays a prominent part in the 
relation of the volume of mortar to the volume of sand and to the 
amount of sand which can be added to any paste. 

Composition of Wet Mortars. — Calculation shows that 
these varied mortars contain from 30 to 15 per cent, by weight of 
water or from i 7 to 3.9 per cent, of lime, but the relation of water to 

lime increases with diminution of the amount of lime, that is to say, 
with the increase of sand, from 1.7 in the richest mortar to 3.9 
times as much water as lime in the poorest mortar with the thinnest 
cream. These figures show why the richest mortar contracts the 
most on drying from loss of the largest amount of water, and that 
the poorest mortars, although not having as large a per cent, by 
weight of water still have not enough lime to form proper cement. 

Composition of Dry Mortar. — The dry mortars contain 
from 22.6 to 4.5 per cent, of lime, but as the two extremes of com- 
bination would never be used in practice, it appears that mortars as 
ordinarily mi.xed may contain from 15 to 8 per cent, of lime. This 
corresponds to the results obtained by analysis of many mortars 
actually employed in masonry. 

Strength of Dry Mortar. — The set of mortars acquired 
by simply drying out gives them a tensile strength of from thirty to 
forty pounds per section of i sq. in., and a crushing strength of 
about 85 to 95 in 2 in. sq. section. There is not such a difference 
between the different kinds of mortars at this stage, but with age 
there would be but little increase in strength with the poorer ones. 
The physical properties of the latter are also against them as they 
cannot resist moisture. 

Professor Smith's tests, given in the January number of The 
Brickuuildek, show also that with a diminution in the cross section 
of the inortar there is an increase in the strength per square inch of 
section. This is due to the liability of shrinkage cracks in tests 
pieces made with larger cross sections. 

General Conclusions. — It appears that fat limes should be 
slaked with 2.5 volumes of water, added at once in a closed box, to 
obtain the best and largest amount of good paste ; that with this, 
three times the volume of the lime in the shape of moist sand may be 
mixed for fine work, such as pointing, plastering, and in places 
exposed to dampness, and that 5 volumes of sand is not too much 
for ordinary brickwork. 

The amount of mortar which a barrel of lime, of average weight, 
under the same conditions as in the experiments, would yield is, 

'arts sand 

Parts water 

Cubic feet 










or, 4 cu. ft. of lime with 2.5 parts water, and 4 volumes of sand 
would yield 22 cu. ft. of mortar, which, according to authorities, is 
sufificient to lay one thousand brick in ordinary brickwork with 
coarsely drawn joints. With more compact work one barrel of lime 
will lay one thousand bricks. A barrel of poor or magnesian lime 
will not yield more than three quarters of these quantities. 

amendme.nts to lime mortar. 

Lime mortar, made of ordinary rich lime, is not suited for 
masonry where it is exposed to water, dampness, or to the absorption 
of water by capillarity from the soil. The hardest lime mortar will 
absorb 15 to 2J percent, of its volume of water. If hydraulic cement 
cannot be substituted for it, on the score of economy, a certain degree 
of improvement may be made in the mortar by mixing it with finely 
ground brick-dust or Ijurnt clay, which yield the necessary silica to 
make it somewhat hydraulic and less porous ; or a certain portion of 
the lime, one third, for instance, may be replaced by hydraulic 

This is seldom done, as it is cheaper in the end to use cement 

Effect of Frost on Lime .Mortar. — The most thorough 
experiments of Tetmaier show that lime mortar cannot be used at 
temperatures below freezing, especially with porous materials, and 
attain any bond. No additions, such as salt, soda, glycerine, or 
sugar will prevent lime mortar, when frozen for any length of time, 
from becoming a friable material. 




Mortar can be mixed by hand or machinery. The latter is of 
course preferable. When done by hand, as is the common custom, 
the operation should be carried on in a closed box, or on a surface 
through which water cannot escape, and with suitable walls of sand. 
Machine mixing is much more thorough than that done by hand, 
and is coming into vogue rapidly in our larger cities where there is 
such a use of mortar as to make it an economy to prepare it on a 
large scale. Such mortar is more regular in composition than hand 
made. All the material can be accurately gauged and weighed, which 
is most desirable. 


The setting of lime mortar is the result of three distinct proc- 
esses which, however, may all go on more or less simultaneously. 
First, it dries out and becomes firm. Second, during this operation, 
the calcic hydrate, which is in solution in the water of which the 
mortar is made, crystallizes and binds the mass together. Hydrate 
of lime is soluble in 831 parts of water at 78 degs. F. ; in 759 parts 
at 32 degs., and in 1 136 parts at 140 degs. Third, as the per cent, 
of water in the mortar is reduced and reaches 5 per cent., carbonic 
acid begins to be absorbed from the atmosphere. If the mortar 
contains more than 5 per cent, this absorption does not go on. While 
the mortar contains as much as 0.7 per cent, the absorption continues. 
The resulting carbonate probably unites with the hydrate of lime to 
form a subcarbonate, which causes the mortar to attain a harder set, 
and this may finally be converted to carbonate. The mere drying 
out of mortar, our tests have shown, is sufficient to enable it to resist 
the pressure of masonry, while the further setting furnishes the 
necessary bond. 

There is also supposed to be a formation of lime silicate in the 
course of setting. The evidence in favor of this has been obtained 
by German investigators from the analyses of very old mortars. 
Some of these analyses have been collected by Feichtinger, and are 
of interest. 








Lime . . . 
















Carbonic Acid 








Silica, Soluble 



I.I I 




Alumina . . 


3.42 ) 
4.25 \ 


5 2.64 } 
1 0.92 \ 


\ 1.90 I 
] 1 .90 J 


Iron Oxide . 

( 1.56 




Water . . 








Sand . . . 








99.76 100.06 100.00 99.68 100.00 100.00 99.80 
Carbonic Acid 

ca 1 cu 1 at ed 

from lime and 

magnesia 27.83 23.68 20.3 37.00 11.36 1S.74 11.37 

I. Mortar from Vienna, 662 years old. 

M V )» 303 >» )) 

Athenian Mortar, classical times. 
Munich „ recent. 

Old Roman, Yarmouth, England. 

It appears more plausible that the soluble silica found in these 
mortars was derived from silica contained in the limestone from 
which the lime was derived, and which was rendered soluble in the 
process of burning by combining with lime, than that it was due to 
any combination of the lime of the mortar with the silica of the hard 
quartz grains of sand, which seems highly improbable. In these old 
mortars the amount of carbonic acid is high, and in several cases it 
is sufficient in amount to have converted the lime and magnesia 
completely to carbonate, although the percentage of these bases is 
in most cases much greater than good practice demands. 

The Masons' Department. 




IN closing this series of articles whicli have been intended to 
show briefly the relations, both as they are and as they should 
be, between the architect and contractor, it is desirable to emphasize 
the fact, to which allusion has already been made, that the way to 
overcome much of the friction and many of the misunderstandings 
which now exist is to bring about more intimate relations between 
the representative organizations of the architects and the builders. 
In almost every city of any considerable size throughout the country 
we now find a local society of architects, usually a chapter of the 
American Institute and a Master Builders' Association, generally 
connected with the national organization. While these two parent 
bodies have considered, from time to time, various matters of mutual 
interest, and have conjointly framed and issued the uniform contract 
which has done more than any other one thing to bring about har- 
monious practice in this important particular, at the same time there 
are man)- matters of detail in which local customs figure to such an 
extent that action by the national bodies is undesirable, which could 
be easil-y adjusted by conferences between the local organizations. 
There is little doubt that, under ordinary conditions, the average 
architect considers the average contractor a more or less unprincipled 
individual, who selfishly guards his own personal interests at the 
expense of every one else, and it is also true that this feeling is re- 
ciprocal on the part of the builder. But this condition of things 
fortunately exists only when the parties, as the saying is, deal with 
each other at arm's length. Let a body of men, representing the 
architects and builders, sit around a table and discuss, in a liberal 
and broad-minded way, the matters which have been the result of in. 
numerable controversies and more or less hard feeling in the past, and 
each would be surprised to find how quickly and satisfactorily many of 
the contested points could be settled. The Boston Society of Archi- 
tects, which justly prides itself as being one of the leaders in its sphere 
on such matters, at a recent meeting ordered its executive committee 
to meet the representatives of the Master Builders' Association, to con- 
sider in general the matters of mutual interest to both bodies. While 
it is too soon to predict in detail what the outcome of such a con- 
ference will be, it is safe to say that this action promises to be the 
entering wedge which may lead, eventually, to an agreement which 
will correct at least some of the abuses which exist on each side. 
Reforms usually commence from without, that is to say, while the 
architects on the one hand, and the builders on the other, may be 
aware that certain improper practises exist, there will be little hope 
of their being corrected until attention is called to them, and possibly 
some pressure brought to bear by those who suffer from the present 
condition of affairs ; and the simplest and easiest way to accomplish 
the desired result is to bring the interested parties face to face, where 
they may listen to a frank discussion of the matter at hand. For 
those who have made a study of these questions it cannot be claimed 
that this series of articles has presented any new facts or suggestions, 
for such has not been the intention; the object in writing on the 
relations between architect and contractor has been simply to point 
out the fact that there is at the present time more or less friction be- 
tween two allied interests ; that while much of the trouble is 
due to unavoidable conditions, under which much of the work is 
undertaken and carried out, yet at the same time many of the abuses 
are such that they could be corrected by the intelligent and united 
action of the architects on the one hand, and the builders on the 
other. The means for accomplishing such a result are at hand in 
the societies of architects and associations of builders, all that is 
necessary being to bring the representatives of each together; and if 



this can he accomplished, as it already promises to be, we shall, no 
doubt, see in the near future the same improvement in the ethics 
between these two organizations as we have witnessed within indi- 
vidual associations themselves. 


THROLUill the efforts of the architects and manufacturers the 
brick industry has, of late years, shown a w^ondcrful develop- 
ment, for it is but a comparatively short time since there was practi- 
cally but one shape and color, and the only variation to be had was 
in the different degrees of finish. During the period when the 
pressed brick was in favor, it was unquestionably the desire of both 
the architect and the mason to avoid, .so far as possible, all appear- 
ance of te.xture in a face wall : the bricks were made as smooth and 
regular as possible. They were bonded with " cut " headers, so as 
not to disturb the regularity of the courses, and the joints were made 
as fine and narrow as was possible, one of the essential (lualifications 
of a first-class face brick layer being the ability to make the joints 
as narrow and inconspicuous as possible. Such work was at first 
laid in common mortar, made with fine sand, which allowed the 
bricks to be laid very close, but later the desire to liave the joint still 
less prominent led to the of putting such coloring matter in 
the mortar as would bring it to the same tone as the brick. This 
practically obliterated the joint, and made a wall of a smooth, 
.slippery, and, as it has sometimes been called, '• licked " surface. 

This kind of masonry nece.ssarily lacked two essentials of most 
good architecture, — texture, and a straightforward recognition of the 
materials employed and the method of using them. Now. the con- 
struction of a brick wall naturally consists in laying courses of bricks 
one on top of the other, with a layer of mortar between each one, 
and it is consequently apparent that if we are to use our materials 
honestly, the joint of a brick wall should be recognized as an archi- 
tectural feature just as much as the bricks themselves ; and so soon 
as this is done we begin to get a surface with texture. It has been 
difficult to convince the mechanic, who was taught, when learning liis 
trade, to obliterate so far as po.ssible all trace of the joint, that com- 
paratively wide joints of mortar of a different color from the bricks 
themselves could make a workman-like-looking job, and it is often 
hard work to bring a man who has served his time to sacrifice his 
principles so far as to follow the architect's directions, and lay a wall 
where the mortar joint is conspicuous, botli on account of its width 
and color ; but in many instances the mechanic lias freely admitted, 
when the work was finished and cleaned down, that after all it had a 
certain merit and pleasing appearance, which was lacking in that 
which was done in the old way. 

Besides recognizing the joint by means of color, it is also often- 
times desirable to use a greater width, particularly in the bed joints, 
which necessitates the use of a much coarser sand than was formerly 
employed, so the bricks will not only stand up, but also stay in place. 
And if such work is laid in wet weather and a hard and non-absorb- 
ent brick is used, it requires some skill to keep the wall plumb and 
true, but this difficulty can be overcome by the exercise of a little 
care and attention. 

While the cement or coloring matter, which may be mixed with 
it control to a considerable degree the color of the mortar, neverthe- 
less, the sand has an appreciable effect, and where it is desired to get 
a light-colored joint, the best sand for the purpose is a coarse, white 
beach sand, the only objection to it being that it is not as sharp as 
some bank sands, but this fact is not of suflicient importance, how- 
ever, to interfere with its use. It was formerly quite generally sup- 
posed that the presence of salt in mortar was detrimental to its 
strength ; it has been proved of late, however, that just as good mor- 
tar can be made with salt water as with fresh ; and the government, 
on its most important works, as sea walls, lighthouses, and similar 
construction.s, allows the mortar to be mixed of salt water. 

It may be said that, as a general rule, a joint lighter than the 
brick is the most preferable, and a strong mortar of this kind may be 

made by starting with a pure lime and sand putty, and tempering it 
strongly as it is used with Portland cement. Care must be taken, 
however, in cleaning down a wall which has been laid with a wide 
joint of lime mortar, that the lime is not taken out of the joint to 
such an extent that the wall is whitewashed. If acid is u.sed, it 
should be in very small quantities: but it is better to clean such brick- 
work with soda instead of acid, which, if the mortar is fairly well 
set, rarely starts the joints. It is also important that walls laid as 
described above should be laid so as to have ample time to become 
set before winter weather sets in. Care should also be taken to ascer- 
tain if there is any trouble liable to occur on account of unequal 
shrinkage in the mortar between the face of the wall and the back- 
ing. At one time it was often customary to lay the facing of brick 
walls, or at least a portion of it, in clear Portland cement, to allow 
the brick to be carved like stone after being set in place. There are 
instances where the une(|ual shrinkage or expansion of the different 
kinds of mortar made the facing scale off, and in time necessitated 
the removal of the entire outer 4 ins. of brickwork, but such trouble 
is undoubtedly less liable to occur with a wide joint in the facing, for 
in this case the joints of the facing and backing are more nearly 

Before the mortar between the l)ricks is set it is customary to 
" joint " it, that is to say, to compress it more or less by running an 
iron tool with a smooth surface along the joint, which compresses 
and at the same time indents the mortar. The jointer usually has a 
V-shaped edge which makes a sharp, narrow line, but sometimes a 
U one, which makes a slight indentation the full width of the joint. 
A good effect is obtained in some cases by simply cutting the 
mortar off with the trowel fiush with the surface of the brick; but 
as this leaves a rough surface, the mortar is more liable to be 
affected !)y frost than where it is smoothed and compressed with a 
jointer. In jointing brickwork, where the bricks themselves are 
more or less irregular in shape and laid with a wide mortar joint, it is 
usually desirable to have the jointer run along the top of a straight- 
edge, which is carefully leveled each time. Although the method of 
jointing the mortar may seem at first thought an unimportant detail, 
yet experience will soon show that it is a matter which deserves care- 
ful attention, particularly on work which comes near the eye, as in 
the case of fence walls, gate posts, and other similar work. If, when 
the architect is to build a brick wall where he wishes to obtain the 
best possible results, he will have several samples laid up with the 
same brick but different joints, he will find that the difference in 
joints may determine whether or not the wall is satisfactory in 
both color or texture, and also that a poor brick may be helped, or a 
good one injured, by the color and width of the mortar. The brick 
joint is a factor much more important than is generally supposed, and 
is worthy much more consideration than is ordinarily given to it. 

SAND. — Sand should be sharp, gritty, and clean, free from 
loam, clay, and other foreign substance. For mortar it should be 
screened to a proper degree of fineness. To test sand, take up a 
handful and squeeze. Its sharpness may be determined In' feeling, 
and cleanness by the appearance of the hand, as clay or loam will 
soil the hand by clinging to it. A better test for cleanness is to 
drop a handful into a glass of clean water; dirt will not settle at 
the bottom, sand will. 

Cost of Co.ncretk. — With I'ortland cement at 52.20 per 
barrel, sand at $1.00, and broken stone at 52.00 per cubic yard, and 
labor at $2.40 per day of eight hours in New York City, builders 
get from 30. cents to 32 cents per cubic foot for concrete in place. 
In the repaving of Fifth Avenue, New York City, in 1887. with 
Rosendale cement at 90 cents per barrel, labor at 51.50 per ten hours 
day, sand at jti.oo, and broken stone at $2.00 per cubic yard, the 
contract price was 54.00 per cubic yard in place, a perfectly fair es- 
timate, the mixture being about i — 3 — 5, and laid 12 ins. deep over 
the entire 40 ft. wide roadway. 



Recent Brick and Terra-Cotta 

Work in American Cities, 

Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — Another month of unusual activity in the 
Building Department has just passed. The plans which 
have been filed include several very important large buildings, the 
designing of which, we are happy to say, have been placed in good 
hands and we need not be apprehensive of the result. We have it 
on good authority, however, that several of the buildings whose plans 
have been filed will not be erected immediately, this formality having 
been gone through so that their ultimate erection need not be pre- 



Bruce Price, Architect. 

^fadc I)y Pertil Aniboy Tcrra-Cntt;l ("onip.niy, 

vented by a bill now under discussion in the .State legislature, 
limiting the heights of buildings. 

An item of particular interest is the decision of the owners to sell 
Madison Sf[iiare (iarden, the largest and most beautiful amusement 
place in America. All who are interested in the use of brick and 
terra-cotta know how successfully and how beautifully these materials 
have been blended in this splendid structure. The owners cannot be 
too highly commended for their generosity and public spirit in their 
endeavor to give the city of New York a building of which she is 
justly proud, nor the architects, McKim, Mead & White, for their, 
eminently successful handling of the problem. The great building 
has proved an unprofitable adventure financially, and during only one 
or two years has it paid expenses. It is not 
likely that its sale will materially affect the 
appearance of the building, although the Mad 
ison Avenue section inay be remodeled into an 

A new building which, judging by the 
drawings, promises to be a handsome one, is 
the new Herald Sf|uare Motel, by Hill & 
Turner, architects. This building will form a 
background to that admirable copy, the Herald 
Building, and will not artistically help the 

As a result of the generosity of Miss 
Rhinelander, a beautiful group of buildings 
will be erected on her grandfather's estate, for 
which purpose she has given over $500,000. 
The property is on the south side of East Sad 
Street, between First and Second Avenues, 

and the buildings to be erected will be dedicated to the purposes of 
St. James Parish. 

Plans have been completed by R. H. Hunt for an addition to the 
Metropolitan Museum Building, which will cost $1,000,000. The bids 
for the foundation work have been received and the work is about 
to commence. This is an important step toward the completion of a 
grand museum, of which the present structure is only a nucleus. 
The proposed wing will be classic in the general style of its architec- 
ture and will be constructed of brick and granite. It is a very 
elaborate building and will probably take two or three years to com- 

Plans have been filed for a magnificent new home for the 
University Club. The building will be erected on the plot of ground 
at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and 54th Street, which was 
bought for )J8o5,ooo. The architects are McKim, Mead & White. 
It is to be a handsome and substantial structure, and the interior 
arrangements, as indicated by the plans, are remarkably complete. 

An office building will be erected at Nos. 225 and 227 Fifth 
Avenue for the Baroness de Salliere. It will be twenty stories high 
and will cost #500,000. 

Harding & Gooch have prepared plans for a sixteen-story office 
building for John A. Roebling & Sons, to be erected at Nos. 1 1 7 to 
121 Liberty Street. It will be of steel skeleton construction with a 
front of brick, stone, and terra-cotta. It is estimated to cost 

The same architects have also filed plans for a fourteen-story 
building to be erected for J. Hooker Hammersley at the southwest 
corner of John and William Streets. It will be only 27 by 78 ft. in 
size, but will cost #400,000. The front will be of granite and brick, 
with terra-cotta trimmings. 

R. Maynicke has prepared plans for a twelve-story store and 
office building to be erected at No. 598 Broadway for Henry Corn. 
The cost will be #250,000. Also another similar building for the 
same owner at Fifth Avenue and 22d .Street, to cost #200,000. 

Neville & Bagge have planned seven flat buildings to be erected 
on St. Nicholas Avenue, at a cost of #190,000. 

Clinton & Russell have prepared plans for a twelve-story brick 
building, Nos. ii to 15 Murray .Street, to be used for manufacturing 
purposes. It will cost #225,000. 

.Schickel & Ditmars have planned a five-story brick office build- 
ing to be erected at Fifth Avenue and 91st .Street, at a cost of #25,000. 

C. C. Haight has prepared plans for an Ho.spital for the 
Ruptured and Crippled, to be built at 42d Street and Lexington 
Avenue. The cost will be #250,000. 

Schneider & Herter have planned a six-story brick and terra- 
cotta tenement, 100 by 100 ft., to be erected at the northeast corner 
of Columbia and Delancey Streets, at a cost of #95,000. 

Henry O. Havemeyer has sold to John S. Ames a plot, 150 by 
200 ft., on Broadway, north of Prince Street, for #100,000. Mr. 
Ames intends to erect three twelve-story mercantile buildings. 


Frank Miles iMy & ISrollier, .Arcliitccts. 
Made by Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 



PIIILADKLl'HIA. — The removal of the capitol from Harris- 
burg to this city will apparently not take place, the project 
which was so vigorously advocated immediately after the burning of 
the capitol has been abandoned, and there will be a new building, for 
capitol purposes only, erected at 
Harrisburg upon the site of the ; -^ , 

burned structure. f' * *■; 

We visited the ruins shortly 
after the fire. If any bricklayer 
or mason desires to have an ob- 
ject lesson which will illustrate 
perfectly what has been said con- 
cerning good brickwork in the 
editorial department of Tin; 
Hkickhuii.dkk in the early edi 
tions of this year, he can get it 
there. We were so impressed 
with the stability of the walls 
after pa.ssing through so intense 
a fire that we had photographs 
made of the ruins, and pre.sent 
the m herewith. Nowhere 
throughout the entire structure 
are they seriously injured. Over 

the openings, both large and small, the lintels burned away, and a 
few bricks fell with them ; there are no cracks to be seen, and 
bulged walls or even isolated piers are out of the question ; everything 
stands as perfect as it could be built new at the present time, espec- 
ially the dome, which bore the brunt of the fire, and is standing to- 
day in a condition which would re(|uire only a few days' work to 
place it in the same condition that it was in before the fire. Notice, 
also, that on the front of the building the piers which supported a 
large pediment are still standing perfectly vertical, the woodwork 
having burned away, and the rafters fallen without injuring them in 
the least. The slender chimneys on either side of the dome, as well 
as the more sturdy ones on the outer walls, are all standing, the 
joists and rafters fell without any damage to the walls, leaving only 
the black openings 
which once held 
them ; the interior 
piers which carried 
girders also remain 
standing in good 
c o n d i t ion. These 
walls were built in 
strictly plain a n d 
logical manner with 
good materials, they 
are laid in Flemish 
bond throug h o u t , 
there being no ex- 
terior facing shell of 
wall bonded to the 
backing ever)- 
seventh course, as 
we now have it in 
nearly all of our 
work. We cannot see 
why any architect 

who will view this mute but elo(|uent e.xample of the durability of 
real good, honest brick-work should allow any of his work to be con- 
structed in any other manner. 

The competition which has been announced by the Commission 
having in charge the selection of an architect for the new capitol, has 
been arranged for the Commission by their adviser, I'rof. Warren 
Powers Laird, of the School of Architecture, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and is de.signed to bring into the competition the best talent 
in the country, especial provisions having been made in this direction 



by the selection of six architects from those standing at the head of 
the profession, three of whom shall be from Pennsylvania and three 
from other States, who have been invited to submit designs, and who 
will be paid j? 1,000 each in compensation for taking part in the compe- 
tition, but they shall not have any 
preference whatever in the selec- 
tion of the design by reason of 
their being invited into the com- 
petition and paid by the Com- 
mission. The program insures 
the selection from the designs 
submitted, by a board of experts 
composed of three persons, the 
first of whom shall be the adviser 
of the Commission, Professor 
Laird ; the second to be chosen 
by a m,ijority of the six invited 
architects ; and these two to se- 
lect a third, of eight designs 
which in their judgment are best, 
giving to each their rank in ac- 
cordance with their merit ; these 
designs will be presented to the 
commissioners together with a 
full report of the proceedings of the board of experts, and such 
recommendations as they may deem necessary. The commissioners 
will select from the eight designs submitted by the board of experts, 
and will in nowise consider any of the others. The one which shall 
be selected as the most satisfactory shall be so designated, and the 
author of it shall be employed as the architect of the proposed build- 
ings, with full authority as such, and shall be paid a commission of 
five per cent, of the cost of the work ; two bronze medals shall be 
awarded to the authors of the designs adjudged as second and third 
respectively by the commissioners. No use of any other design or 
part of design shall be made unless by the consent and compensa- 
tion of the author of it, and the drawings will be returned to the 
authors upon the conclusion of the competition, together with a full 

report of the board 
of experts and the 

The program 
calls for a design for 
three department 
buildings in a group, 
the chief of which 
shall be the legisla- 
tive building. The 
designs shall be .sent 
to State Treasurer 
Haywood on or be- 
fore 1 2 o'clock noon, 
Saturday, July 24, 
1.S97, and the final 
selection of an archi- 
tect shall be made 
not later than August 
7. The drawings 
shall be enclosed in 
two separately sealed 
wrappers, the outer one of which shall be removed upon receipt of 
them ; they .shall have no marks whatever, as a number will be given 
each when the wrapper is removed, and this number shall be placed 
upon a sealed envelope containing the name of the author, which 
shall be enclo.scd with the drawings ; these envelopes will be given 
to Judge Simonton, of the Daujihin County Court, to be opened by 
him after the selection of the design i)laced first. 

The program has some unitjue features and is designed to over- 
come those which have male failures of most of the prominent com- 




petitions of the past. It is very complete in every detail, and the 
result will be eagerly looked forward to by every person interested 
in competitions of this class. 

CHICAGO. — We hear much of a great undertaking in the line 
of building a South Side lake shore drive connecting the Lake 
PVont Park and Jackson Park. Mr. D. H. Burnham's name is 
prominently mentioned in connection with this enterprise, which is 
vast enough to require the issue of several millions in bonds before it 
can be realized. 

The plan contemplates not only a driveway, but also roads for 
equestrians and bicycle riders, and these are to lie between the lake 
and a series of lagoons, while trees and shrubbery aid in making 
magnificent effects in the conception. 

" Alterations " and " additions " form a large part of building 
items during times of business depression. Every few days one sees 
another store front undergoing transformation. A temporary ;iide- 
walk crowds passers-by out into the street, rows of blocking appear 
parallel with the front wall, a series of tall timbers with jackscrews 
in their lower ends form a dense colonnade outside, while another 
series extend in like manner inside the wall. Very soon needles of 
steel (I beams and rails) are made to pierce the walls and rest on the 
two rows of timber columns. Then the original supports are torn 
out, heavy brick piers and clumsy iron columns and mullions are re- 
moved, and for a time the building looms up in the air in a very 
awkward way on stilts, which seem to threaten to topple over at any 
moment. Slender columns and large sheets of plate glass are built 
in to give a maximum of light and show-window space, and then the 
owner is ready to offer inducements to prevent tenants moving into 
the new buildings. These changes in store fronts one and often two 


'J'liomas R. Jackson, Arcliitect. 
Made Ijy llie New Jersey Terra-CoUa Company. 

Stories in height are a common sight in the business center of 
Chicago at present. 

Mr. S. A. Treat, architect, has several buildings on the boards. 

Howard Shaw and Hugh M. G. Garden each have some fine 
residence work for professors in the University of Chicago. The 
latter is designing, also, a hunting lodge or camp to be built in the 
wilds of Maine for a Chicago professor of philology. 

Mr. Clinton J. Warren has in hand plans for transforming a four- 
story mercantile building into an eight-story hotel. 

An organ factory costing $60,000 is being constructed under the 
direction of J. H. Wagner. 

Some boulevard residents in Chicago have recently had the 
pleasure of paying $9,000 to prevent the building of an apartment 
building out to the lot line. This was reported to be a hold-up 
similar to one worked several times by a notorious builder of livery 
stables in residence districts. 

McKini, Mead & White, Architects. 

ST. LOUIS. — The most important event in building circles this 
season has been the passage of the new building ordinance 
by the city council, and which went into effect on the i6th of April. 
The ordinance was prepared by a committee composed of members 
of the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects, the 
Master Builders' Association, and the Board of Public Improvements. 

The committee made an exhaustive study of the building ordi- 
nances of the principal cities of this country and I'2urope, with a view 
of obtaining results in keeping with the requirements of modern 
times. The object has been to point out the things not to be done, 
rather than to prepare a specification for the architect. 

The standard of buildings has been raised, and all buildings used 
for public purposes, such as theaters, etc., as well as buildings over 
100 ft. high, are to be fire-proof, while the height of no building is 
permitted to be more than one and a half times the width of the street 
upon which it faces, and in no case to exceed 150 ft. 

The passage of the ordinance occasioned quite a rush in the 
Building Commissioners' office the early part of the montli to obtain 
permits before the law became effective, which resulted in permits 
being taken out for a twenty-story office building on 6th and Olive 
Streets, for which Messrs. Wheeler & McClure have prepared plans, 
and for a twenty-twostory building for the northeast corner of 7th 
and Olive Streets, opposite the Union Trust, plans for which were 
prepared by Architect Isaac Taylor. Also, for a theater on the 
corner of 6th and St. Charles Streets, for which J. B. McKlfatric and 
Kirchner & Kirclmer are the architects. 

.Sometime last summer, when the question of limiting the heigiit 
of buildings was first agitated in the city council, a permit was 



issued for a twenty-two-story office building on the southwest corner 
of 7th and Olive Streets, and all tenants were required to move 
preparatory to tlie wrecking of the old buildings, but the scheme 
seems to have been abandoned, and the premises have again become 


M.kIc bv No 

■ I,. Srnitli iS; Son, Architects, 
•thwestern 'I'errn-Cotta Company. 

PITTSBURG. — liuilding projects are on the increase and new 
contemplations are reported nearly every day, among which is 
a tenstory building which F. Nicola, I'^sq , will erect, corner Penn 
Avenue and 4th Street, to cost $150,000. The Civic Club are con- 
sidering plans for a new bath house to be erected on Penn Avenue, 
at a cost of $25,000. Architects Rutan & Russell are preparing plans 
for a central armory building, to cost $300,000. Architects Alden &: 
Harlow are preparing plans for the South Side branch of the Carnegie 
Free Library, to cost $50,000. Architect Miss Flsie Mercur has 



Albert Wagner, Architect. 

Made liy White Urick and Terra-Cotia Company. 

been selected to prepare plans for the Washington, Pa., Female 
Seminary. Architect J. T. Steen is preparing plans for a brick 
church for the Cristion Congregation at Connellsville, I'a. Architects 
Riddle & Keirn are preparing plans for the Ninth U. P. Church, to 
be erected in Allegheny, to cost $20,000. Architect F. .Sauer is pre- 
paring plans for a brick hotel to be erected at New Kensington, Pa. 
Architects F. J. lUitz & Co. are preparing plans for the Lafayette 
Club house to be erected at Jeanette, to cost $r 0,000. Architect 
Chas. Bickel has prepared plans for an hotel and apartment house for 
J. Kaufman and others, to be fire-proof, of liiick with terracotta trim- 
mings, and to cost $200,000. 



Hroughton &■ JolinRon. Architects. 

WF have recently had our attention called to the use of car- 
bonate of barytes for the prevention of .scum and discolora- 
tion on front bricks, terra-cotta, etc., and realizing the general interest 
the question bears to clay manufacturers, we quote the following 
extracts, translated from the ("lerman essay by \V. Olschewsky, C. F. 
in Zifi^el it mi Cement. 

" Nearly all clay contains salts soluble in water; of these, the 
sulphuric acid salts, which are present in very fluctuating quantities 
in the clay used for bricks, terra-cotta, etc., are the most objectionable, 
as they cause scum and consequent discoloration. Most elaborate 
and costly alterations of kilns, etc., have often been made without 
effecting any cure of the evil. The cause is not in the burning or 
construction of the kilns, but to be found in the fact that scum and 
discoloration are already on the surface, before the bricks, etc., enter 
the kiln." 

" Excellent and complete as the action of carbonate of barytes 
is as a cure for scum and discoloration from the chemical point of 
view, the practical man will nevertheless rarely obtain the desired 
result, if he adds the carbonate of barytes at random. To make 
this clear it is only necessary to say that sulphate of lime (gypsum) 
can be present in two different forms in the clay, viz., in a finely 
divided state (powder) and in the crystallized state, and that the method 
of treatment differs accordingly." 

" The most complete assimilation of the carl)onate of barytes 
with the clay is a condition, to obtain satisfactory results quickly 
and with the least possible quantity." 



" It is difficult, liowever, to make sure of such assimilation by 
mere grinding of the ordinary carljonate of barytes; unnecessary loss 
is nearly always the consequence, as part of such barytes does not 
act. The coarser the barytes is the greater the loss." 

" A most important advance towards a rational use of carbonate 
01 barytes has been made by Messrs. Walther Feld & Co., who now 
produce precipitated carbonate of barytes of a fineness and power of 
action which could scarcely be attained by the highest possible state 
of fineness of the ordinary product, apart from the great expense." 

We may add that other valuable literature and practical informa- 
tion on this matter may be obtained by communicating with Gabriel 
& Schall, 205 Pearl Street, New York. They are the sole importers 
for the United States and Canada for Messrs. Walther Feld & Co.'s 
pure precipitated carbonate of barytes. 


James Williams I'enfield, President of the American Clay- 
Working Machinery Company, died suddenly, April 20, at Cambridge 
Springs, Pa., where he had gone in hopes of regaining his health 
which had been failing for some time. 

Mr. Penfield was born in Euclid, ()., and at tiie time of his death 
was sixty-eight years of age. 

Much of the progress that has been made in the clay-working 
art of this country is due to Mr. Penfield's inventive genius. A life 


of ambition, vigor, and tireless energy earned not only for him a 
unique reputation, but brought to the industry with which he was 
identified that creative force which is to-day felt wherever burnt clay 
is employed. 


" 25 to 40 per cent, saved in labor ! " is the announcement made 
on the cover of the new catalogue issued by the Gilbreth Scaffold 
Company. The method by which this large percentage is saved is 
illustrated by eighteen cuts, showing the construction of the scaffold 
and its use in the various stages of masonry construction. F. 15. 
(lilbreth, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

Messrs. Waldo Brothers, Boston, are the agents for the 
Atlas Portland Cement, also the Morse Wall Ties. 

The Standard Firic-i'roofing Comi'ANV have removed their 
New York office to the Taylor Building, 39 and 41 Cortlandt Street. 

I. W. PiNKHAM Company, Boston, are the New England agents 
for the Turnbull & Cullerton Patent Steel Lathing. 

The Powiiat.^n Clav-Manufacturinc; Company have re- 
moved their New York offices to the Townsend Building, 25th Street 
and Broadway. 

The White Brick and TerraCotia Company, New York, 
have removed their offices to the Presbyterian Building, 156 Fifth 

I. W. PiNKHAM Company, Boston, have taken the New England 
agency for the lirooklyn Bridge Brand of Cement, also for the F. O. 
Norton Cement. 

The Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, New York, 
have removed their offices to the Townsend Building, 25th Street 
and Broadway. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Chicago, will 
supply the enameled brick used in the Y. M. C. A. Building at Louis- 
ville, Ky., Val. P. Collins, architect. 

J. W. HoRNSEY has leased the plant of the Collinwood Brick 
and Terra-Cotta Company, Collinwood, Ohio, and will soon put upon 
the market a " High-Grade Impervious Brick." 

The Standard Terra-Cotta Company have secured through 
their New England agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., the contract for 
the terracotta on the church of the Blessed Sacrament at Provi- 
dence, R. I. Heins & La Farge, architects. New York. 

Contracts have been closed for putting the Bolles .Sliding and 
Revolving Sash in the following buildings : Six schoolhouses. New 
York City ; Howard Auditorium, Baltimore ; residence, John Mc- 
Henry, Baltimore ; residence, R. H. Yeatman, Baltimore. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Chicago, are now 
making enameled " soaps " having the same enameled face as the 
English size brick, but only one or two inches deep, as desired. 
Especially suitable where economy in space is necessary. 

The Fawcett Ventilated Fire-pkoofing Comi'Any, who 
have the fire-proofing contract for the new Registry of Deeds Build- 
ing at East Cambridge, Mass., hive placed their order for cement 
with Waldo Brothers, specifying Atlas Portland cement. 

Tni', I'hh.adelphia and Boston Face Urick Company re- 
port the following new contracts: Gray brick for Slamm Building, 
at Washington, D. C. ; cream brick for .Steuben .Street residence at 
Albany, N. Y. ; gray brick for Angier Chemical Company Building 
at Brighton, Mass. 

G. R. TwicHELL & Co., Boston, have closed the following con- 
tracts : Mottled brick residence for R. E. Lord, at Waltham, Mass.; 
gray brick for Baptist Church, Warren Street, Boston ; front brick 
apartment houses, Waitt Street, Boston; and all the common brick to 
be used in the Russia Wharf buildings, Boston. C. Everett Clark & 
Co., builders. 

The Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, Chicago, have 
appointed as their agents for the sale of enameled brick : W. .S. Nel- 
son, Kansas City, Mo.; Wm. J. Watkins & Co., Louisville, Ky. ; 
Pittsburg Mortar and Supply Company, Pittsburg, Penn. ; The 
Midland Brick and .Sujjply Company, Cleveland, O.; B. .S. Lewis, 
Nashville, Tenn. ; Illinois .Supply and Construction Company, .St. 
Louis, Mo. 

The American Cla\-Workin(; Machinery Company, of 
Bucyrus and Willoughby, Ohio, have opened a New York office in 
Room 103, 39 and 41 Cortlandt Street, New York, where they will be 
pleased to have all clay workers make their headquarters while in 
New York. The office will be in charge of R. C. Penfield, who will 
be pleased to attend to all wants of callers, whether they are probable 



customers or not. The largely increasing Eastern trade of the 
company made it necessary to open a New York office. 

D. P. GuiSK, one of the leading clay workers of Pennsylvania, 
has placed an order with the American Clay- Working Machinery 
Company for an Kagle Ke-press. The Guise works will be further 
improved and will enter upon the new season fully equipped to get 
its share of the business. 

CiiAMiiKR.s Brothers Company have recently closed contract 
with the C. P. Merwin Hrick Company, of lierlin, Conn., for one of 
their auger machines, with outfit of clay-preparing macliinery in con- 
nection therewith, to make for them hollow building brick. At 
present there are large quantities of these bricks imported into their 
market from New Jersey, and after careful test they find that their 
own material is entirely satisfactory for the manufacture of these 
bricks, and have determined to equij) for their manufacture. 

Charles T. Harris, Lessee Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, will 
supply the roofing tiles on the following work : Residence for G. W. 
Fairchilds, Oneonta, N. Y.; A. W. Fuller, architect, Albany, N. Y. 
Residence for H. C. McCormick, Wiiliamsport, Penn. ; IJennett & 
Rothrock, architects. Residence for W. J. P'risbie, Camden, N. Y.; 
Gordon A. Wright, architect, Syracuse, N. Y. Art Gallery for J. W. 
Kaufman, St. Louis ; Link & Rosenheim, architect. 

The contract to furnish all the Portland cement required for the 
construction of the new .South Terminal .Station, Boston, which will l)e 
one of the very largest railroad stations in the world, has been awarded 
to James A. Uavis & Co., 92 State Street, Boston, sole New England 
agents for the Alpha Portland Cement. This brand will be used 
exclusively in this important work. Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge are 
the architects, and Norcross Bros., builders. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Company have just 
completed their contract for laying their Safety Tread on the new 
grand staircase of Messrs. Jordan, Marsh & Co., Boston. 

These iron steps were originally made with a recess cast for 
rubber mats, nearly to the edge, leaving e.\'posed, however, the iron 
nosings, which wore smooth, and |)roved a source of danger to both 
customers and employees. 

The new Southern Railroad Station of the Boston Terminal 
Company, the Lowell Post-Ofiice, the Boston Subway, and several 
new mercantile buildings are also being equipped with the Treads. 

The American Enameled PjRick Company, New York, have 
recently closed a contract with Norcross Bros., builders, and McKim, 
Mead & White, architects, for light buf¥ front brick, including 
special fluted bricks for columns and pilasters in the interior of the 
Columbia College Gymnasium ; also a large order for enameled brick 
to line the plunge bath there, in addition to the order recently filled 
for the same parties for another portion of the University Hall 

They have also secured contract for the enameled brick to be 
used in lining the Swimming Bath of the New York Athletic Club ; 
these bricks to be made specially and glazed on the flat side. 

The Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Colum- 
bus, O., one of the very largest front brick manufacturers in the 
country, have recently supplied their brick for the following resi- 
dences : Residence, Riverside Drive, New York, M. V. Ferdon, 
architect, light-gray Romans; residence for J. T. Blair, Columbus, 
O., terra-cotta and gray standards; residence for K. M. Huggins, 
Columbus, O., dark-gray standards; two residences for J. H. Outh- 
wait, Columbus, O., gray Romans and standards ; residence for W. 
H. Martin, Columbus, O., gray Romans ; residence for Henry Flesh, 
Piqua, O., Peters, Burns & Pretzinger, architects, dark-gray Romans; 
residence for Mr. Kavelidge, Milwaukee, Wis., gray speckled and 
light-gray standards: residence for Mr. Manegold, Milwaukee, Wis., 
dark-gray standards : residence for Charles L. Kurtz, Columlnis, O., 
Yost & Packard, architects, gray and buff Romans ; residence for 
Dr. H. G. Campbell, Logan, O., terracotta standards. 


THE Hydraulic-Press Bnck Companies, although including thir- 
teen separate and distinct organizations, located in nine States 
of the Union, may nevertheless be referred to as one company, whose 
history is replete with lecords of uninterrupted success from the time 
of its inception. The parent company was organized in St. Louis 
over thirty years ago, and since tlien the establishment of the several 
branch comjjanies at different intervals and in various parts of the 
country attest the tremendous growth of the and its far- 
reaching influence. The various plants are located at points stretch- 
ing from as far west as Nebra.ska to as far as New Jersey, and 
in a northeriy and southerly direction from Minnesota to Virginia. 
Thus it will be perceived that working eastward the invasion of new 
territory by the Hydraulic-Press Brick Companies has been so con.stant 
and thorough as to render impossible one's successfully eluding their 
influence or finding a place where their bricks are an unknown 

There has been a wonderful evolution and revolution in brick 
manufacturing even during the past decade. Formeriy a brick-yard 
need only produce a good red or a good buff to secure enough orders 
to make their business profitable, because a very limited number of 
colors were used. So great a variety of new shades have been put 
on the market, and at once adopted by those seeking new effects, 
and more perfect harmony between brick and stone trim, and so 
widely divergent is the taste of architects and builders, that, to suc- 
cessfully compete on all kinds and grades of work, a brick-yard must 
now be able to make a large assortment of colors that possess en- 
during qualities beyond question. The Hydraulic Companies, keenly 
alive to this necessity, have kept it constantly in mind, and by devel- 
oping the full possibilities of their old plants, and only starting new 
ones when the clay at hand would permit of producing a variety of 
shades, have succeeded in obtaining a most complete assortment of 
colors. When it is stated that the Eastern Hydraulic-Press Brick 
Company alone makes thirty distinct shades of front brick, and that 
all the other companies have also a large and distinct variety, the 
reader may form some idea of the extent of the assortment. Thus it 
is possible for them to satisfy the taste of the most fa.stidious, and 
furnish something that will harmonize with any combination of terra- 
cotta or stone trimming that the fancy may prefer. 

These companies have been among the first to recognize the de- 
sirability of molded brick for the use of the architect, and under the 
direction of one of the foremost architects in Philadel|)hia, a gentle- 
man of high reputation throughout the country, they have prepared 
a large number of shapes suitable for a variety of, and are pre- 
pared to supply these moldings in any quantity or color. These 
shapes and a number of suggestive sketches showing what can be 
done with moldings in bricks are admirably shown in a very artistic 
catalogue recently issued by the companies, forming a volume which 
has elicited unejualified approval from all the architects who have 
seen it. 

To the architect and builder, the enormous facilities and un- 
paralleled resources of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Companies are two 
of their most attractive features. Their production, amounting to 
considerably over 300,000,000 bricks annually, enables them to serve 
any number of buildings requiring large quantities of bricks without 
subjecting any to the delays, so annoying and expensive, which in 
many instances have brought a large oflice building beyond the rent- 
ing season necessitating a valuable piece of property being carried 
from six months to a year with all outgo and no income. Particu- 
larly in cities like New York, having strict building laws which 
prohibit a building being carried up to but a very limited height 
without the front walls being laid, is the matter of prompt and effi- 
cient service, one of the most important considerations in awarding 
the contract for face brick. 

Also, it is of the greatest importance that a concern handling 
front brick should be at all times conscious of the extent of their 
ability to execute orders entrusted to their care, so that in estimating 



or submitting proposals for bricks to be furnished within a specified 
time they can be able to satisfactorily show their resources. The 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Companies are so organized that such a thing 
as a serious delay in supplying brick is almost an impossibility. 
The solicitors of the companies are constantly posted concerning the 
stock on hand and in process of manufacture, and know the exact 
quantity that may be offered for immediate delivery over and above 
orders previously taken. All salesmen are provided with this infor- 
mation in so condensed a form as to permit of their carrying with 
them the necessary papers for reference, and thus, wherever they 
may be, and without consultation with their respective offices, they 
can supply a customer with accurate and reliable information as to 
whether the bricks he wishes to purchase are available for immediate 
delivery, or, if needed, just the amount of time required to furnish 

A first-class material, brought before the public by a perfect 
organization and a complete system, backed by the most thorough 
business principles, is the secret of the financial success which has 
attended the efforts of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Companies. 

The Companies also make a great feature of their exhibits, which 
are arranged in panel form with a view to displaying the bricks so 
as to fairly represent their appearance when laid in a wall, as well as 
affording a visitor the opportunity of seeing the full line of colors 
located in a manner easy of comparison. This greatly facilitates 
reaching a final decision as to the shade desired, and is infinitely 
more satisfactory to the customer than being required to judge of 
the effect which a brick will produce en masse by seeing merely a 
single sample. A full line of molded shapes are also displayed, and 
good-size specimens of various-colored stones are kept on hand for 
the convenience of visitors who may desire to ascertain the effect of 
certain combinations of brick and stone. These panel exhibits are 
arranged in most all the ofifices, but particularly here in the East, 

where, without an exception, they are equipped to display the bricks 
in the manner explained above. 

Aside from the home ofifices, which are located at points in 
close proximity to the respective factories, there are many branch 
offices, one of the most prominent of which is the one in the Metro- 
politan Building, corner of 23d Street and Madison Avenue, New 
York, under the direction of Messrs. Fredenburg & Lounsbury, who 
are, in fact, the sole selling agents in New York and New England 
of all the Hydraulic Companies. Notwithstanding the fact that the 
New York and New England markets were the last in which the 
hydraulic bricks have been offered for sale, the volume of business 
done in New York and Brooklyn alone in '95 and '96 included the 
furnishing of high-grade front bricks for 1,288 buildings, an average 
of more than two for each working day. This is entirely exclusive 
of the New England business, which has grown to such proportions 
that a spacious new exhibit room has recently been opened in the 
Equitable Building, Boston. The exceedingly handsome panel ex- 
hibit displayed in this office is a revelation in its assortment of 
shades and qualities to those who are not familiar with the opera- 
tions of the company. 

In dealing with any of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Companies at 
their home offices, or with Fredenburg & Lounsbury, the customer 
comes in direct contact with the manufacturer, and will, therefore, 
receive that attention which is to be had only when dealing with 




There is hardly any part of a house that is so prof- 
itable to develop as the fireplace. A moderate expen- 
diture of money and the tasteful arrangement of suitable 
material for the fireplace brings an immense return 
on the investment. There is nothing so appropriate, 
so durable, or so pleasing for this purpose as our 
Ornamental Brick. No other kinds of mantels give the 
soft, rich, and harmonious effects that ours do. And 
yet they are not too expensive. Don't order a man- 
tel before you have learned all about ours. Send for 
Descriptive Sketch Book of fifty-two designs of various 
colors costing from |i2 upwards. 

15 Liberty Square, Boston, Mass. 






Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... ii 

New York ARents, Pfotenhauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York Ciiv. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston . . ... xxvii 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 287 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 


Correspondence .School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. . . . , . xxxiii 


American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. . viii 

Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J. . . . . ii 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Plliladelphia . v 

Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co., Berlin, Conn. ...... xxii 

Boston OlTice, 40 Water St., J. .Mair Staveley, Agent. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 Fast 22d St., New York City ... iv 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place. Boston. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... vi 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. PhiladelphiaOffice, 24 South 7th St. 
New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 3S Park Row, New York City . xxviii 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City ... ix 

Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, i6o Fifth Ave. . . vii 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City ... vi 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent. W. L. McPherson. Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 1 1 18, The Rookery, Chicago . viii 

White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City . . vii 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 

Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y xxii 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa xxii 

Conkling-.\rmstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia . v 

Columl)us Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio .... xviii 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ......... ii 

Donnelly Brick and Terra-Cotta Co , Berlin, Conn. ...... xxii 

Boston Office, 72 Water St., J. Mair Siaveley, .Agent. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... vi 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Co., The ......... xl 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ittner, .Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo xx 

La Salle Pressed Brick Company, La Salle, 111. ....... ii 

National Brick Co., Bradford, Pa. ......... xxi 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty .St., New York City. vii 

Oliphant, Pope A Co., Trenton, \. J. ........ ii 

Parry Bros. & Co., 10 Broad St., Boston xx 

Pennsylvania Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. . xxi 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City xvi 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 

Perth Ami)oy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. . . vii 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 63 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... iii 

Ralston Brick Co., Ralston, Lycoming Co, Pa. ...... ii 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City . . xv 

Kavenscroft, W. S., & Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. . xxiv 

Ridgway Co., Ridgway, Pa. ........ xxiv 

New England .■\gents, G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York .Agent, O. D. Person, 160 Fifth .Ave. 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York xvii 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Shawmut Brick Co., Cartwright, Pa. ........ xix 

General Sales Agent, C. E. Willard, ni Devonshire St., Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago . . xvi 

Eastern Agent, James L. Kankine, 156 Filth Ave., New York. 

White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth .\ve., New York City . . vii 

Williamsport Brick Co., Williamsport, Pa. xxii 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. xvii 

American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. viii 

Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... ii 

Clearfield Clay Working Co., Clearfield, Pa xxii 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... vi 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 

Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston xxvii 

Hydraulic Press Brick Co., The ......... xl 

Home Office, Odd Fellows Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Co., Mt. Savage, Md xv 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City . xvi 

Raritan Hollow and I'orous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City . . xv 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York xvii 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 

Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago . xvi 

Eastern .Agent, James L.Rankine, 15^ Fifth Ave., New York. 


Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston xxxv 

Galjriel & Scliall, 205 Pearl St., New York xxxii 


Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 

Building, Philadelphia xxix 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Hoston. 
Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City ..... xxix 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston xxxii 

Brand, James, 81 Fulton St., New York City xxix 

Chicago, 34 Clark St. 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Brigham, Henry R., 35 Stone Street, New York City xxx 

New England Agents, Barry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston. 
Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. . xxxi 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 

Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y xxx 

Ebert Morris, 302 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. xxix 

New York Office, 253 Broadway. 
French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa xxxii 


C EMENTS.— Continued. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. i Broadway, New York City 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. 15th St., Philadelphia . . " . 

Manhattan Cement Company, 15 to 25 Whitehall St., New York City 

New England Agents, Berry & Ferguson. 102 Sute St., Boston. 
Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York .... 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City' 

New England Agents, 1. W. Pinkham & Co., i83 Devonshire St., Boston 

James C. Goff, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. \. 

J. S. Noble, 57-69 l.yman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros, & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Waldo Brothers, ro2 Milk St., Boston 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental) 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofing:, and Roofing Tiles. ' 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange Baltimore, Md., and 80S F St 

N. \V., Washington. D. C ' 

Mayland, H. F., 2S7 Fourth Ave.. New York City ...... 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston . . . . . 

Pinkham, I. W., & Co., 206 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Staveley, J. Mair, 40 Water St., Boston 

Thomas, E. H., 24 So. 7th St., Phila., Pa., 874 Broadwriv. Xew York 

Twitchell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire St., Boston 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 171 Devonshire St., Boston 


F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 


American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, (Jhio .... 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 41 5 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. . 

Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

The Wallace Manufacturing Co., Frankfort, Ind. ..... 


Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ...... 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 


Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., 104 South 12th .St., Philadelphia 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York ....... 

Boston Office, 444 Albany .Street. 
Meeker, Carter, I'ooraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 
Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 92 Liberty St., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1545 So. Clark St., Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Metropolitan Building. 

Western Office, 5 Parker Block, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

.Standard Fireproofing Co., 11 1 Fifth .Ave., New York ..... 

GRANITE (Weymouth Seam-Face Granite, Ashler & Quoins). 

Gilbreth, Frank B., 85 Water St., Boston 


Standard Dry Kiln Co., 196 So. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 


Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y. ...... . 


Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Marsh Metallic Corner Bead, Edward B. Marsh, Tremont Building, Boston 
Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk .St., Boston ........ 


Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y. . 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. .......... 

New England Agents. Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

Ittner, Anthony, Telephone Building, St. Louis, Mo. ...... 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio ........ 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 

Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited, Marquette 
Building, Chicago ........... 

New York Office, 11 20 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 


Connors, Wm., Troy, N. Y. .......... 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 


The .Vmerican Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston .... 


Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St.. Boston. Ma«<:. 


The Mosaic Tile Co., Zanesville, Ohio 


J. B. Prescott & Son, Webster, Mass. 


Bolles' Sliding and Revolving Sash 

Edward R. Diggs, General Agent, Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md. 






XX I \- 











XX \ . 

XX \ 








XXV 11 

Ubc /llbosaic ^ile (Lo. 

Zanesville, Ohio. 


Ceramic Mosaic Tile 


Parian Vitreous Tile 

Tor Floors and 


Samples, and 
Designs on 

(Ube Strongest XCile in the flDatket.) 

Grueby Faience Company, 

\ glazed and enameled 


flrcWtectural Cerra=c;otta 

For Exteriors and Interiors. 

Faience Mantels and,.., 

Rcclesiastical TVork, 

f^ 164 Devonshire Street, 
•i* Boston, Mass, 


New York, O. D. PMRSON, 160 Fifth Avenue. Philadelphia, O. W. KETCHAM, 24 S. Seventh Street. 

Chicago, CHARI,E;S T. HARRIS & CO., 1001-1002 Marquette Bldg. St. Louis, J. P. & 

A. H. ANNAN, Union Trust Bldg. 

XXVI 11 


















?8 V/' *^ " >f 

^. No. 6 

WATER ffi! 




Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2-50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $3-S0 per year 


Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBU ILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches. 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

THE building law of the city of Boston has for years prescribed 
that no portion of a building shall project beyond the 
property line without special permission obtained through certain 
designated channels. By common practise it has come to be under- 
stood that this restriction applies only to portions of the actual 
building, and not to string-courses, pilasters, belts, etc., and up to a 
very short time ago projections even of considerable size, which 
started from a height of not less than 7 or 8 ft. from the ground, 
even though they bodily overhung the street line, were not considered 
infractions of the law. This was common practise rather than by 
statute law, however, and as the building ordinances distinctly stated 
that no projections whatever should be made beyond the street line, 
it was quite natural that such regulations should give an opportunity 
for differences of opinion as to the